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TEAM-BASED LEARNING: What Makes It: DISTINCTIVE? SO IMPORTANT? Presentation by: L. Dee Fink, Ph.D. National Consultant in Higher Education Author: Creating.

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Presentation on theme: "TEAM-BASED LEARNING: What Makes It: DISTINCTIVE? SO IMPORTANT? Presentation by: L. Dee Fink, Ph.D. National Consultant in Higher Education Author: Creating."— Presentation transcript:

1 TEAM-BASED LEARNING: What Makes It: DISTINCTIVE? SO IMPORTANT? Presentation by: L. Dee Fink, Ph.D. National Consultant in Higher Education Author: Creating Significant Learning Experiences Team-Based Learning Conference Vancouver, British Columbia May 31 – June 1, 2007

2 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important I.Introductory Comments II.TBL: What Makes It DISTINCTIVE? III.TBL: What Makes It SO IMPORTANT? IV.Wrap-Up

3 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important I. Introductory Comments Medical & Health Professions Education: Very Important Some serious cost/quality issues Very costly Uneven/low quality

4 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important American Health Care : Cost: The US spends more than double the median of OECD countries. US = $4,178 per capita/year Next highest? Switzerland: $2,794 Canada: $2,312 Median: $1,783 Source: Health Affairs, Vol 20, No. 3 (May-June 2001), pp

5 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important American Health Care : Cost Quality: US ranks 12 th out of 13 developed countries (on 16 health indicators) Canada: Ranks 3 rd highest Source: Is US Health Care Really the Best?, JAMA, 26 July 2000, pp

6 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important American Health Care : Quality (cont): C. Cause of Health Problems: Peoples life style? Or medical care? 225,000 deaths per year from iatrogenic causes Unnecessary surgery Nosocomial infections in hospitals Other errors in hospitals Medication errors in hospitals Non-error, adverse effects of medications Source: Is US Health Care Really the Best?, JAMA, 26 July 2000, pp

7 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important American Health Care: One Major Cause of the Problem? Health Care Providers dont know how to work together! Source: The State of the Nations Health, Dartmouth Medicine, Spring 2007, pp

8 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important I. Introductory Comments Higher Education in General: Very Important Some serious cost/quality issues Very costly Uneven/low quality

9 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important Tertiary education [i.e., higher education] is more critical, the flatter the world gets. -Thomas Friedman, The World is Flat (p. 289) [The new world economy] is highly knowledge- intensive – so you must be good at constantly learning. If you stand still, you fall back. -J.F. Rischard, High Noon (p. 30)

10 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important Evidence That Students Are NOT Having Significant Learning Experiences : Employers Derek Bok: Our Underachieving Colleges

11 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important Derek Bok: Learning to communicate Learning to think Building character Preparation for citizenship Living with diversity Preparing for a global society Acquiring broader interests Preparing for a career from: Our Underachieving Colleges: A Candid Look at How Much Students Learn and Why They Should Be Learning More (2006)

12 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important Derek Bok: …lack of any overarching purpose in the undergraduate curriculum. …allowing intellectual standards to deteriorate. …colleges and universities…accomplish far less for their students than they should. from: Our Underachieving Colleges: A Candid Look at How Much Students Learn and Why They Should Be Learning More (2006)

13 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important I.Introductory Comments II.TBL: What Makes It Distinctive? III.TBL: What Makes It So Important? IV.Wrap-Up

14 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important II. TBL: What Makes It Distinctive? A. From: Traditional Ways of Teaching

15 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important HOW DO PEOPLE LEARN? 1.Transmit Knowledge?

16 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important Transmission Of Knowledge

17 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important HOW DO PEOPLE LEARN? 1.Transmit Knowledge? 2.Constructivism

18 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important Constructivist View of Learning We can transmit INFORMATION. But people have to take that information and CONSTRUCT their own understanding of it, and figure out what they can do with it.

19 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important HOW DO PEOPLE LEARN? 1.Transmit Knowledge? 2.Constructivism 3.Social Constructivism

20 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important Social Constructivism: We can construct our understanding of anything by ourselves, but... it usually works much better to collaborate and dialogue with others about how best to understand a topic – and know what we can do with that understanding.

21 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important II. TBL: What Makes It Distinctive? A. From: Traditional Ways of Teaching B. From: Other Ways of Using Small Groups

22 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important Covering a 2-3 Week Block of Time Covering One Major Topic Within the Course Three Phases of Team Learning: R.A.P.: 1. Individual test(Continue 2. Team test Group Work pattern as long In-Class : 3. Appeals (Simple)(Complex)as desired) 4. Corrective Instruction Out-of-Class : ReadingHomework Review Approximate Level of Content Understanding at Each Phase: Assessment The Sequence of Learning Activities in Team-Based Learning Preparation Activities : Application (Practice with Feedback) 40% %50%60%70%80% )))))) CULMINATING PROJECT EXAM: Individual or Group

23 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important TBL: What It Isnt Weekly RATs all semester long Just a Group RAT Graded group work without Peer Evaluation Permanent, intentionally-formed groups Individual & Group RAT = In-Class, SG Application Exercises Graded Group Assignments Peer Evaluation

24 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important Covering a 2-3 Week Block of Time Covering One Major Topic Within the Course Three Phases of Team Learning: R.A.P.: 1. Individual test(Continue 2. Team test Group Work pattern as long In-Class : 3. Appeals (Simple)(Complex)as desired) 4. Corrective Instruction Out-of-Class : ReadingHomework Review Approximate Level of Content Understanding at Each Phase: Assessment The Sequence of Learning Activities in Team-Based Learning Preparation Activities : Application (Practice with Feedback) 40% %50%60%70%80% )))))) CULMINATING PROJECT EXAM: Individual or Group

25 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important Quality of Student Learning Traditional Teaching (lecture, textbook focused)

26 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important Quality of Student Learning Traditional Teaching (lecture, textbook focused) Casual Use Different Ways of Using Small Groups

27 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important 3 General Ways of Using Small Groups: 1.Casual Turn to your neighbor and discuss X. Easy to do, but limited impact

28 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important Quality of Student Learning Traditional Teaching (lecture, textbook focused) Casual Use Cooperative Learning Different Ways of Using Small Groups

29 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important 3 General Ways of Using Small Groups: 1.Casual 2.Cooperative Insert a carefully-designed group activity More impact than Casual but overall course structure is still unchanged

30 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important Quality of Student Learning Traditional Teaching (lecture, textbook focused) Casual Use Cooperative Learning Team-Based Learning Different Ways of Using Small Groups

31 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important 3 General Ways of Using Small Groups: 1.Casual 2.Cooperative 3.Different Course Structure Changes the structure of the course Much bigger impact on student learning Two major examples: PBL: Good – but doesnt scale up TBL: Good – and does scale up

32 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important I.Introductory Comments II.TBL: What Makes It Distinctive? III.TBL: What Makes It SO IMPORTANT? IV.Wrap-Up

33 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important III. TBL: What Makes It So Important? A.Special Challenges in Medical/Health Professions Education

34 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important 4 Special Challenges in Medical/Health Professions Education: 1.Lots of information to acquire 2.Must learn how to apply & use that information 3.Need good People Skills 4.Often takes place in large classes

35 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important III. TBL: What Makes It So Important? A.Special Challenges in Medical/Health Professions Education B.Reflection of Principles of Integrated Course Design

36 S i t u a t i o n a l F a c t o r s INTERACTIVE COURSE DESIGN: Key Components Learning Goals Feedback & Assessment Teaching & Learning Activities

37 Criteria of GOOD Course Design S I T U A T I O N A L F A C T O R S In-Depth Situational Analysis Learning Goals Significant Learning Educative Assessment Active Learning Teaching Strategy Feedback & Assessment Teaching and Learning Activities

38 Criteria of GOOD Course Design S I T U A T I O N A L F A C T O R S In-Depth Situational Analysis Learning Goals Significant Learning Educative Assessment Active Learning Teaching Strategy Feedback & Assessment Teaching and Learning Activities

39 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important 1. Situational Factors: Collecting information about… Specific Context General Context Nature of the Subject Nature of Students Nature of Teacher

40 Criteria of GOOD Course Design S I T U A T I O N A L F A C T O R S In-Depth Situational Analysis Learning Goals Significant Learning Educative Assessment Active Learning Teaching Strategy Feedback & Assessment Teaching and Learning Activities

41 Taxonomy of Significant Learning

42 Caring Developing new… Feelings Interests Values Learning How to Learn Becoming a better student Inquiring about a subject Self-directing learners Human Dimensions Learning about: Oneself Others Integration Connecting: Ideas People Realms of life Foundational Knowledge Understanding and remembering: Information Ideas Application Skills Thinking: Critical, Creative, & Practical Managing projects

43 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important In a course with significant learning, students will: 1.Understand and remember the key concepts, terms, relationship, etc. 2.Know how to use the content. 3.Be able to relate this subject to other subjects. 4.Understand the personal and social implications of knowing about this subject. 5.Value this subject and further learning about it. 6.Know how to keep on learning about this subject, after the course is over.

44 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important 1. Foundational Knowledge Ensure students mastery of course subject matter. 2. Application Develop students ability to use course concepts in thinking & problem solving. 3. Integration (Probably there) 4. Human Dimension Enhance students interpersonal and team interaction skills. 5. Caring Enjoy the course. 6. Learning How to Learn Prepare students to be lifelong learners. Significant Learning: Larrys Course Goals:

45 Criteria of GOOD Course Design S I T U A T I O N A L F A C T O R S In-Depth Situational Analysis Learning Goals Significant Learning Educative Assessment Active Learning Teaching Strategy Feedback & Assessment Teaching and Learning Activities

46 Holistic Active Learning Experience Doing, Observing Actual, Simulated Rich Learning Experiences Information & Ideas Primary/Secondary In-class, out-of-class, online Reflection About the… Subject Learning Process Via: Journaling, Learning Portfolios

47 Multiple Activities that Promote ACTIVE LEARNING Lectures, textbooks Case studies Gaming, Simulations Role play Stories (can be accessed via: film, literature, oral history) ONLINE Course website Internet Teacher can assign students to "directly experience" … Students can engage in "indirect" kinds of experience online Students can reflect, and then engage in various kinds of dialogue online.

48 Criteria of GOOD Course Design S I T U A T I O N A L F A C T O R S In-Depth Situational Analysis Learning Goals Significant Learning Educative Assessment Active Learning Teaching Strategy Feedback & Assessment Teaching and Learning Activities

49 Feedback and Assessment:EDUCATIVE ASSESSMENT Forward-Looking Assessment FIDeLity Feedback Criteria and Standards Self-Assessment

50 Feedback and Assessment:EDUCATIVE ASSESSMENT Forward-Looking Assessment Task Criteria and Standards Self-Assessment Feedback

51 Criteria of GOOD Course Design S I T U A T I O N A L F A C T O R S In-Depth Situational Analysis Learning Goals Significant Learning Educative Assessment Active Learning Teaching Strategy Feedback & Assessment Teaching and Learning Activities

52 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important TEACHING STRATEGY: A particular COMBINATION of learning activities… arranged in a particular SEQUENCE Two Examples: Problem-based learning Team-based learning

53 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important Mon Wed Fri In-Class Activities: ??Assessmt & Feedback Out-of- Class Activities: ?? CASTLE-TOP DIAGRAM: A Tool for Identifying Your TEACHING STRATEGY

54 TEACHING STRATEGIES QUESTION: This strategy creates a high likelihood that most students will… 1.Be exposed to the content. 2.Understand the content. 3.Be able to use the content. 4.Value the content.

55 TEACHING STRATEGIES QUESTION: This strategy creates a high likelihood that most students will… 1.Be exposed to the content. 2.Understand the content. 3.Be able to use the content. 4.Value the content.

56 S i t u a t i o n a l F a c t o r s INTERACTIVE COURSE DESIGN: Key Components Learning Goals Feedback & Assessment Teaching & Learning Activities

57 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important KEY TASKS When DESIGNING A COURSE: 1.Collect good information about the SITUATIONAL FACTORS 2.Identify SIGNIFICANT LEARNING GOALS 3.Use ACTIVE LEARNING in the classroom 4.Use multiple kinds of EDUCATIVE ASSESSMENT 5.Formulate a powerful TEACHING STRATEGY

58 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important The VALUE of TBL: 1.Meets the 4 Challenges of Med./Health Education Acquire lots of information Learn how to use that information Good People skills Large classes

59 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important The VALUE of TBL: 1.Meets the 4 Challenges of Med./Health Education. 2.Uses Principles of Good Course Design High quality LEARNING GOALS Full use of 3 components of ACTIVE LEARNING Good ASSESSMENT & FEEDBACK Powerful TEACHING STRATEGY

60 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important I.Introductory Comments II.TBL: What Makes It Distinctive? III.TBL: What Makes It So Important? IV.Wrap-Up

61 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important IV.WRAP-UP: Four Take Away Ideas 1.Our Role as Professional Educators: Very important – Needs to improve 2.How We Teach/How People Learn: Social Constructivism 3.TBL: Distinctive Most powerful and most flexible way of using small groups 4.TBL: Important The 4 special challenges of M/HP Education Reflects all the principles of good course design

62 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important IV.WRAP-UP: Student Reaction Comments from a student in a course using TBL Course: Preparing for College-Level Teaching – for graduate students in Engineering and the Sciences

63 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important 1. NEED An engineering professional is almost always a part of a team. Engineering projects of any significant size are simply too much work or too much responsibility for one person to handle.

64 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important 1. NEED 2. RESULTS [Students] learn the material better, which is the obvious reason for using TBL. But there are so many other positives that emerge from the process, namely: social, writing, speaking, presenting and thinking skills all get improved during TBL. Students can learn more about scheduling, time management, working with difficult people, and organizing collective work through TBL.

65 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important 1. NEED 2. RESULTS 3. IMPLICATIONS Without at least some TBL in their curriculum, they are significantly under- prepared for what is waiting for them in industry.

66 Team-Based Learning: Distinctive - Important THE END! Higher Education: Lets make it all that it can be and needs to be!


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