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TBL Conference – 1 June 2007 1 To adopt or not adopt TBL: a diffusion of innovation perspective Mark Freeman & Susan McGrath-Champ.

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Presentation on theme: "TBL Conference – 1 June 2007 1 To adopt or not adopt TBL: a diffusion of innovation perspective Mark Freeman & Susan McGrath-Champ."— Presentation transcript:

1 TBL Conference – 1 June 2007 1 To adopt or not adopt TBL: a diffusion of innovation perspective Mark Freeman & Susan McGrath-Champ

2 2 Adopt or not?

3 3 Research aims and motivation Aim –To better understand the TBL adoption decision Motivation –Little research on teachers (+ others) experiences –Little research grounded in (innovation) theory –Useful for potential adopters, developers & mgrs

4 4 Adopt which bits?

5 5 Context Australia National research performance exercise National teaching performance fund University On-campus, research-intensive, Sandstone 47,000 commuter students School (Faculty) Economics and Business 10,000 students (30% international) 300 teachers in 11 comprehensive disciplines Research required and teaching freedom Transformation since 1999 Embedded L&T support staff TBL trial 2006-7

6 6 Research literature Innovation in higher education –Typically student experience/tool/method –Teacher experience often peripheral –Nearby peer (Bennett, 01) in tribe (Beecher 91) –Other stakeholders (Bell & Bell, 05) TBL –Approach (Michaelsen et al, 02) –Students enjoyment, engagement, skills, achievement (Levine et al, 04) –11 medical teachers in 10 schools (Thompson et al; 07)

7 7 The Chasm

8 8 Diffusion of innovation research Individual factors (eg. Rogers 95,03) –Relative advantage –Cultural compatibility –Trialability –Visibility –Complexity Non individual factors (Frambach et al, 02) –Internal –External

9 9 Research method Staff interviews –5 with adopting teachers 1 dropped and 1 repeat Accounting, HR, Ethics –4 adoption supporters (TA, Tech, Dev, AMgr) –Questions Demographics and context Model used (Assessment weight? # Quests & quizzes? Appeals? Problems? Peer assessment?) 7 open-ended adoption factors –Transcribed –Categorised by factor Student perceptions survey and comparison on marks

10 10 Relative advantage Adopter + Quality of learning + Student experience + Love instant feedback + Increase interaction + Fun factor + Job satisfaction + Long term time benefit - Initial cost (if not supported) - Writing suitable Q - Right teaching space hard Supporters + Active learning strategy (AMgr) + Less time/$ on marking (TA) + The whole TBL model (TA) - Admin work on quiz & data (TA) - Technical skill of adopter (Tec) - Risk of failure (AMgr) - Might rethink teaching (AMgr)

11 11 Cultural compatibility Adopters + Paradigm shift to teaching + Free to choose teaching style + UG students naturally disposed + Confident teachers fine - Few peers interested - Relinquish control of class - PG students less comfortable Supporters + Fits role of Office of L&T (Tech) + Disrupts dominant telling paradigm (Dev) + Fits disciplines trialled (AMgr) + Fits actual adopters (AMgr) - Research vs teaching (AMgr)

12 12 Complexity Adopters + Process straightforward + Depends on attitude - Need to see to believe - Requires support Supporters +Technical staff (Mgr/Dev) - Varies by % TBL used (AMgr) - Might rethink teaching (AMgr) - Technical skill matters (Tec) - Harder larger class (AMgr)

13 13 Visibility Adopters + Evident in team quiz results + Only if observed in action + Students can spread word too - Inadequate promotion eg. web Supporters + Seeing demystifies (Dev) + Hearing peer teaching hum is persuasive (AMgr) + Research & conference papers visible (AMgr)

14 14 Trialability Adopters + Can break into bits - Need all bits to be truly effective Supporters + Technical support necessary (Tec/Mgr) + If interactive Q already used eg. Clickers (AMgr) - Take a few cycles to refine and get ROI (Dev) - Big bother for adopting all bits once-off (AMgr)

15 15 Internal organisation Adopters + Extra TA resource + Enthusiasm & evidence of developer + L&T leadership + L&T support - Inflexibility marking support policy Supporters + A budget meant quick responses possible (Tec) + sense of something (TA) + Strategic positioning under new dean (AMgr) - Education of adopters (Tec)

16 16 External environment Adopters + Responsive equipment supplier + Question banks - Corrupt publisher question bank - Prior TBL experience Supporters + Evidence success elsewhere (AMgr) + Increased rankings pressure (AMgr)

17 17 Themes Attributes of sample teachers All student-centred & confident teachers (Thompson, p.254; 2007) All value teaching personally and/or in peer tribe All prepared to take some risks Still face challenges Threshold factors vary and dissipate over time (Thompson, p.253; 2007) Variation apparent with early adopter/mainstream Chasm Course redesign even if pro-interaction and have some Q developed Support stakeholders & context matter lots Other teachers Not recalcitrant (Newton, p.423; 03) Just burned, busy, besotted with main reward game

18 18 Sustainability 1. Develop local support systems Appeal to mainstream not early adopter (Anderson et al 98) Online FAQs and templates Online case studies (with video; honest cost/benefits list) Encourage incremental adoption Central equipment supply & maintenance Central JIT development support (both technical & pedagogical) 2. Align local policies Build and allocate appropriate teaching spaces Reward innovation not just teaching quality Reward evaluation and pedagogical research (Anderson et al 98) Grant provisions include collaboration & evaluation report

19 19 Sustainability 3. Facilitate communities of practice Provide internal opportunities for sharing TBLers Innovators Disciplinary tribe eg. through research seminars Practice needs to survive champion

20 20 Conclusion Case studies of adopter experience important & vary High impact of formal & informal support structures High impact of stakeholders conception of teaching Limitations overcome with future research Ground in other models of diffusion Bigger, multiple site, unbiased sample Quantitative Look for impact of different % of TBL adoption and consider adopters either side of chasm Current

21 21 Thank you …. Q&A

22 22 Add results: Student perceptions survey OverallAgreeDisagree Recommend TBL next year80%7% Recommend TBL to other units65%13% More effective learning than other units48%19%

23 23 Add results: Student perceptions survey Components of TBLAgreeDisagree Regular testing helped progressive learning81%7% In-class IRAT encouraged preparation99%1% IRAT ensures all contribute to team94%1% Prefer do both IRAT and TRAT (not one)78%6% Prefer IRAT not assessable14%60% Prefer TRAT not assessable7%72%

24 24 Add results : Student perceptions survey Benefits of double testing (IRAT + TRAT)Agree Increased understanding of concepts65% Increased my critical thinking about international HRM51% Helped me learn new ways to approach questions57% Improved my marks52% Other (negotiate, communicate, active)17%

25 25 Add results : Student perceptions survey Challenges of double testing (IRAT + TRAT)Agree None experienced38% Discussion of the team quiz answers29% Uneven preparation by team members26% Other (talking between teams; teachers job to teach; insufficient time) 17%

26 26 Add results : Student perceptions survey Components of TBLAgreeDisagree Team RAT developed team skills80%7% Team RAT helped me learn67%9% Team problems helped apply quiz learning80%6% Discussion after TRAT ensures good learn79%9% Team problems too simple to be helpful20%63%

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