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Forces Shaping PostgraduateEducation: Academic Credentials in a Global Context Mary-Louise Kearney Director, UNESCO Forum on Higher Education Research.

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Presentation on theme: "Forces Shaping PostgraduateEducation: Academic Credentials in a Global Context Mary-Louise Kearney Director, UNESCO Forum on Higher Education Research."— Presentation transcript:

1 Forces Shaping PostgraduateEducation: Academic Credentials in a Global Context Mary-Louise Kearney Director, UNESCO Forum on Higher Education Research and Knowledge

2 Academic Credentials in the Context of the Knowledge Society and the Knowledge Economy Issues regarding Doctoral/Master Degrees : Renewing the academic profession Assuring the future of research communities Other career paths Lifelong learning Redefining the content of PhD/Masters degrees Assessing the required skills/competences acquired via these academic credentials Result: The need to re-examine postgraduate education in massifed HE systems

3 The Importance of Knowledge Today The knowledge dividend Promoting knowledge for social development Integrated higher education, research, innovation (HERI)systems : the key motor driving the Knowledge Society/Economy

4 UNESCO Forum on Higher Education, Research and Knowledge : Builds a critical mass of data and experiences for accrued benefits Documents the principal components of knowledge systems Anticipates the evolution of knowledge (HERI) systems - i.e. the Forum's foresight role

5 High Level Knowledge Requires Investment in 3 Key Areas: Intellectual capital ( i.e. via advanced academic credentials) A robust R and D sector (fostering innovation for economic growth) Strong CIT capacity

6 Essential National Research Capacity Improved teaching-questioning minds Asking nationally relevant questions National commitment to research Innovation systems Agents of Change: Using evidence to question Capacity to be part of international research community Skills for carrying out research National research capacity Capacity to generate own knowledge Research University as a hub Capacity to utilise external research/knowledge Capacity for evaluation Capacity for analysis Culture of inquiry Budget line for National research National research policy & strategy

7 Assuring the Global/Local Balance in Knowledge Production Research towards local application of global knowledge pool. accessibility affordability Research for understanding of ones own situation and problems. GLOBAL KNOWLEDGE POOL acceptability feasibility LOCAL APPLICATION Local situations Local problems Nature

8 Autonomy Academic Freedom Students Teaching Staff Researchers Research Output Technology Transfer Concentration of Talent Abundant Resource s Favorable Governance Leadership Team Strategic Vision Culture of Excellence Public Budget Resources Endowment Revenues Tuition Fees Research Grants Excellence Supportive Regulatory Framewor k Graduat es Source: Elaborated by Jamil Salmi World Bank Excellence in Postgraduate Education Alignment of Key Factors

9 The LAC Doctorate in LAC : 3 Main Regional Leaders 80% { 5 1 1 Top 200 of the world Brazil, Mexio and Argentina concentrated 80% of the PhD programs in the region

10 University of Trinidad and Tobago: Interdisciplinary Research at the Centre for Marine Sciences (Mode 2 Knowledge) h Environment And Health Biodiversity and Conservation Marine Governance Policy And Law Ecosystem Dynamics and Coastal Processes Physical and Geological Oceanography Research Clusters

11 Singapore 1990-2004 : Building Capacity in Research Scientists and Engineers YearRESs Private Sector RSEsPhD RSEsPG Students FPGRSs 1990 43291363970- 1995 8340 4163 1887 - 2000 14483 7997 3111 2570 2004 1893511596 4063 3705 Source: Special Initative: Singapore country study, page 80

12 Pakistan: Science, Technology and Engineering Programme ( STEP) STEP programme with 8 RUs in ENA and Asia Aim: 2000 PhDs per annum before 2020 +6000% investment in SETI +2300% investment in HE Large faculty salary and tax incentives HE Minister appointed direct by the PM STI investment for the K-Economy

13 Science PhDS: Evolving Trends in the USA, EU and China 1970: 50%+ Science/Engineering doctorates came from the USA 2001: EU graduated 40% more SE doctorates that the USA 2010: EU will produce double the USA SE doctorates 2003: 13.000 doctorates in China. 70% in SE (Harvard Magazine: Nov/Dec 2005

14 Scientific Research in China: Building Global Collaboration Top co-authorship countries & Regions for 2005 Source: Thomson Web of Science data

15 Investing in Research: GRD as percentage of GDP by region 3% 2.5 % 2 % 1,5 % 1 % 0,5 % 0 % 19921994 1996/1997 1999/2000 2,7% 1,9% 1,3 % 1,2 % 1,7% 1,5% 0,5 % 0,6% 0,4% 0,3% North America Europe Asia Asia Pacific LAC Africa Source:UIS S&T database June 2005

16 Rising Investment in S&T and Research in Brazil

17 Qatar: Building R and D and STI Capacity Leading gulf country in spending on higher education & Scientific Research: Spends 2.8 % on scientific research Infrastructure (internatl standards) Role of private sector cooperation with banks – companies - institutions scholarships Mentoring students Loans with marginal interest Source:Dr. El Kaffas, Seminar Rabat, Marocco, 2007

18 Strong Public/Private Investment in Research : R and D in Australia SOURCE: Australian Research Council (2006:15)

19 CIT Connectivity in the World: Access vs The Digital Divide Source: Dr. Salmi, UNESCO Forum Workshop Dublin, Ireland 2008

20 Research University Networks: Changing Geo-Political Alliances to address common research priorities (with strong CIT links) Universitas 21 APRU: Pacific Rim Universities WUN: World University Network LERU: League of European Research Universities IARU: International Alliance of Research Universities Academic Consortium 21

21 Strategic Options for Tertiary Education in Middle/Low Income Countries ( Source: The World Bank) capacity-building for managing and improving basic and secondary education education (including teacher training and school governance) increased production of qualified professional and technicians through a cost-effective combination of public and private non –university institutions targeted investment in advanced training and research in areas of comparative advantage



24 Major Challenges Ahead Assuring excellence in the academy ( Via Brain Circulation?) More globally equitable R and D systems (A social justice issue?) Reviewing current ranking systems (Balancing quantity and quality?) Enhanced networking of research universities (Inclusive networking across all regions?)

25 The Baby Boomers Retire: A Faculty Crisis for OECD Academia 2000-2010: OECD universities will lose 20-33% of their academics Australia, Austria, France, Germany, UK, Netherlands, Sweden:40-60% of academics are aged 55+ UK:19.000 academics needed by 2020 Canada: needs to recruit 3000 academics per annum x 10 years ( cf 900 currently recruited per annum )

26 R&D Expenditures: Towards greater equity worldwide Source: © Copyright 2006 SASI Group (University of Sheffield)

27 International Strategies for Research Universities (RUs) Long term investment in knowledge capital Bilateral partnerships New alliances ( U21, LERU etc) Targeted student and faculty mobility Research collaboration Emphasis on postgraduate research……

28 International Strategies for RUs Connecting life sciences,technology, social sciences and humanities around global questions (cf Mode 2 Knowledge) Inspiring students to engage in life-long intellectual activity Academic reform and flexibility to strengthen international connectedness CIT capacity to facilitate these strategies

29 University Ranking Systems: A New Reference for Research Universities since 2000 and Science/Technology Driven Shanghai Jiao Tong Times QA World University Ranking HE Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan China

30 Shanghai Jiao Tong Rankings: The World s Top 50 Research Universities may change if STI Capacity Increases….. 2005 2050 USA 37 15 UK 5 4 Russia 0 3 India 0 3 China 0 7 Brazil 0 2 Singapore 0 1 Rep.of Korea 0 1

31 University Rankings: Wider Issues To Resolve ST-driven rankings are quantative and easier to measure Qualitative indicators are harder to assess ( eg teaching standards, impact of international students etc) Areas often disregarded: humanities, social sciences Different « world class » objectives: Top research university (= an institutional goal) vs Top HE system ( = a government goal) Top

32 The Bologna Process in Europe A European Higher Education Area(EHEA) Social, economic and cultural dimensions Aspects: academic mobility, quality HE, recognition of HE credentials, public/private HE, internationalization, graduate employment, HERI systems

33 The Bologna Process Globally: Linkages and Impact for Brain Circulation EC: 46 countries and the world What linkages are desirable and relevant? OECD: North America/Nafta, Asia BRIC countries ( Brazil, Russia, India, China) MICs: South Africa, Singapore, Chile, Gulf States: an emerging context Bologna Process: what connections to LICs ( low income countries)?

34 Conclusion : Postgraduate education for building dynamic and equitable knowledge systems Challenges for all regions: Understanding the contextual challenges where HERI ( higher education, research, innovation) systems operate to assure optimal design Documenting HERI systems and their components at national and wider levels to share good practice Assuring strong and context- relevant research universities and academic credentials

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