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Early Language Learning in Europe Interaction of contextual and individual variables in instructed early SLA Jelena Mihaljevic Djigunovic University of.

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Presentation on theme: "Early Language Learning in Europe Interaction of contextual and individual variables in instructed early SLA Jelena Mihaljevic Djigunovic University of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Early Language Learning in Europe Interaction of contextual and individual variables in instructed early SLA Jelena Mihaljevic Djigunovic University of Zagreb, Croatia Magdalena Szpotowicz University of Warsaw, Poland

2 Early Language Learning in Europe The present study: part of ELLiE* multinational longitudinal project: Croatia, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom (N = 1,200) aim: What can realistically be achieved in state schools where relatively limited amounts of class time are available for FL learning? _________________________________________ * This research has been supported by a European Commission grant under the Lifelong Learning Programme, Project n° LLP-2007-UK-KA1SCR. An additional British Council grant supported the Croatian team.

3 Early Language Learning in Europe Country contexts: similarities Croatia Slavonic L1 mostly monolingual classes central curriculum ca.80 % - English two 45-min lessons per week Poland Slavonic L1 mostly monolingual classes central curriculum ca. 80 % - English two 45-min lessons per week

4 Early Language Learning in Europe Country contexts: differences Croatia long tradition in FLL & early start compulsory from grade 1 since 2003 grades from the start of primary school massive out-of-school exposure (media, tourism) Poland short tradition in FLL & early start compulsory from grade 1 since 2008 no grades in lower primary not much exposure (dubbed TV)

5 Early Language Learning in Europe Aims the interplay of contextual variables and individual learner differences impact on L2 acquisition

6 Early Language Learning in Europe Interplay of individual and contextual variables Contextual variables Wider social context National FL education policy School setting Language-learning milieu Significant others The immediate language learning environment Nature of instruction Out-of-class exposure to English

7 Early Language Learning in Europe Individual variables AbilityGender Attitudes & motivation Linguistic self-confidence

8 Early Language Learning in Europe Sample N = 350 first graders (age: 6/7 years) (F – 170; M – 180) 7 schools in Croatia 7 schools in Poland CroatiaPoland N=172N=178 F – 85 M – 87 F – 85 M – 93

9 Early Language Learning in Europe Methodology mixed-method approach instruments administered to whole sample administered to six focal learners per group

10 Early Language Learning in Europe Measures school setting instruction out-of-class exposure ability attitudes & motivation linguistic self- confidence language achievement observation oral interviews smiley questionnaires standard questionnaires listening tasks speaking tasks

11 Early Language Learning in Europe Classroom instruction – Example 1 (Use of L1 & L2) S: Teacher, šta trebamo nacrtati? [ what should we draw? ] T: Eeee sad gledam [ now I look ] carefully. Ovdje su [ Here are ] two trees, na svakom [ on each ] tree trebate napraviti plodove [ you need to make fruits ]. Ovdje znači [ So here ] apples, ovdje [ here ] pears. A iznad toga, lijepo ćete ih obojiti [ And above that you will colour them nicely ], colour them and match them. Ovako. [ Like this ] Čekaj, čekaj, čekaj. [ Wait, wait, wait ] Who is big? Tko je od njih [ Who among them is ] big? SS: Ovaj tu. Ovaj tu. [ This one. This one. ] Father. Father. T: Ok, who is strong? To ćete sami odlučiti i spojiti. [ You will decide for yourselves and connect. ] Vidite ko je [ See how..it is ] small, pa povučete crte do njega…[ then you draw lines to it ] T: I dont know. T: Jeste dovršili ovo? [ Are you done with this? ]

12 Early Language Learning in Europe RESULTS

13 Early Language Learning in Europe End-of-year language achievement: listening task Minimum Maximum Mean SD Median Mode

14 Early Language Learning in Europe Vocabulary acquisition (listening task) High recognitionPoor recognition nose red, blue, green, yellow milk, yoghurt, chocolate mouth, legs trousers pencil, ruler, blackboard window, chair doing, writing, riding, eating kitchen

15 Early Language Learning in Europe End-of-year language achievement: speaking task Minimum Maximum Mean SD Median Mode

16 Early Language Learning in Europe Vocabulary acquisition (speaking task) High recallLow recall colours (blue!) animals (cat, dog) toys (teddy bear, doll) fruit animals (hamster, mouse, parrot) toys (kite, train, plane) animals (snake, crocodile)

17 Early Language Learning in Europe Interplay: type of settlement Differences in motivation, linguistic self-confidence, ability and language achievement ANOVA: linguistic self-confidence: ns ability: ns motivation: city YLs < village & town YLs listening scores: village & town YLs < city YLs speaking scores: ns

18 Early Language Learning in Europe Interplay: immediate teaching environment (key) Village schools(43) (46) (73) (74) (75) Town schools(47) (71) (72) City schools(41) (42) (44) (45) (76) (77)

19 Early Language Learning in Europe Interplay: immediate teaching environment ANOVA: linguistic self-confidence: ns Ability: ns Motivation: (45) (city) < (76) (city), (75) (village), (72) (town), (74) (village), (71) (town), (73) (village) Listening scores: (46) (village) < (77) (city) Speaking scores: (46) (village) < (77) (city)

20 Early Language Learning in Europe Group comparisons Group (46) / lowest achievement Group (77) / highest achievement Unqualified T Local children No specialized classroom Generalist/English T Children from all over the city Specialized English classroom

21 Early Language Learning in Europe Group comparison Group (46) / lowest achievement Group (77) / highest achievement Too much L1 Whole-class Too little feedback Poor motivator Average classroom management skills Balance of L1 & L2 In pairs & groups Appropriate feedback Very good motivator Very good classroom management skills

22 Early Language Learning in Europe GrpT perception of activities Ls enjoy most Activities best liked by Ls (46) TPR games, singingSinging, playing games, role-playing, counting (77) Games, competitions, acting out, drawing, singing Learning new words, learning, games

23 Early Language Learning in Europe Grp Materials usedError correction (46) Textbook Flashcards CD T ignores mistakes, even the obvious ones (77) Textbook Flashcards CD T prompts self-correction

24 Early Language Learning in Europe Comparison of 3 high & 3 low achievers See handout

25 Early Language Learning in Europe Correlations between ability, language achievement, linguistic self-confidence and motivation (grade 1) (Croatia/Poland)

26 Early Language Learning in Europe Correlations grade 2

27 Early Language Learning in Europe Grade 1 Grade 2 product Ling confd ability mot compreh product Ling confid ability mot compreh

28 Early Language Learning in Europe Conclusions Instructed early SLA: teaching context and individual learner differences seem to be relevant from the beginning of the early start interplay between contextual factors and individual learner differences is more revealing than separate variables interplay changes with length of learning

29 Early Language Learning in Europe Implicatons longitudinal approach – key to understanding impact of interplay on SLA importance of triangulation include larger samples

30 Early Language Learning in Europe Thank you for your attention!

31 Early Language Learning in Europe Jelena Mihaljevic Djigunovic Magdalena Szpotowicz


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