Presentation on theme: "Unit 10 – The Mole Essential Questions:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Unit 10 – The Mole Essential Questions: What is the relationship between a mole of a substance and its mass?How can the mole of a substance be calculated?How can the percent composition of a compound be determined?How does the molecular formula of a compound compare with the empirical formula?
2 Molecular and Formula Masses The sum of the masses of all the atoms in a compoundMolecular Mass – mass in a molecule (covalent)Formula Mass – mass in a formula unit (ionic)Unit is amu for either of themExample: Formula Mass of CaCO31 atom of Ca = amu = amu1 atom of C = amu = amu3 atoms of O = 3 x amu = amuamu
3 Example:Find the formula mass of (NH4)2SO32 N = 2(14.01 amu) = amu8 H = 8(1.01 amu) = amu1 S = amu = amu3 O = 3(16.00 amu) = amu1 formula unit = amu
5 Mole A counting number (like a dozen) 6.02 X 1023 (in scientific notation)This number is named in honor of Amedeo Avogadro (1776 – 1856)Discovered that no matter what the gas was, there were the same number of molecules present in the same volume
6 Mole – 6.02 x 1023 particles = 6.02 x 1023 C atoms = x 1023 H2O molecules= x 1023 NaCl formula units6.02 x 1023 Na+ ions and6.02 x 1023 Cl– ions1 mole C1 mole H2O1 mole NaCl
7 Avogadro’s Number as Conversion Factor Particles = Moles x 1023 particles1 moleOrMoles = Particles mole6.02 x 1023 particlesNote that a particle could be an atom OR a molecule!You MUST use dimensional analysis for conversions!XX
8 Examples:How many molecules are in 3.5 moles of H2O?How many moles are present in 465 molecules of NO2?How many atoms of nitrogen are in 3.15 moles of NH3?How many atoms of chlorine are in .862 moles of MgCl2?
9 Molar Mass Molar Mass- the mass of one mole of a substance Unit is grams/mole (g/mole or g/mol)Equivalent to the molecular mass in amuEx: molar mass of Iron = g /molemolecular mass of Iron = amu
10 Mass and Mole Relationships Find the number of moles present in g of HNO3.Find the number of grams present in 4.5 moles of C6H10O5.Find the number of moles present in g of H2SO4.
11 Percent CompositionFinding what percent of the total weight of a compound is made up of a particular elementFormula for calculating % composition:Total amu of the element in the compoundTotal formula amuX 100%
15 Chemical FormulasFormulas give the relative numbers of atoms or moles of each element in a formula unit - always a whole number ratio (the law of definite proportions).1 molecule NO2 : 2 atoms of O for every 1 atom of N1 mole of NO2 : 2 moles of O atoms to every 1 mole of N atoms
16 Law of Multiple Proportions When any two elements, A and B, combine to form more than one compound, the different masses of B that unite with a fixed mass of A bear a small whole-number ratio to each otherExample:In H2O, the proportion of H:O = 2:16 or 1:8In H2O2, H:O is 2:32 or 1:16
17 Empirical vs. Molecular Formula Empirical Formula - The formula of a compound that expresses the smallest whole number ratio of the atoms present. Ionic formulas are always empirical formulasMolecular Formula - The formula that states the actual number of each kind of atom found in one molecule of the compound.
18 Determine the Empirical Formula From the Molecular Formula All you need to do is reduce!!C6H6Fe3(CO)9BaCl2P4O10
19 Determine the Molecular Formula from the Empirical Formula Calculate the molar mass of the Empirical Formula.Divide the molar mass of the Molecular Formula by the molar mass of the Empirical FormulaMultiply the numbers of each type of atom by that number
20 Determine the Molecular Formula from the Empirical Formula Examples:Molecular Mass: g/molEmpirical Formula: CHMolecular Formula: C2H2Molecular Mass: g/molEmpirical Formula: SeO3Molecular Formula Se3O9
21 To Obtain Empirical Formula 1. Assume the percent is out of 100 grams. That means you can change the % sign to grams.2. Calculate the number of moles of each element.3. Divide each by the smallest number of moles to obtain the simplest whole number ratio.If whole numbers are not obtained* in step 3), multiply through by the smallest number that will give all whole numbers**Remember this**Percent to mass Mass to mole Divide by small Multiply 'til whole
22 Calculating the Empirical Formula Example #1 Given that a compound is composed of 60.0% Mg and 40.0% O, find the empirical formula.
23 Calculating the Empirical Formula Example #2 A compound is analyzed and is found to contain 13.5g of calcium, 10.8g of oxygen, and 0.675g of hydrogen. Calculate the empirical formula of this compound.
24 Calculating the Empirical Formula Example #3: NutraSweet is a zero calorie sweetener used in many food products. A sample is analyzed and it’s percent composition is as follows; 57.14% carbon, 6.16% hydrogen, 9.52% nitrogen, and the rest is oxygen. Calculate the empirical formula of NutraSweet.
25 Try this!A compound is found to contain 68.5% carbon, 8.63% hydrogen, and 22.8% oxygen. The molecular weight of this compound is known to be approximately g/mol. Find the empirical and molecular formulas.