1 Citius, Altius, Fortius! (“Faster, Higher, Stronger!”) THE INTERNATIONAL OLYMPIC MOVEMENT by Michele Colucci ISDE, Madrid, 2010Citius, Altius, Fortius!(“Faster, Higher, Stronger!”)
2 WHAT IS “OLYMPISM”? A PHILOSPHY OF LIFE... exalting and combining in a balanced whole the qualities of body, will and mind!
3 The Olympic charter GOALS Way of life based on the joy of effort!Educational value of good example!Respect for universal fundamental ethical principles!Sport at the service of the harmonious development of man!Promotion a peaceful society!Preservation of human dignity!
4 THE PRACTICE OF SPORT IS A HUMAN RIGHT! Every individual must have the possibility of practising sport!No discrimination of any kind!Olympic spirit:mutual understanding,spirit of friendship, solidarity and fair play!
5 The Olympic Movement STRUCTURE: International Olympic Committee, which “may recognize”:International Federations (IFs)National Olympic Committees (NOCs)Organizing Committees of the Olympic Games (OCOGs)National associations, clubs, and the persons belonging to them, particularly the athletesOther organizations as recognized by the International Olympic Committee
6 The International Olympic Committee Characteristics of the IOCNon-governmentalNon-profitUnlimited duration and legal personalityHeadquarters in Lausanne, SwitzerlandConsidered the supreme authorityOlympic Charter:Codification of the fundamental principles, rules, and bylaws adopted by the IOCIn force as from 7 July 2007Governs the organization and operation of the Olympic Movement
7 The International Olympic Committee Mission and Role I To encourage and support:the promotion of ethics in sport as well as education of youth through sport;the organisation, development and coordination of sport and sports competitions;the promotion of women in sport at all levels and in all structures with a view to implementing the principle of equality of men and women;measures protecting the health of athletes;the efforts of sports organisations and public authorities to provide for the social and professional future of athletes;the development of sport for all;a responsible concern for environmental issues, to promote sustainable development in sport and to require that the Olympic Games are held accordingly;initiatives blending sport with culture and education;the activities of the International Olympic Academy (“IOA”) and other institutions which dedicate themselves to Olympic education.
8 The International Olympic Committee Mission and Role II to dedicate its efforts to ensuring that, in sport, the spirit of fair play prevails and violence is banned;to ensure the regular celebration of the Olympic Games;to cooperate with the competent public or private organisations and authorities in the endeavour to place sport at the service of humanity and thereby to promote peace;to take action in order to strengthen the unity and to protect the independence of the Olympic Movement;to act against any form of discrimination affecting the Olympic Movement;to lead the fight against doping in sport;to oppose any political or commercial abuse of sport and athletes;to promote a positive legacy from the Olympic Games to the host cities and host countries.
9 The International Olympic Committee IOC owns exclusive rights to:The Olympic symbolThe Olympic flagThe Olympic mottoThe Olympic anthemThe Olympic Games
10 IOC Members Natural persons: active athletespresidents or senior leaders of Ifs, association of IfsPresidents or persons holding an executive or senior leadership position within NOCs, or world or continental associations of NOCsThey represent and promote the interests of the IOC and of the Olympic Movement;They are “independent”!IOC members are not personally liable for the debts and obligations of the IOC
11 IOC Members Obligations to comply with the Olympic Charter, the Code of Ethics and other regulations of the IOC;to participate in Sessions;to participate in the work of the IOC commissions to which the member has been appointed;...
12 IOC governance The “Session” The supreme body of the IOC Held at least once per yearMain function is to adopt, modify, and interpret the Olympic CharterDecisions are finalMay delegate powers to the Executive Board
13 IOC governance The “Executive Board” IOC president, four Vice-presidents, and ten additional membersAll members elected by the “Session”Responsible for managing IOC finances, preparing the annual report, submitting names recommended for IOC membership, establishing agenda for IOC Sessions
14 IOC governance The President Heads the International Olympic Committee (IOC)Supervises all activities of the IOCNominates special commissions
15 Measures and Sanctions With regard to IOC members, the Honorary President, honorary members and honour members:a) a reprimand, pronounced by the IOC Executive Board;b) suspension, for a specific period, pronounced by the IOC Executive Board.
16 Measures and Sanctions with regard to IFs:a) withdrawal from the programme of the Olympic Games of:a sport (Session),a discipline (IOC Executive Board),an event (IOC Executive Board);b) withdrawal of provisional recognition (IOC Executive Board);c) withdrawal of full recognition (Session).with regard to associations of IFs:a) withdrawal of provisional recognition (IOC Executive Board);b) withdrawal of full recognition (Session).
17 Measures and Sanctions with regard to NOCs:a) suspension (IOC Executive Board); in such event, the IOC Executive Board determines in each case the consequences for the NOC concerned and its athletes;b) withdrawal of provisional recognition (IOC Executive Board);c) withdrawal of full recognition (Session); in such a case, the NOC forfeits all rights conferred upon it in accordance with the Olympic Charter;d) withdrawal of the right to organise a Session or an Olympic Congress (Session).with regard to associations of NOCs:a) withdrawal of provisional recognition (IOC Executive Board);b) withdrawal of full recognition (Session).
18 MEASURES AND SANCTIONS With regard to a host city, an OCOG and an NOC:withdrawal of the right to organise the Olympic Games.With regard to applicant or candidate cities and an NOC:withdrawal of the right to be an applicant or a candidate city to host the Olympic GamesWith regard to other recognised associations and organisations:a) withdrawal of provisional recognition;b) withdrawal of full recognition.
19 IOC Finance Marketing Program IOC responsible for overall direction and management of the Olympic marketing programTelevision broadcast partnershipsCorporate sponsorshipsTicketingLicensingRevenues to:organizing committees for the Olympic Gamesthe National Olympic CommitteesOlympic Solidarity, IFS, IOC
20 IOC Finance Main sources of revenue Broadcasting – 50% Sponsorship – 40%Ticketing – 8%Licensing – 2%
21 IOC Finance Olympic sponsorship Relationship between the Olympic movement and corporations intended to generate support for the Olympic Movement and the Olympic Games
22 IOC Finance Olympic Partner Program (TOP) Corporations pay millions of dollars for status as an official Olympic sponsor for a minimum of 4 yearsIdea was to sell a limited number of worldwide sponsorships,Each TOP sponsor was granted exclusivity in a sponsorship category
23 The National Olympic Committees NOC’s RequirementsPropagate the fundamental principles of Olympism at the national level within the framework of sports activity an otherwise contribute to the diffusion of Olympism in the teaching programs of physical education and sport in schools and universitiesEnsure the observance of the Olympic Charter in their countriesEncourage the development of high performance sport as well as sport for allHelp in the training of sports administrators by organizing courses and ensure that such courses contribute to the propagation of the Fundamental Principles of OlympismCommit themselves to taking action against any form of discrimination and violence in sportFight against the use of substances and procedures prohibited by the IOC or their IFs
24 The National Olympic Committees NOC ResponsibilitiesResponsible for the representation of their respective countries at the Olympic Games and at the regional, continental, or world competitions patronized by the IOCSupervise the preliminary selection of potential bid cities
25 The National Olympic Committees NOC Regional OrganizationsAssociation of National Olympic Committees of AfricaOlympic Council of AsiaThe European Olympic CommitteesOceania National Olympic CommitteesPan American Sports OrganizationCommon objective of these regional associations is to uphold the Olympic Charter and promote sport in their region
26 The United States Olympic Committee http://www.usoc.org Main Tasks:leadership and guidance for the Olympic movement in the US
27 The United States Olympic Committee Amateur Sports Act of 1978USOC :coordinating body for all Olympic-related athletic activity in the UCsole authority for supervision and development of sports in the Olympics and Pan Am Gamesresponsible for promoting and supporting physical fitness and public participation in athletic activities by encouraging developmental programs in its membership organizations
28 The United States Olympic Committee USOC Member organizationsOlympic and Pan American sport organizationsAffiliated sport organizationsCommunity-based and education-based multisport organizationsAthletes’ representativesArmed ForcesDisabled in sportsState Fund-raising organizationsAssociate membersRepresentatives of the public sector
29 The United States Olympic Committee exclusive rights to:Symbol of the International Olympic CommitteeUSOC emblemWords “Olympic”, “Olympiad”, and “Citius, Altius, Fortius”
30 The United States Olympic Committee USOC FundingUSOC obtains almost no funding from federal sourcesMajority of revenue is derived from private fund-raising, licensing, and sponsorships
31 The United States Olympic Committee USOC’s Organizational StructureOfficers – President, 3 vice-presidents, secretary, treasurerExecutive Committee – responsible for supervising conduct of business affairs for the USOCBoard of Directors – establishes policies to be carried out in following USOC purposes and objectivesStanding and Special Committees - make recommendations to and reporting to the board of directorsAthletes’ Advisory Council – helps improve communications between the USOC and active athletes
32 International Federations CharacteristicsInternational, non-governmental organizationsAdministering one or more sports at the world level/national levelRoleTo establish and enforce the rules concerning the practice of their respective sports and ensure the development of their sports throughout the world
33 International Federations Summer IFs Winter IfsIntl Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) Intl Biathlon Union (IBU)Intl Rowing Federation (FISA) Intl Bobsleigh and Tobogganing Fed. (FIBT)Intl Badminton Federation (IBF) World Curling Federation (WCF)Intl Baseball Federation (IBAF) Intl Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF)Intl Basketball Federation (FIBA) Intl Luge Federation (FIL) InternationalIntl Boxing Association (AIBA) Intl Skating Union (ISU)Intl Canoe Federation (ICF) Intl Ski Federation (FIS)International Cycling Union (UCI)International Equestrian Federation (FEI)International Fencing Federation (FIE)International Association Football Federation (FIFA)International Gymnastics Federation (FIG)International Weightlifting Federation (IWF)International Handball Federation (IHF)International Hockey Federation (FIH)International Judo Federation (IJF)International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (FILA)International Swimming Federation (FINA)International Union of the Modern Pentathlon (UIPM)International Softball Federation (ISF)World Taekwondo Federation (WTF)International Tennis Federation (ITF)International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF)International Shooting Sports Federation (ISSF)International Archery Federation (FITA)International Triathlon Union (ITU)International Sailing Federation (ISAF)International Volleyball Federation (FIVB)
34 International Federations Inclusion in the Olympic ProgramSummer Olympics – sport must be practiced by men in at least 75 countries on four continents; women at least 40 countries on 3 continentsWinter Olympics – at least 25 countries on 3 continentsSport is admitted to the program of the Olympic Games at least 7 years before the OlympicsA discipline (branch of an Olympic sport, i.e. beach volleyball) must have a recognized international standing to be included in the program for the Olympic gamesAn event must have a recognized international standing both numerically and geographically , and have been included at least twice in a world or continental championship
35 International Federations Bidding processThe cities communicate to the IOC their interest in hosting the Olympic gamesThe Executive Board approves them and the cities officially become Candidate Cities and proceed with a full bidThe IOC chooses five Candidate CitiesIOC will designate an Evaluation CommissionCandidate Cities have to present a Candidature File to the IOCSite visit by the IOC Evaluation CommissionEvaluation Commission will submit a report on all candidates to the IOC two months before the SessionHost city will be chosen at that Session
36 Organizing Committees of the Olympic Games When a host city is selected, an organizing committee of the Olympic Games (OCOG) has to be formedOrganization of the Olympic Games is entrusted to the National Olympic Committee of the country of the host city
37 Organizing Committees of the Olympic Games Areas addressed by the OCOGOperationsAccommodationsAccreditationLogisticsHost broadcastingTelevision rightsMedical needThe Olympic VillageSecurityTechnologyTicketsTransportationSport competitions
38 Organizing Committees of the Olympic Games The IOC will provide the majority of the budget up front due to the long-term broadcast and sponsorship revenue
39 Advertising, Demonstrations, Propaganda Rule 51 of the Charter No form of advertising or other publicity shall be allowed in and above the stadia,venues and other competition areas which are considered as part of the Olympic sites.Commercial installations and advertising signs shall not be allowed in the stadia, venues or other sports grounds.BUT...
40 Advertising, Demonstrations, Propaganda Bye-law to Rule 51 No form of publicity or propaganda, commercial or otherwise, may appear on persons, on sportswear, accessories or, more generally, on any article of clothing or equipment whatsoever worn or used by the athletes or other participants in the Olympic Games, except for the “identification” of the manufacturer of the article or equipment concerned, provided that such identification shall not be marked conspicuously for advertising purposes.
41 DISPUTES AND ARBITRATION Any dispute arising on the occasion of, or in connection with, the Olympic Games shall be submitted exclusively to the Court of Arbitration for Sport, in accordance with the Code of Sports-Related Arbitration.