3 Quick Question… Which of these objects does not belong in this group? Of course, the answer is that the ROCK does not belong.The rock is different because it can be classified as a nonliving thing. A fish, a frog, a tree and a rose are all living organisms.
4 Animal vs. Plant A fish and a frog are both animals. A rose and a tree are both plants.A fish and a frog have animal characteristics.These are a few of the characteristics of animals:Consist of cells containing organelles.Need to ingest food.Most are mobile.Lack chlorophyll.Lack cell walls.
5 Animal vs. Plant A rose and a tree have plant characteristics. These are the characteristics of most plants:Many have chlorophyll.Have rigid cell walls.Are stationary.Contain cellulose in their structure.Most make their own food by photosynthesis.Large vacuoles
6 Take A Guess!How many different kinds of organisms do you think exist on our planet?Biologists estimate that there are more than 5,000,000 different kinds of organisms.Every year, scientists discover new organisms.Why is classification, or grouping, necessary when studying organisms? Think about it!Let’s look at a familiar example to better understand why grouping is helpful.
7 An Example…John Doe10601 S. CentralOak Lawn, ILUSAA student in Canada wants to send a letter to a friend in the United States of America.Note that the zip code is not included in this letter.There are several categories on this envelope:NameHouse numberStreetTownStateCountry
8 Example (Cont.)John Doe10601 S. CentralOak Lawn, ILUSAIn Canada, which department (domestic or international) sends the letter to the United States?The international department sends the mail to other countries such as the United States of America.Which is the largest category in the address on the envelope?USA is the largest category, because it represents a whole country.
9 Example (Cont.)John Doe10601 S. CentralOak Lawn, ILUSAOnce in the USA, which category in the address is first used to sort the letter?State is the first category used to sort the letter.Which category in the address helps deliver the letter to a single area in the state?Oak Lawn (the town) is the third largest category. It indicates where among many possible areas within the state to deliver the letter.
10 Example (Cont.)John Doe10601 S. CentralOak Lawn, ILUSAThe category Oak Lawn is an example of subgrouping, or classification.A zip code is another example of subgrouping, or classification.The first three digits, 604, classify either a large area within a state or a large city.The last two digits, 53, indicate either a post office or a delivery area.
11 Example (Cont.)John Doe10601 S. CentralOak Lawn, ILUSALook at the address again. Here are all six of the categories in descending order.USA (Country)IL (State)Oak Lawn (Town)S. Central (Street – it identifies only a small segment of a town.)10601 (Identifies a house or building located on a particular street.)John Doe (This is the smallest category in the address on the letter. He is one resident of a particular house/building.)
12 InformationWhen organizing anything, start with the largest group, and subdivide it into smaller categories. This is classifying by descending order.For Example: USAIllinois Another StateOak Lawn Another TownAnother Street S. CentralJohn Doe Mary DoeNote: A zip code identifies the state, the area in that state, and a specific post office or delivery area.
13 Classifying Words A. Hour F. Decade B. Month G. Minute Let’s try an exercise in the classification of words that describe time.Put these words in descending order:A. Hour F. DecadeB. Month G. MinuteC. Century H. WeekD. Eon I. SecondE. Day J. YearEon – Century – Decade – Year – Month – Week – Day – Hour – Minute – SecondLet’s see how biologists use categorization when studying organisms.
14 Information There is a wide diversity among organisms. Grouping, or classifying, helps biologists identify and study newly discovered organisms.Any system of classification depends on grouping organisms into categories based on the organism’s characteristics.What system of taxonomy, or classification, do biologists use today to identify and study organisms?Let’s examine the major categories of classification in descending order.
15 Classification of Organisms Biologists classify all organisms into large categories called kingdoms.A kingdom consists of a collection of closely related phyla (singular phylum).A phylum is a group of related classes.A class is a group of related orders.An order is a group of closely related families having common characteristics.A family is a group of closely related genera (singular genus). Most genera are similar; some have noticeable differences.A genus is a group of closely related species. For example, the oak genus consists of pin oak, white oak, and many other oak species.Species is the basic (smallest) unit in the classification of organisms. It is a kind of organism, such as a dog or a sugar maple tree.Biologists do not agree on a single classification system. For example, some classify organisms into three, four, or five kingdoms.All OrganismsKingdomKingdomPhylumPhylumClassClassOrderOrderFamilyFamilyGenusGenusSpeciesSpecies
16 Information Each organism has a scientific Greek or Latin name. This name is based on a binomial system invented by Linnaeus, a Swedish taxonomist.The first word (genus name) is capitalized, the second word (species name) is not capitalized. For example, the scientific name for humans is Homo sapiens.
17 ReviewOrganization is the systematic grouping of things to show interrelationships.To develop an organizational outline, start with the largest category and subdivide into smaller categories.Classification, or taxonomy, is a systematic arrangement of organisms into categories based on their characteristics and interrelationships.Classification simplifies the identification and study of organisms according to their characteristics.
18 Select The Letter Of The Correct Answer From The List Below: A. species D. categoryB. class E. genusC. kingdom F. taxonomyThe largest category of classification is called a _________________.A system of classifying organisms is called _________________.The most specific category for classifying an organism is a ________________.In any organizational plan, start with the largest _________________.
19 Answers: kingdom taxonomy species category The largest category of classification is called a _________________.A system of classifying organisms is called _________________.The most specific category for classifying an organism is a ________________.In any organizational plan, start with the largest _________________.taxonomyspeciescategory
20 Classification of Organisms Let’s use your knowledge of categorizing to study the classification of organisms.Taxonomy, or classification, is a method of grouping organisms according to their characteristics and interrelationships.The purpose of classification is to help identify organisms and to show relationships between them.
21 How Are These Organisms Related? Think about it!How would you group these organisms by their characteristics?First group: A & DSecond group: B & CABCD
22 KingdomsSimilar characteristics make it easy to identify and group organisms.Biologists group organisms into large categories called kingdoms.Throughout history, organisms have been classified into two major groups – the animal kingdom and the plant kingdom.Let’s look at representatives of the animal kingdom.
23 Animal Kingdom (Animalia) These are some of the characteristics of animals:Consist of cells containing organelles.Need to inject food.Most are mobile.Lack chlorophyll.Lack cell walls.
24 Plant Kingdom (Plantae) These are the characteristics of most plants:Many have chlorophyll.Have rigid cell walls.Are stationary.Contain cellulose in the structure.Most make their own food by photosynthesis.Large vacuoles.
25 Protist Kingdom (Protista) Simple microscopic organisms cannot be classified as either plant or animal.These organisms belong to the protist kingdom.Let’s look at the euglena to better understand the characteristics of protists.
26 Euglena These are the characteristics of protists: All are unicellular (sometimes forming a colony).Some have chlorophyll in chloroplasts.Some are autotrophic (make food from simple materials).Some are heterotrophic (take food from dead or living organisms).Some show mobility.Some contain well defined nuclei.Not all unicellular (single cell) organisms have similar characteristics.Members of the Monera kingdom are different from protists.
27 Monera Kingdom The Monera include bacteria and blue-green algae. Monera have these characteristics:Lack organelle membranes.Can be unicellular or form filaments.Cell walls that do not contain cellulose.Can contain chlorophyll (sometimes in chloroplasts).Can be parasitic.Lack major cell organelles.Many form spores to resist heat and drying.Another kingdom, Fungi, has different characteristics.
28 Fungi Kingdom Organisms in the kingdom Fungi have this appearance. Lets look at bread mold to better understand the characteristics of fungi.
29 Bread MoldThese are the characteristics of members of the kingdom Fungi:Resemble plants in structure, but not function.Have cell walls.Lack chlorophyll.Cannot make their own food.Depend on the absorption of nutrient molecules.Are either parasites or saprophytes.Most are multicellular (few are unicellular).
30 Major Characteristics ReviewKingdomMajor CharacteristicsAnimalHeterotrophic, multicellular, lack cell walls and chlorophyll.PlantUsually autotrophic, cell walls (cellulose), can be multicellular/unicellular.ProtistAutotrophic/heterotrophic, usually unicellular, some form colonies, some have cell walls (cellulose).MoneraAutotrophic/heterotrophic, lack nuclear membranes and most cell organelles, cell wall (lacks cellulose).FungiHeterotrophic, lack chlorophyll, have cell walls (cellulose).
31 Quiz: Fill In The Blanks… Organisms can be classified into five large categories called ____________. The ____________ are usually unicellular organisms that can move and form colonies. They are different from the ____________, which are multicellular, heterotrophic organisms that lack cell walls. The members of another large heterotrophic group must absorb all their nutrients because they have no chlorophyll with which to make food. These organisms have cell walls with cellulose, and are called ____________.kingdomsprotistsanimalsfungi
32 Classification of Animals Section TwoClassification of Animals
33 SymmetryAn organism’s symmetry (balanced proportions) often helps determine its classification.There are two basic types of symmetry, radial and bilateral.Let’s look at two familiar examples to explain the different types of symmetry.Notice the individual pieces of this pie.In addition to area, color and size, all have the same shape.The pie is radially symmetrical Sections from the center all have the same shape.Let’s look at an organism that is radially symmetrical.
34 SpongeAll parts of the sponge are regularly arranged around a central axis.Which of the following is most like the radial symmetry in a sponge? A) A book B) A wheel C) A television D) A human faceAnswer: A wheel – A wheel is similar to the radial symmetry of a sponge, because its parts are regularly arranged around a central axis.
35 Bilateral SymmetryThese parts of the chair are not the same. They are mirror images of each other.This is called bilateral symmetry.Objects that are bilaterally symmetrical can be divided by only one plane into equal halves (mirror images).Let’s examine bilateral symmetry in an animal.
36 Earthworm Cross Section Study the cross section above with a plane drawn through it.Observe that the two sides are mirror images of each other.Symmetry is an important means of classifying organisms.
37 InformationCategories of classification, such as kingdom, phylum and class, are called taxons.Each kingdom is subdivided into lower taxons called phyla (singular phylum).Organisms with different characteristics are in different phyla.Some biologists divide the animal kingdom into nine phyla.Try to determine the differences and the similarities among the phyla as you study them.
38 Phyla Exploration These are the major animal phyla: Sponges CoelenteratesFlatwormsRoundwormsSegmented wormsMollusksArthropodsEchinodermsChordates.
39 Phylum – Sponges (Porifera) Most sponges live attached to the bottom in shallow waters.Water enters a sponge through the many pores.The sponge separates food from the water in its central cavity. Then, the water leaves through the large opening on top.Sponges have no clearly defined muscle or nerve cells.
40 Phylum – Coelenterates (Coelenterata) Food and water enter a hydra (a coelenterate) through its mouth.Water and wastes also leave the hydra through its mouth.Coelenterates have radial symmetry.A coelenterate is a hollow, cup-like animal. Food and water enter and leave through its mouth.Digestion occurs in the cavity (before food absorption) and in the cells (after absorption).The body has two layers of cells enclosing a jelly-like material.Coelenterates usually have stinging cells and tentacles.
41 Phylum – Flatworms (Platyhelminthes) A flatworm is a long, ribbon-shaped, bilaterally symmetrical organism that usually has an easily identifiable head and tail.Some flatworms, such as the planaria, are free-living (nonparasitic).Other flatworms, such as the tapeworm and the liver fluke, are parasitic.Parasitic flatworms can live part of their life cycles in two or three different host organisms.Flatworms have bilateral symmetry.Compare flatworm characteristics with those of roundworms for differences and similarities.
42 Phylum – Roundworms (Nematoda) Roundworms can be microscopic in size. They are bilaterally symmetrical and have smooth, unsegmented bodies.Roundworms have a mouth and an anus, but no distinct respiratory or circulatory organs. Many are parasitic and are found in the soil.Roundworms contain a digestive tract.
43 Phylum – Segmented Worms (Annelida) These worms are different from other phyla of worms because they have segments.Segmented worms have well developed digestive, circulatory and nervous systems.All segments, except the first and last, contain kidney-like organs.Respiration takes place through the moist skin.Segmented worms are more complex because they have a segmented body, complete digestive tract, and a circulatory system.Segmented worms have no appendages. They have short bristles on all segments (except the first and the last) that are used for locomotion.
44 Phylum – Mollusks (Mollusca) Some of these soft-bodied animals secrete a hard, protective shell. Some have tentacles, others have a muscular foot.Mollusks have a true circulatory system.The squid is a mollusk that can swim rapidly.
45 Phylum – Arthropods (Arthropoda) Arthropods are joint-legged animals that have an external skeleton (exoskeleton).All have segmented bodies, usually with three regions: a head, a thorax and an abdomen.They make up over 90% of the world’s animals.Spiders are the only arthropods without antennae.
46 Phylum – Echinoderms (Echinodermata) Echinoderms are spiny-skinned animals.The Echinoderms have these features:Spines that cover their skins.Epidermis that covers a firm endoskeleton.Radial symmetry (usually five pairs).Unique hydrovascular systemA complete digestive tract (usually).
47 Phylum – Chordates (Chordata) Some chordates are simple; others are more complex.Chordate characteristics consist of the following:Dorsal notochord.Dorsal hollow nerve cord.Gill slits.Segmentation of muscles.A tail.Paired appendages (complex chordates only).A segmented spinal column made of vertebrae (complex chordates only).
48 InformationPhyla often are divided into subgroups called subphyla (singular subphylum). They are the next classification group smaller than phyla.A subphylum is grouped into even smaller groups, called classes.Let’s investigate some representative classes from the chordate phylum (subphylum vertebrates).
49 Chordate Class Exploration These are the chordate classes:Jawless fish.Cartilaginous fish.Bony fish.Amphibians.Reptiles.Birds.Mammals.
50 Class – Jawless Fish (Agnatha) The skeleton is made of cartilage. These fish have no jaws.
51 Class – Cartilaginous Fish (Chondrichthyes) These are the characteristics of the cartilaginous fish:Cartilaginous skeleton.Mouth containing a jaw.Visible gill slits.
52 Class – Bony Fish (Osteichthyes) These fish have a bony skeleton and covered gill slits.The jawless fish is the only class of fish that does not have paired appendages.
53 Class – Amphibians (Amphibia) These scaleless animals live on land and/or in water. As larvae, they breathe through gills. As adults, most breathe through lungs.Most adult amphibians can live on land, whereas fish cannot.
54 Class – Reptiles (Reptilia) These are the characteristics of reptiles:Cold-blooded.Lung-breathing.Thick, dry, scaly skin.Egg laying (some bear live young).A reptiles skin contains scales, whereas an amphibian’s skin does not.
55 Class – Birds (Aves)Birds are warm-blooded, egg-laying animals. They have feathers and beaks, but no teeth.Birds are the only class of vertebrates that are covered with feathers.
56 Class – Mammals (Mammalia) Mammals are warm-blooded with fur or hair. Their young develop internally, then feed from the mammary glands of the female parent. Mammals usually have four limbs.A feather is to a bird as fur is to a mammal.
57 InformationAmong biologists, there are differences of opinion as to one system of classification.Biologists use either a 3, 4 or 5 kingdom system of classification.Most biologists agree that multicellular animals belong in a separate animal kingdom.Let’s compare each system of classification. Observe the similarities and the differences.Note the color changes as an organism’s classification changes.
60 Information All classification systems follow a pattern. These are the different groups in descending order:KingdomPhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesLet’s develop a chart of animal classification that includes humans.
61 Human Classification Kingdom Animals Phylum Chordates Class Mammals OrderPrimatesFamilyHominidsGenusHomoSpeciessapiens (Humans)
62 ReviewAn important characteristic of an organism is its organization or symmetry (balanced proportions). There are two major kinds of symmetry:Radial symmetry (spoke-like around a central axis).Bilateral symmetry (two sides contain the same parts; each part a mirror image of the other).Taxons called phyla divide kingdoms.Organisms in each phylum have different characteristics.For example, fish (vertebrates) have backbones; worms (invertebrates) have no backbones.As animals are classified into lower taxons, such as genus and species, their characteristics become more similar.
63 Quiz: Fill In The Blanks… Biologists generally classify each kingdom into the next smaller group, known as a _____________. An important characteristic of an organism in each phylum is its ___________ (balanced proportions). The fish are ____________ (animals with backbones). Fish are different from other phyla, such as the worms, which are invertebrates. The subgroup having the most similar characteristics among animals is known as a ____________.phylumsymmetryvertebratesspecies
64 Classification of Plants Section ThreeClassification of Plants
65 Land vs. Water PlantsPlants can live in different parts of the environment.Biologists separate plants into two general categories:Land plants – embryophytes.Water plants – thallophytes.Biologists used to classify these plants as embryophytes and thallophytes.While embryophytes and tallophytes are not currently used as taxons, it is convenient to use these names when discussing plants.
66 Algae Let’s look at some certain types of algae (thallophytes). Note: Some algae grow on land in a thin film of water that covers environmental surfaces.Remember: Some biologists classify algae in the plant kingdom. Other biologists classify algae in the protist kingdom.
67 Types of Algae Chlamydomonas Spirogyra Fucus Some water plants are unicellular.SpirogyraSome water plants consist of cells that form long threads.FucusSome water-dwelling algae consist of sheets of cells that form large, tree-sized plants.
68 Classification of Plants Let’s see how some biologists classify algae with other plants in the 5 kingdom system.Let’s look at a chart of the classification system used by these taxonomists.
69 Classification of Plants KingdomNote: Some biologists use additional subgroups in their classification systems.A kingdom consists of two or more groups called phyla. (One phylum, two phyla).Thallophytes and embryophytes divide the plant kingdom into two separate groups that are not considered taxons.PhylumPhylumSubkingdomSubphylumClassClassOrderOrderFamilyFamilyGenusGenusSpeciesSpecies
70 Thallophytes Most algae are thallophytes. Let’s compare a thallophyte with a land-dwelling plant (embryophyte) to see the differences in their structure.
71 Embryophyte vs. Thallophyte FlowerLeafStemRoots (Not Pictured)BladesAir BladderStipeHoldfast
72 ThallophytesThallophytes are simple plants that do not contain true leaves, true stems, or true roots. They do not produce flowers or seeds.This is why some biologists classify thallophytes as protists.Thallophytes live in moist or water environments. Many contain chloroplasts for photosynthesis.Let’s review what you know about thallophytes.
73 Review These are the characteristics of thallophytes: Have reproductive structures.Are mainly aquatic plants.Consist of either a single cell, colonies or filaments.Contain no true roots, stems or leaves.Do not produce flowers or seeds.Can contain chloroplasts for photosynthesis.
74 Select The Letter Of The Correct Answer From The List Below: A. food D. rootsB. land E. fungiC. algae F. waterThallophytes include organisms called _______________.The most common environment for thallophytes is ______________.Algae make their ______________ by the process of photosynthesis.Thallophytes do not contain true stems, leaves or ______________.
75 Answers: algae water food roots Thallophytes include organisms called _______________.The most common environment for thallophytes is ______________.Algae make their ______________ by the process of photosynthesis.Thallophytes do not contain true stems, leaves, or ____________.waterfoodroots
76 Information Most land plants are embryophytes. Embryophytes are multicellular and are more complex than thallophytes.These are the two phyla in the embryophytes:Bryophytes (lack vascular, or water conducting tissue called xylem and phloem).Tracheophytes (have xylem and phloem).Let’s examine the two embryophyte phyla.
77 Phylum – BryophytesBryophytes include mosses and liverworts. These are the simplest land plants.Mosses and liverworts do not contain true leaves, true stems or true roots.These are the characteristics of bryophytes:The simplest land plants.Do not contain true toots, leaves or stems.Produce embryos.Do not contain vascular tissue (phloem or xylem).
78 Phylum – Tracheophytes Ferns are a class of tracheophytes. They are more complex plants than bryophytes.Let’s study the characteristics of ferns and other complex plants.
79 Alternation of Generations Ferns reproduce by alternation of generations.Ferns (sporophytes) produce spores that germinate into gametophytes.Gametophytes produce embryos that grow into ferns.One generation is very different from another.Reproduction takes place to produce the alternate generations.Let’s look at the characteristics of ferns and other complex plants.
80 Phylum – Tracheophytes These are the characteristics of tracheophytes:Contain vascular plants with true phloem and xylem (water conducting system).Contain roots, leaves and stems.Have a wide range of habitats.
81 InformationOne subphylum of tracheophytes is pteropsida, land plants that contain conspicuous leaves, true roots and conducting tissue.Three classes, ferns (Filicineae), gymnosperms and angiosperms (flowering plants), divide the subphylum pteropsida.Let’s examine the two classes of pteropsida that you have not yet studied in this PowerPoint.
82 Class – GymnospermsGymnosperms include conifers and other cone-bearing trees and shrubs. They have exposed seeds.Some plants in this class are pines, cedars, spruces and yews.
83 Class – AngiospermsAngiosperms are plants with seeds hidden in a fruit.They also are called the flowering plants.Seeds and fruits are to angiosperms as seeds and cones are to gymnosperms.
84 Select The Letter Of The Correct Answer From The List Below: A. seeds D. pinesB. ferns E. conesC. flowering F. fruitThe seeds of gymnosperms are carried exposed in containers called _________________.The seeds of angiosperms usually are hidden in a __________________.Another name for the angiosperms is ___________________ plants.Conifers include the __________________ that have exposed seeds.
85 Answers: cones fruit flowering pines The seeds of gymnosperms are carried exposed in containers called _________________.The seeds of angiosperms usually are hidden in a __________________.Another name for the angiosperms is ___________________ plants.Conifers include the __________________ that have exposed seeds.conesfruitfloweringpines
86 Monocots vs. DicotsAngiosperms are divided into two subclasses, dicotyledons (dicots) and monocotyledons (monocots).These are typical examples of monocots and dicots.Dicots include most trees, such as oak or maple, as well as most shrubs and vegetables.Most pond and streamside plants, such as cattails, and all grasses, such as wheat and corn, are monocots.
87 Dicotyledon SeedA lima bean is a dicot seed. It consists of two cotyledons.A cotyledon is a seed part that supplies food to the developing embryo.A corn kernel is a monocot seed. Most of a corn seed consists of a single cotyledon.Let’s compare the characteristics of dicot and monocot plants.
88 Monocot vs. DicotCompare the veins (venation) in monocot and dicot leaves.Monocot veins run parallel to each other, as in bellwort leaves.Dicots, such as an elm tree, have net-veined leaves.
89 Monocots vs. Dicots Let’s compare the stems of dicots and monocots. The position of the phloem and xylem tissues is different in the stems of monocots and dicots.In all dicots, the xylem is inside the cambium layer, and the phloem is outside.There is no cambium in monocots; there are scattered bundles of phloem and xylem.
90 Summary Dicots Monocots Two cotyledons. One cotyledon. Let’s summarize the similarities and differences between monocots and dicots.DicotsMonocotsTwo cotyledons.One cotyledon.Veins of leaves form a network.Veins of leaves are parallel.Vascular stem bundles form a radial pattern.Vascular stem bundles are scattered.
91 ReviewTwo traditional plant subgroups are thallophytes and embryophytes.Thallophytes, which include most algae, usually live in water.Embryophytes are mainly multicellular land plants.The two phyla of embryophytes are bryophytes (mosses and liverworts) and tracheophytes (ferns and other common plants).The three classes of tracheophytes (vascular plants) are the ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms.Pines and other evergreen conifers are cone-bearing gymnosperms.Flowering plants are angiosperms.The two subclasses of angiosperms are dicotyledons (dicots) and monocotyledons (monocots).Dicots include trees, such as oak, maple and fruit trees.Monocots (one cotyledon), such as corn, wheat, rye and oats, are a major source of food for humans.
92 Quiz: Fill In The Blanks… algaeMany biologists used to classify ____________ as thallophytes (mostly aquatic, nonvascular plants). Ferns and other common land plants belong to the tracheophyte ___________ of plants. Most common plants consist of the cone-bearing gymnosperms and the seed-producing angiosperms (plants that have __________). Dicots include common trees, such as oak, maple and fruit trees. The __________, such as corn, wheat and rice are the major source of food for humans.phylumflowersmonocots
94 ClassificationBiologists use physical characteristics to sort animals.Each sorting or grouping of organisms produces a new level of classification called a taxon.As the taxons become smaller, the characteristics of the organisms become more similar.Many biologists divide the animal kingdom into nine phyla.Let’s see how biologists classify animals into one of the nine phyla that make up the animal kingdom.
95 InformationBiologists use a series of questions called the dichotomous key to classify organisms.Dichotomous means separating into two parts. It describes the kind of choices you make when using the key.
96 ReviewBiologists use physical characteristics to sort organisms into taxons (levels of classification).Kingdom, phylum, subphylum, class and subclass, as well as other subgroupings, are taxons.As the taxons become smaller, the characteristics of the organisms become more similar.Biologists use a series of questions called the dichotomous key to classify organisms.Dichotomous means separating into two parts. It describes the kind of choices you make when using the key.
97 Quiz: Fill In The Blanks… When an organism is classified, biologists observe its physical characteristics to assign various ___________ (levels of classification). As the levels become ______________ in size, the characteristics of the organisms become more similar. A series of questions, called a(n) _____________ key, is used to do the classification. When using the key, two ____________ are given to answer each question.taxonssmallerdichotomouschoices
98 Testing Your Knowledge Section FiveTesting Your Knowledge
99 This Is A Test of What You Have Learned… There are 10 questions on this test.Try to correctly answer all of the questions.If you miss a question, watch the screen for an explanation of the correct answer.
100 Select The Best Matching Choice: Kingdom:Answer Column:Binomial nomenclatureSmallest taxonOak and maple treesAlgaeOne cotyledonCone-bearingSeeds in fruitLargest taxonCorrect Answer: HA kingdom is the largest taxon into which an organism can be classified.Linnaeus:Correct Answer: ALinnaeus was the Swedish biologist who developed a system of classification and binomial nomenclature.
101 Select The Best Matching Choice: Monocot:Answer Column:Binomial nomenclatureSmallest taxonOak and maple treesAlgaeOne cotyledonCone-bearingSeeds in fruitLargest taxonCorrect Answer: EA monocot is a flowering plant that contains a seed with one cotyledon.Gymnosperm:Correct Answer: FA gymnosperm is a cone-bearing conifer plant that contains exposed seeds.
102 Select The Best Choice To Complete Each Analogy: Flowering plants are to tracheophytes as humans are to _______________.A. arthropodsB. mollusksC. echinodermsD. chordatesE. coelenterateschordatesSince flowering plants are part of the tracheophyte phylum, the best analogy is chordates, the phylum to which humans belong.
103 Select The Best Choice To Complete Each Analogy: phylumA genus is to a family as a _____________ is to a kingdom.A. speciesB. phylumC. classD. orderE. subphylumSince a family is made of more than one genus, the best analogy is phylum, which is a component of a kingdom.
104 Fill In The Blanks… taxonomy taxons plant subphylum The system of classifying organisms into different groups is called ____________. When classifying organisms, as the _____________ (categories) become smaller, the characteristics of organisms become more similar. Most biologists classify organisms into several kingdoms. Members of the ____________ kingdom often contain chlorophyll and cellulose and make their own food. An animal with a backbone belongs to the vertebrate ______________.taxonomytaxonsplantsubphylum
105 ~Classification & Organization~ Biology BasicsReview!You Have Completed...Taxonomy~Classification & Organization~