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Institutional mapping exercise related to WASH services for rural and peri-urban areas in Ghana WASHCOST PROJECT IRC/KNUST.

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Presentation on theme: "Institutional mapping exercise related to WASH services for rural and peri-urban areas in Ghana WASHCOST PROJECT IRC/KNUST."— Presentation transcript:

1 Institutional mapping exercise related to WASH services for rural and peri-urban areas in Ghana WASHCOST PROJECT IRC/KNUST

2 Outline of presentation Introduction: study purpose, TOR & Outputs WASH sector overview Informal relationships Use of ICT in decision-making processes Ongoing pro-poor projects Issues for WASHCost study WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation2

3 Purpose of WASHCost Project Background –WASHCost project aims at identifying the real disaggregated cost of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services in rural and peri- urban areas, and the range of physical, social, economic and political factors that influence those costs WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation3

4 WASHCost Partners Partners –IRC –KNUST WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation4

5 WASHCost Institutional Mapping Objective –to carry out an institutional mapping exercise and initial assessment of the availability and use of unit cost data in the WASH sector serving rural and peri-urban areas in Ghana. Purpose –to provide an understanding of the WASH sector with respect to governance, availability and use of cost information, planning and decision making particularly to the poor in the rural and peri-urban areas. The assessment will support the WASHCost project implementation in Ghana. WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation5

6 WASHCost Institutional Mapping - 2 Scope of scanning activities: –Institutional Mapping –Planning and decision making processes and support system and tools –Unit cost information scan –Training needs assessment of key sector actors as it relates to collection –Analysis and use of cost data for improving the performance of the WASH sector WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation6

7 Working definitions in Ghana WASH Context Institutional framework –The term institutional is used in a contextual manner to cover: policies based on which sector strategies and programmes in the are implemented; organisations (actors) to implement these policies; and the legal framework needed to support the policies as well as the institutional actions –Thus institutional framework looks beyond organisations and their functions WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation7

8 Working definitions (2) Small towns –a community that is not rural but is a small urban community, with population between 2,000 to 30,000 that has been mandated by the relevant authority (ies) to manage its own water and sanitation systems. [Ref: NWP] –This definition should be contrasted with that used by CWSA in its Small Towns Water and Sanitation Policy, which defined small towns as communities with populations between 2,000 – 50,000. WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation8

9 Working definitions (3) Peri-urban communities include: –Communities not considered as small towns, are supposed to be covered by the utility (GWCL) and yet do not receive reliable supply or are not served at all. They tend to have an orphan status as they do not belong to small towns and yet have demographic characteristics similar to them, neither do they have demand characteristics and supply options which the utility typically responds to, or offers. –Low income communities (formal and informal) in large urban areas and cities WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation9

10 Working definitions (4) Rural communities –Community with a population of less than 5,000 people or any other figure which the Minister of Water Resources, Works and Housing, in consultation with appropriate government agencies, may from time to time declare by publication in the Gazzette and the mass media –Other documents put the population threshold at 2,000 and below WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation10

11 Working definitions (5) Definition of urban poor –those without access to the utilitys mains; –who depend on secondary or tertiary providers for their supply; and –who buy by the bucket This definition is based on that used by the PURC in defining the poor in its social policy for water sector regulation WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation11

12 Understanding Wash Unit Cost WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation12 Sustainable WASH service delivery How much does it cost to deliver sustainable WASH services in Community X ? –We can give you cost for a facility but not a sustainable service Planning Decision making Implementation etc WASH services

13 Understanding Wash Unit Cost - 2 WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation13 Determination of Life cycle cost of sustainable WASH service Use of the cost information in decision making Investment Service-level Implement Upgrade Replace Service delivery approach – constant service through administration and management interspersed with capital projects Capital projects Administration & management Service level

14 Relevant WRM Principles for WASHCost Principles (as enshrined in NWP): –the principle of fundamental right of all people without discrimination to safe and adequate water to meet basic human needs; –the principle of meeting the social needs for water as a priority, while recognising the economic value of water and the goods and services it provides; –the principle of recognising water as a finite and vulnerable resource, given its multiple uses; WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation14

15 WRM Principles relevant to WASHCost Study - 2 –the principle of improving equity and gender sensitivity [how much does it cost to provide a toilet facility to a disabled person?] –the principle of subsidiarity in order to ensure participatory decision-making at the lowest appropriate level in society, with users involved in the planning and implementation of projects; WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation15

16 Overview of Ghana WASH Sector – WS Access WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation16 Hous e tap Yard tap Pub. stand pipe Bore hole Protec ted well Sachet water Unpr otecte d well Tanke r truck Impro ved Natio- nal Reference: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey Note however that this contrasts with the numbers given by GWCL (58%) and CWSA (53%).

17 Overview - Access to improved WSS (Ref: MICS) 17 Region % of H/H pop using improved drinking water % of H/H pop using improved sanitary facilities % of H/H pop using improved drinking water & improved sanitary facilities Western Central Greater Accra Volta Eastern Ashanti Brong Ahafo Northern Upper East Upper West Area Urban Rural National WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation

18 WASH Sector Framework WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation18

19 WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation19 Institutional framework for WSS in Ghana (2) 19 Policy, Planning, Financing, Monitoring Ministry of Water Res W&H Ministry of Finance Ministry of LGRDE Facilitation, Regulation WRC (water use regulation) PURC (economic regulation) District Assemblies (rural & small town WSS) CWSA Service Provision GWCL/AVRL (urban) WSDBs/WATSANS Small independent producers, tankers, vendors Private sector (local water operators, drillers, contractors, consultants, artisans - pump mechanics etc.) MMDAs - sewerage Collaborating Ministries: MOH; MOEYS Implementation support Development Partners (financing, capacity building) NGOs (financing, capacity building) District Assemblies (legislative) WSS Asset ownership GWCL DAs Communities Private sector

20 Policy, Legal & Regulatory framework Relevant Policy, legal and regulation references GPRS National Water Policy National Environmental Sanitation Policy Sector Strategies and Guidelines Sector programmes – e.g. NCWSP Acts establishing water agencies – WRC, GWCL, CWSA, Acts establishing regulatory bodies – PURC Regulations and guidelines – water abstraction, tariff setting, Strategic Investment Plans (urban, rural/small town water supply) Project Implementation Manuals WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation20

21 Conceptual Framework for WASH in Ghana WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation 21 GPRS Policies of other Sectors National Water Policy Env. Sanitation Policy Urban WSSRural WSSPeri-urban WSSSmall Town WSS Utility Mgt: PURC Regulations & Guidelines Community Mgt: National CW&S Prog. Community Mgt: National CW&S Prog. Utility Mgt: PURC Regulations & Guidelines

22 Informal service delivery WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation22

23 WASH Cost information Sources of information –CWSA: Rural and Small towns [SIP, Implementation Manuals, Capital and Operating budgets] –GWCL: Urban Water supply [SIP, Project agreements, Bills of Quantities] –Development Partners [Project Appraisal Docs, Feasibility Reports, –Projects and programmes [completion reports] –NGOs activities –Local private water operators WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation23

24 WASH Cost information (2) Use of WASH Cost information –Preparation of Strategic Investment Plans –Preparation of specific projects WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation24

25 WASH Cost information (3) Knowledge of Unit Costs According to CWSA, the concept of unit costs is quite well known as it is used for planning and executing purposes, e.g. SIP However unit costs are known more accurately for the simpler water supply and sanitation technologies such as borehole and hand-dug wells with handpumps, and household latrines. For piped systems, as the technologies, complexity and size of systems vary widely, the unit costs lie within a range rather than a specific figure. WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation25

26 WASH Cost information - CWS Community water supply 2 major unit cost documents are available to the CWSA Kwame Asante and Associates (1999) Morrison and Takyis report (2004) Third unit cost study will be compiled in 2008 Other unit cost information is available from project documents and reports. WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation26

27 WASH Cost information – Peri-urban Peri-urban WSS –At the moment there is no report (published or unpublished) on the unit costs of delivering WASH services to peri-urban/low income communities –The pro-poor pilot project being promoted by PURC/GWCL/WaterAid has an objective to undertake this and will need support and guidance WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation27

28 WASH Cost information – Sanitation WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation28

29 Some information for deriving unit cost - CWS Basis for unit cost information –20 litres of water per day; –walking distance to a water facility does not exceed 500 metres –a borehole or pipe system must serve no more than 300 persons –150 persons for a hand dug well; –For household latrines an average of 8 persons using one latrine; –For institutional latrines an average of 50 persons per squat hole. WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation29

30 Some unit cost information – CWS (2) Units costs for CWS –Hardware Point sources-$3-6,000 per point source Pipe systems-$45 per capita –Software-xx The numbers refer to the capital cost of delivering the facility WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation30

31 Some unit cost information – PER WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation31 Table 22: Per capita Investment Cost in the rural and semi-urban water supply and sanitation sub-sector ( ) Actual spending in US$ Population Served Actual spending in US$ per person served Ghana134,900,0002,600,00052 Burkina Faso91,700,0002,625,00035 Mali103,100,0001,150,00090 Note: Actual number of people served in Burkina is 75% of actual numbers in order to reflect people served by sector ministry only

32 WASH Planning & Decision Making This differs between sub-sectors Community water and sanitation delivery has an elaborated and well disseminated planning and decision-making arrangement, in which beneficiaries play a substantial part in project preparation, site selection, implementation and facilities management An attempt is being made through a number of pilot schemes to involve beneficiaries in peri-urban WASH delivery In urban WASH delivery consumer involvement is absent and comes in only after service delivery – through complaints. PURC is supposed to facilitate public hearings but these have been missing in recent years WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation32

33 Use of ICT in Decision Making Concept of computerisation well grounded within the sector. However: It is very low at the District level where these are usually project related and therefore used by a few CWSA/PURC/Ministry are quite well resourced in hardware but the software aspect is weak. Computers are used mostly for basic office assignments - Word, Excel, PPT. Accounting software available. New software for capturing M&E data being promoted for the community WASH sub-sector Computers often dont talk to each other and no mechanism exists for sharing information, sometimes even within the same organisation WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation33

34 WASH Projects relevant to study New Energy/WaterAid PURC/GWCL/WaterAid Pilot Schemes UN Habitat – Water for African Cities AFD WASH Project for Brong Ahafo UNICEF – Guinea Worm Eradication Project [Northern Region] AVRL/Aqua4All WASH Projects – WASHCost, SWITCH, TPP WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation34

35 Unit cost from CWSA perspective Letter from CWSA to regional offices (8/7/08): It has become necessary to update our unit cost database to inform planning and preparation of cost estimates for project preparation. You are therefore to submit to head office the average unit cost of the under listed activities (if applicable) for 2007 undertaken in your region Water Construction of hand dug wells (without hand pump) Drilling of boreholes (without hand pump) Drilling of boreholes (for mechanization) Construction of small town water supply scheme for population size: ( ); (5, ,000); (10,000-15,000); (15,000–20,000); (20,000–25,000); (25,000– 30,000); (> 30000) Construction of small communities piped water supply scheme for pop: ( ); ( ) Sanitation Construction of Mozambique slab VIP latrine Construction of rectangular reinforced slab VIP Construction of 1 seater KVIP (also 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 seater) WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation35

36 Observations and Conclusions Use of unit cost information in the sector is quite well understood; however this is limited to capital costs and not the life-cycle costs of WASH services Unit cost information is useful for the ff purposes: Planning and project preparation Benchmarking Promotion of technology choices Value for money audits WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation36

37 Issues in Ghana WASH Cost study What are we measuring now and what should we be measuring? Is there broad agreement on standards of service, particularly for peri-urban communities? How have currently quoted unit costs been determined? What is/should be the role of various actors in the compilation of unit costs information? What other uses can we put to unit cost information? WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation37

38 THANK YOU WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation38

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