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1 Sustainable Tourism: Travel Groups and Intervention Strategies Susanne Böhler, Wuppertal Institute for Climate Environment Energy Sylvie Grischkat, University.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Sustainable Tourism: Travel Groups and Intervention Strategies Susanne Böhler, Wuppertal Institute for Climate Environment Energy Sylvie Grischkat, University."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Sustainable Tourism: Travel Groups and Intervention Strategies Susanne Böhler, Wuppertal Institute for Climate Environment Energy Sylvie Grischkat, University of Lüneburg Sonja Haustein, Ruhr-University Bochum Marcel Hunecke, Ruhr-University Bochum In Cooperation with Wuppertal InstituteUniversity of Lüneburg Ruhr-University Bochum Financed by

2 2 Facts and Trends of Tourism 80 % of persons in Germany (>14 years of age) made at least one holiday trip in An increase from 720 million tourists worldwide in 2004 to 1600 million in 2020 is predicted. Most trips are conducted by car. 80 % of European air travel is due to tourism. Aviation has shown the highest growth rate. The majority of the greenhouse gases of domestic tourism is emitted during travel to and from the holiday destination (60 %).

3 3 Research Questions What is travel behaviour like? How is the environmental impact? Do individual characteristics explain travel behaviour? What are the strategies and obstacles to reduce environmental impact of holiday mobility?

4 4 Research Questions What is travel behaviour like? How is the environmental impact? Do individual characteristics explain travel behaviour? What are the strategies and obstacles to reduce environmental impact of holiday mobility?

5 5 Activities Trips per year and person Km travelled per year and person Average km travelled per trip and person Working Shopping Private Errands Leisure time Short stay trip Holiday Description of the MOBILANZ Sample (N=1991): Mobility purposes

6 6 Activities Trips per year and person Km travelled per year and person Average km travelled per trip and person Working Shopping Private Errands Leisure time Short stay trip Holiday Description of the MOBILANZ Sample (N=1991): Mobility purposes

7 7 Holiday Trips [%] Short Stay Trips [%] Non-motorized Travel Car Travel Public Transport Travel (local) Public Transport Travel (long distance) Air Travel Modal Split of Holiday and Short Stay Trips (N=1991)

8 8 Description of the Sample by Travel Groups (N=1984) Travel GroupKilometer categories n% Non-Traveller Local Traveller Mid-distance Traveller Long-haul Traveller 0 1 to to 3000 >

9 9 Non- Traveller Local Traveller Mid-distance Traveller Long-haul Traveller Number of holiday trips (means) Number of short stay trips (means) Travel Groups: Number of holiday trips and short-stay trips per year

10 10 Transport Modes [%] Local Traveller Mid-distance Traveller Long-haul Traveller Non-motorized Travel Car Travel Public Transport Travel (local) Public Transport Travel (long distance) Air Travel Travel Groups: Transportation Mode Choice

11 11 Travel Groups: Description by Main Indicators Travel GroupAge and HouseholdEduca -tion IncomePsychological Dimension Non-Traveller high share of unemployment -- Low openness to change, high rating for public transport- excitement and public transport- control Local Traveller 30 to 60 years old, married couples, children in household -- Mid-distance Traveller Middle-aged, double income households +++High self-enhancement Long-haul Traveller 26 to 35 or years old, no children +++ High openness to change and self-enhancement, low rating for public transport-excitement and public transport-control

12 12 Research Questions What is travel behaviour like? How is the environmental impact? Do individual characteristics explain travel behaviour? What are the strategies and obstacles to reduce environmental impact of holiday mobility?

13 13 Travel Groups: Ecological Impact of Holiday Travel

14 14 Travel Groups: Ecological Impact of Daily Mobility CO 2 -equvivalent in kg per year and person

15 15 Research Questions What is travel behaviour like? How is the environmental impact? Do individual characteristics explain travel behaviour? What are the strategies and obstacles to reduce environmental impact of holiday mobility?

16 16 Note. R 2 =.17 adjusted R 2 =.17 ** p <.01; *** p <.001 Stepwise Regression to Predict Greenhouse Gas Emissions

17 17 Summary There are significant differences between travel groups. Travel Groups behaviour differs concerning number of holiday trips and transportation mode. The smallest group (10.7%) is responsible for most emissions of greenhouse gases. Socio-demographic variables are important factors for holiday pattern. Values like Openess für Chance have an effect on number of trips and distances travelled. A contradiction between ecological awareness and holiday behaviour is identified within all travel groups.

18 18 Research Questions What is travel behaviour like? How is the environmental impact? Do individual characteristics explain travel behaviour? What are the strategies and obstacles to reduce environmental impact of holiday mobility?

19 19 Strategies for Sustainable Tourism Concerning Travel behaviour Change of Holiday Destination – Reduction of Distances Transportation Mode Shift to Long-distance Train and Coach Compensation Opportunities Economic Instruments Communication

20 20 Intervention Strategies for Travel Groups Travel Group CharacteristicsChoice of Destination Transportation Mode Choice CompensationInformationPricing instruments / mechanism Long-haul Travellers 10.7% High rate of mobility Importance of air travel No children Ecological impact Potential for reduction +/- + + Mid- distance Travellers 38.2% 60% of the trips by car Families +++ Local Traveller 26.4% Short distances 80% of the trips by car Positive ecological balance Attitudes towards public transport Non- Travellers 24.7% Financial constrains Less interest in travelling +

21 21 Perspectives for Sustainable Tourism Limited possibilities to change holiday travel behaviour and to reduce environmental impact under current conditions. Coaches and long-distance trains are options for a more sustainable holiday travel, but interviews proved especially less experience with train travelling for holiday and a high extent of refusal of train travelling due to choice of destination, time money and complicity. More knowledge about individual motivation of choice of destination and the acceptance and effects of intervention strategies are necessary. Intervention strategies and the development of services should consider different target groups.

22 22 Thank you for your attention! For further information check the Internet for MOBILANZ


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