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Strategies for re-orienting a TDM program from switching modes to reducing emissions of greenhouse gases Edward L. Hillsman Washington State DOT Olympia,

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Presentation on theme: "Strategies for re-orienting a TDM program from switching modes to reducing emissions of greenhouse gases Edward L. Hillsman Washington State DOT Olympia,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Strategies for re-orienting a TDM program from switching modes to reducing emissions of greenhouse gases Edward L. Hillsman Washington State DOT Olympia, WA 98501 USA For presentation at: ECOMM, London, June 4-6, 2008

2 Purpose Review changes in vehicle-kilometers traveled (VKT) in a TDM program that has not targeted VKT reductions Assess whether VKT reduction targets proposed for program participants are realistic Identify opportunities for reducing VKT Identify changes to realize opportunities

3 Background (1)

4 Background (2) State program works with ~570,000 employees in 9 most-populous counties –25% of employment in these counties, 20% of states employment –~1,100 worksites 25% in Seattle, 25% in close suburbs, 50% in other counties Targets for reducing drive-alone rate and VKT –Program has focused on drive-alone rate and vehicle trips, not on VKT

5 Background (3) Revisions to program in 2006 –Additional emphasis on congestion but retained VKT –Goals to reduce VKT 13% between 2007 and 2011 State set targets in 2006–7 to reduce GHG emissions –6.7% overall by 2020 –Possibly 15.7–24% for on-road transportation

6 What has happened at program worksites between 1993 and 2007? The drive-alone rate decreased from 70.9% to 65.6% (a reduction of 8.2%) VKT per employee increased from 17.1 km to 17.2 km (an increase of 0.8%) But, the average length of the commute increased from 21.6 km to 24.6 km in 2005 (an increase of 13.8%)

7 Whole CTR program 1993

8 Whole CTR program 2005

9 But some worksites and jurisdictions have done very well VKT per employee has decreased at 596 of the 1439 sites that had ever been in the program through 2006: –by at least 13% at 234 of these, at some time following their baseline survey –by 7–12% (enough to meet the U.S. Kyoto targets) at an additional 155 –by smaller amounts at an additional 207

10 Jurisdiction Number of sites in 2005 Number of employees in 2005 Avg daily 1-way VKT per employee Avg 1-way distance to work City of Redmond4538617-17.8%-1.3% City of Shoreline62683-25.1%-20.2% City of Buckley2939-14.3%-2.0% City of Arlington72017-17.4%-5.0% City of Monroe52054-26.2%-19.6% Unincorporated Spokane County105465-28.1%-19.2% City of Medical Lake41469-15.0%3.6% City of Selah3846-51.6%-34.0% City of Moxee2204-58.6%-29.2% And 9 jurisdictions have seen VKT decrease by more than 13%

11 How did they do it? Review survey results for sites that have achieved the largest reductions Three examples follow

12 Case 1 (baseline)

13 Case 1 after 8 years

14 Case 2 baseline

15 Case 2 after 2 years

16 Case 3 baseline and 2 years VKT per employee decreased 15.7% from 2003 to 2005 Drive-alone rate decreased only 2.2% No large changes in mode split One-way distance to work decreased by 12.8% (employees live closer to work)

17 So, what works? From these and other examples: –Switch modes not just from drive-alone but also from carpooling to higher-occupancy modes, or from any motorized mode to non- motorized modes (including telework and alternative schedules) –Concentrate switching among longer-distance commuters –Reduce distance from home to work (including errands)

18 What does this mean for running a statewide program? Switch from mass marketing to targeted marketing Promote greater coordination among jurisdictions, transit agencies, planning agencies Encourage employees to live closer to work

19 Targeted marketing Focus on more-distant commuters Focus on switching from drive-alone and from carpooling Use spatial detail with employer data on employee addresses to identify areas where alternatives compete well Track frequency of use and work with low- frequency users Coordinate with construction mitigation

20 How have we been marketing? Mass marketing to all employees at a site or group of sites –Encourage all employees who are driving alone to try an alternative –Print, e-mail, bus sides, radio –Focus on recruiting new users, not on increasing use by present users Targeted marketing has been largely mode- specific –Bicycle commuter contests/bike-to-work days –Bus or bicycle mentoring –Vanpooling to fill out a van

21 Marketing strategies reflect a focus on reducing the drive-alone rate –Target those who are driving alone –Get them to try something else (we dont care what) –Hope they like it enough (perhaps with incentives) that they will keep doing it –If we get them out of their car (and keep them there), weve succeeded Should pay more attention to increasing frequency of use –Onward to the next customer –VKT reduction is a byproduct of switching modes

22 Targeting VKT gives us more levers to work with Vehicle occupancy matters Mode type matters Distance matters (A LOT!)

23 Mode type matters (1) If it doesnt use a vehicle, it doesnt contribute VKT So, 50 person-trips by walking, cycling, telework, or compressed workweek*10 km=0 RT VKT per day If we are focused on reducing VKT, it makes a big difference whether someone is carpooling or teleworking

24 Mode type matters (2) We may not want to try to shift people directly from driving alone into any specific mode But we may want to monitor use of various motorized alternatives and look for ways to encourage shifting to lower- VKT/employee modes Drive AloneCarpool Bus

25 Distance matters (A LOT!) Switching 10 1-km drive-alone trips per week to telework (or walking) saves 20 RT VKT Switching 1 50-km drive-alone trip per week to telework (walking not realistic) saves 100 RT VKT The closest 10% of employees contribute roughly 1% of the VKT The most distant 10% of employees contribute roughly 28% of the VKT This has been true since the CTR program began If you only have money to market to 10% of your employees, target the more distant

26 Barriers to targeted marketing This may not be easy for jurisdictions and transit agencies to do directly –Privacy concerns –Data assembly –Peak-period service is just one of several competing interests Develop tools for employers to use Consider this kind of marketing activity during travel plan review

27 Coordination (1)

28 Coordination (1a) Local/transit partnersexample –Increasing number of people live in Thurston County and commute north along I-5 (long trips) –First part of the trip is through Ft. Lewis (no alternative routes) –Develop park-and-ride lots and supporting transit/vanpool services south of Ft. Lewis, and promote to this market –If they park and ride north of Ft. Lewis, theyve incurred a lot of VKT –Pierce and King County jurisdictions have an interest in Thurston County park-and-rides

29 Coordination (2) Employers, jurisdictions, and other program partners can advocate for state policies to support VKT reduction –Base automobile insurance premiums on distance driven –Shift road revenue source from fuel tax to charge for distance driven –Increasing the gasoline tax –Probably other things

30 Reducing the distance from home to workplace (1) Employers –Structure commute incentives to favor living closer to work –Consider commute distance in relocation assistance planning for new employers

31 Reducing the distance from home to workplace (2) Local governments, transit agencies, planning agencies –Getting employees to live closer to work (or slowing the trend toward living farther away Land use, growth boundaries Development (mixed-use, transit-oriented) Affordable housing –Tax commute distance –Longer time frame –Changing the perception of what a house is

32 Conclusions The VKT targets are achievable We know this because some sites and jurisdictions have seen equivalent changes Some jurisdictions and sites can probably meet them without focusing on them But getting smart about them would probably increase prospects for success

33 Getting smart probably means: Targeted marketing and provision of commute services More market research –To figure out how to do this most effectively More cooperation among jurisdictions and other partners –Long commutes are much more likely to traverse jurisdictions

34 Getting smart also means Some short-term inefficiencies while we develop expertise with reducing VKT equivalent to that for the drive-alone rate –Weve had 14 years to learn how to focus on drive-alone; it will take time to learn how to do VKT well

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