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Chapter 5 Energy and Ecosystems

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1 Chapter 5 Energy and Ecosystems
Lesson 1- How do Plants produce food? Lesson 2 How is Energy passed through and Ecosystem?

2 Lesson 1 Vocabulary Transpiration- the loss of water from a leaf through the stomata Photosynthesis- Process by which plants make food (sugar) by using water, CO2, and energy from the sun Chlorophyll- green pigment that allows a plant to absorb the sun’s light energy Producer- living thing, such as a plant, that makes its own food Consumer- animal that eats plants, other animals, or both

3 Lesson 1 How do Plants Produce Food?
Plant Structures- Roots, stem, leaves Most leaves are thin and have several layers of cells. The outer layer is the epidermis which keeps leaf from drying out. The underside of the leaf has many small holes called stomata(s) that open during the day so the leaf can take in CO2 for Photosynthesis. Chloroplasts contain a green pigment, or coloring matter, called chlorophyll….this gives the plant its “green” color. Oxygen is produced as a byproduct of photosynthesis. It is released into the air through the stomata.

4 It all Starts with Plants -All organisms need energy to live/grow, that energy comes from food
Producers (Plants) Tulip Sunflower Grass Dandelion Trees Rose Consumers (Animals) Lion Hummingbird Snake Buffalo Frog Humans

5 Lesson 2 Vocabulary Ecosystem- A community of organisms and the environment in which they live Herbivore- An animal that eats producers Carnivore- An animal that eats other animals Food Chain- Transfer of food energy between organisms in an ecosystem Decomposer- A consumer that obtains food energy by breaking down the remains of dead plants and animals Food Web- A diagram that shows the relationship between different food chains in an ecosystem Energy Pyramid- A diagram that shows how much food energy is passed from each level in a food chain to the next level

6 Lesson 2 How is Energy Passed Through an Ecosystem?
Energy Transfer -Food energy stored in producers gets passed to consumers. When the animals dies, decomposers break down the remains for food and the rest becomes mixed into the soil.

7 Food Webs- The relationships among different food chains



10 Energy Pyramid -Not all the food energy of plants is passed on to herbivores. Producers uses about 90% of the food energy they produce for their own life processes. They store the other 10% in their leaves, stems, roots, fruits, and seeds. Animals that eat the producers get only 10% of the energy the producers make. An energy pyramid shows that each level of a food chain passes on LESS food energy in each level. Because each level passes so little energy to the next, the 1st level consumers need many producers to support them. In the same way, the 2nd level consumers need many 1st level consumers to support them, which this pattern continues up to the tip of the food chain.

11 That’s why the base of an energy pyramid is so wide, and why only one or two animals are at the top

12 Natural Cycles Other cycles in ecosystems play a very important roll as well Water cycle- provides plants with water for photosynthesis Nitrogen cycle- gas that makes up most of the Earth’s atmosphere. When a plant or animal dies and decays, nitrogen returns to the soil. Carbon/Oxygen Cycle- plants take in Carbon Dioxide and give off Oxygen, while animals breath in Oxygen and give off Carbon Dioxide

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