Presentation on theme: "Summer School Indicators towards the knowledge Society and the knowledge Economy Daniel Villavicencio (UAM-X)"— Presentation transcript:
Summer School Indicators towards the knowledge Society and the knowledge Economy Daniel Villavicencio (UAM-X)
The knowledge based society (economy) Capabilities of acquisition, stockage, production and trasnfering of knowlege Increasing importance of technological and organizational innovation in firms and other institutions Changes in the cycle science– production : a) short time; b) more diveristy and intensity of science-industry linkages c), new forms of funding New combinations of knowlege (tacit/codified) for innovation More knowledge intensive services Intermadiate organizations for knowledge trasnfering New social capabilities to take advante of scientific knowledge (to solve problems)
The knowledge based society (economy) Employement in knowledge intensive sectors and increasing importance of these sectores in the economy (emerging sectors) Hum. Res. investment, professional training, knowledge difussion, etc. New markets based on knowledge: acces, costs, incentives for kw production, etc. Policy: instruments to accelerate knowledge production, absortion and use by society
Indicators: what can we measure? Which data are collected, how and for what pourpose? (assesment, public policy, international cooperation, benchhmark, etc.) Who produce them (universities, public organizations, enterprises) ? What do they show (outputs vs dynamics) Which methodologies can we use to collect? What can we compare between coutries?
What do indicators measure?
(OCDE; Frascati, Eurostat, Camberra, Esocyt, WBank, Bogotá, Santiago…) Inputs / stocks: R&D expenditures, patents, Hum. Res. in research activities, formation, etc. Knowledge Flows: national & international mobility, Knowledge diffusion (patents, bibliometrics), cooperation & networking… Outputs: publications, patents, PhD degrees, new products, exports, high tech employment… Indicators: interantional manuals
A problem for measurement in L.A. Inputs-Stocks-outputs –R&D investments: Foreign companies vs national SMEs –Funds for innovation research & activities: domains of interest –S&T-Hum Ress, training and education: institutional structures, accountability, $$ –Patents: place of local firms in global value chains, local SMEs? IP regimes…) –Publications: fields of interest, scientific communities behaviour, language
A problem for measurement in L.A. How to identify and measure some processes? –Learning capabilities in local firms: path dependence & sectoral sepcialization –Knowledge networks: existence & performance –Incremental innovation: adaptation, inventing around, technological catching-up, industrial upgrading, products tropicalisation… –Knowledge spill-overs: from foreign companies to local firms
What it can not be measured… Tacit knowledge flows The use of traditional (non scientific knowledge) Tehnological absortion capabilities, adaptations Knowledge capital circulation (research networks) Impact of S&T+I Policty on social problem solving Learning paths Social capabilites for knowledge absortion
Tensions and challenges National dynamics vs international cooperation (objectifs, actors, priorities, instruments…) Existence of cognitive divides Actors have different learning capabilities, while indicators attempt to standardize Performance: inputs, outputs (process?) Knowledge adaptation, use or knowledge creation
Integrating Social needs: complexity, evolution of goals… Considering Institutional logics, incentives, paths & lock-in effects Performing efficency and impact : evaluation methodologies & information platforms for indicators Contribution to define public policy agendas in S&T+I Towards the knowledge based society in L.A. Some challenges
Indicators: Argentina, Mexico & Uruguay Eulaks Project Hum Ress in S&T, Education Funds and $$ for S&T Infrastructure Use of Internet, TIC, Scientific production Innovation in firms, patents, R&D