http://univers.biere.free.fr3 HOPS (houblon) The hops used to make beer are the flower of the hop vine Hop is a member of the hemp family (Cannabaceae). Hops contain acids which give beer its bitterness Hop has got 200 oils which give beer some of its flavor and aroma Adding hops to beer inhibits the formation of certain bacteria Only 2g hops are used to make 1L of beer
http://univers.biere.free.fr4 Malted Barley (Malt) Barley looks like a wheat grain Lots of cereals can be used to make beer (wheat, rye, barley, oats) 140g malt are used to make 1L of beer
http://univers.biere.free.fr5 Water Water must be clean and drinkable Breweries need lot of water, 6L are used to make 1L of beer
http://univers.biere.free.fr6 Yeast (La Levure) Yeast is the single-celled micro-organism that is responsible for creating the alcohol and carbon dioxide in beer. There are many kinds of yeasts used to make beer. Each yeast has a distinctive flavor and give beer its various tastes. There are two categories of beer yeast: - Ale yeast is top fermenting (temperature around 21°C) - Lager yeast is bottom fermenting (temperature around 10°C) 10g yeast are used to make 1L of beer
http://univers.biere.free.fr8 1)Barley germination First, the barley is soak in water for 1 week at the temperature of 15°C. Barley is now called green malt. During the germination process, enzymes released by malt convert these nutrients into sugars. These enzymes will produce sugar.
http://univers.biere.free.fr9 2) Malt drying After this natural process has released the enzymes, the green malt is dried by gradually raising the temperature. The intensity of the malt flavor and color depends on how high the temperature is raised during the drying process. The malted barley is crushed between rollers to break up the kernel. The malted barley is ready to begin the brewing process
http://univers.biere.free.fr10 3) Mash-lauter-tun (Cuve matière) The wet grains, called the mash, stay in the mash-lauter-tun with water for an hour at the temperature of 65°C. The purpose of the mash is to convert the starches in the malted barley into fermentable sugars. Starches are strings of many glucose molecules The alpha and beta enzymes break up the long chains of starches at the temperature of 60 ° C
http://univers.biere.free.fr12 4) The boil The liquid from the mash is filtered and put into a huge brew kettle The temperature is raised until the liquid comes to a vigorous rolling boil, and it is during 90 minutes. Hops are added. Before the wort can go to the next step, all of the solids must be separated from the liquid.
http://univers.biere.free.fr14 5) Fermentation To begin the fermentation process, the cooled wort is transferred into a fermentation tank to which the yeast has already been added. Fermentation is the process by which yeast converts the glucose in the wort to ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide gas. The wort will be maintained at a constant temperature of: - 20°C for about two weeks if the beer is an ale. - 9°C for about six weeks if the beer is a lager.
http://univers.biere.free.fr15 When the yeast first hits the wort, concentration of glucose (C6H12O6) is very high, each glucose molecule is broken down. The product is two three-carbon sugars. They are converted by the yeast into carbon dioxide (CO2) and ethanol (CH3CH2OH). The reaction is: C6H12O6 => 2(CH3CH2OH) + 2(CO2) How Yeast Makes Alcohol and Carbon Dioxide
http://univers.biere.free.fr16 6)Bright beer tank The beer is slowly pumped from the fermenter and filtered to remove any remaining solids. From the filter, the beer goes into another tank, called bright beer tank, it stay for 1 mouth. Here, the level of carbon dioxide is adjusted
http://univers.biere.free.fr17 7) Bottling and Kegging The ways that the beer is transferred into bottles and kegs is similar. The most important thing is to keep the beer from being contaminated by stray yeasts, and to keep oxygen away from the beer.
http://univers.biere.free.fr18 Beer consommation in Europe Germany 127 L / inhabitant / year Ireland 125 Danemark 107 Belgium 100 United Kingdom 95 Nederland 85 Spain 72 Portugal 65 France 39