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Stefanie Kaiser, seecon international gmbh

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1 Stefanie Kaiser, seecon international gmbh
11/02/12 Water Corruption Stefanie Kaiser, seecon international gmbh 1

2 Copy it, adapt it, use it – but acknowledge the source!
Copyright & Disclaimer Copy it, adapt it, use it – but acknowledge the source! Copyright Included in the SSWM Toolbox are materials from various organisations and sources. Those materials are open source. Following the open- source concept for capacity building and non-profit use, copying and adapting is allowed provided proper acknowledgement of the source is made (see below). The publication of these materials in the SSWM Toolbox does not alter any existing copyrights. Material published in the SSWM Toolbox for the first time follows the same open-source concept, with all rights remaining with the original authors or producing organisations. To view an official copy of the Creative Commons Attribution Works 3.0 Unported License we build upon, visit This agreement officially states that: You are free to: Share - to copy, distribute and transmit this document   Remix - to adapt this document. We would appreciate receiving a copy of any changes that you have made to improve this document. Under the following conditions: Attribution: You must always give the original authors or publishing agencies credit for the document or picture you are using. Disclaimer The contents of the SSWM Toolbox reflect the opinions of the respective authors and not necessarily the official opinion of the funding or supporting partner organisations. Depending on the initial situations and respective local circumstances, there is no guarantee that single measures described in the toolbox will make the local water and sanitation system more sustainable. The main aim of the SSWM Toolbox is to be a reference tool to provide ideas for improving the local water and sanitation situation in a sustainable manner. Results depend largely on the respective situation and the implementation and combination of the measures described. An in-depth analysis of respective advantages and disadvantages and the suitability of the measure is necessary in every single case. We do not assume any responsibility for and make no warranty with respect to the results that may be obtained from the use of the information provided.

3 3. Water & Corruption: A Destructive Partnership
11/02/12 Contents 1. Introduction 2. What is Corruption? 3. Water & Corruption: A Destructive Partnership 4. Who Is Involved in Water Corruption? 5. Anti-Corruption: Training Manual on Water Integrity 6. References 3

4 Corruption??? 1. Introduction
11/02/12 1. Introduction Why is Corruption in the Water Sector an Issue? Corruption??? Worldwide, more than 1.1 billion people live with inadequate access to safe drinking water and more than 2.6 billion people lack access to improved sanitation (WHO and UNICEF 2010). Water corruption is a cause and catalyst for the water crisis. Water corruption is a cause and catalyst for the water crisis. Source: UNDP (2011) 4

5 1. Introduction Why is Water Corruption an Issue?
11/02/12 1. Introduction Why is Water Corruption an Issue? Water corruption affects all aspects and many stakeholders of the water sector: TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL (2008) Water resources management Irrigation Hydropower Drinking water Sanitation services Affects all aspects (and many stakeholders) of the water sector: In water resources management (WRM) the central driver for corruption is the strong influence of powerful elites over the state. Usually, this is an area where large economic interests are at play in sectors such as mining, tourism, forestry, industry, water services, and environment. In the drinking water and sanitation services (WSS), key drivers include monopolistic structures and large capital investments on infrastructure. In other words, the amount of money required for water services provision is so large that the „spaces“ for corruption are large. Irrigation in agriculture is another sub-sector that is vulnerable to corrupted practices. The interests surrounding food production are immense, and water is an essential input for crops to yield. Irrigation usually takes place in projects spread throughout multiple farmers and companies, which can make it difficult to monitor. Furthermore, irrigation projects require expertise for their maintenance. Irrigation also has weak regulatory frameworks, thus generating excessive withdrawals for the powerful. Hydropower, or the generation of electricity from the use of water through turbines, is another sub-sector with large opportunities for corruption. This corruption most often stems from large investments and highly complex engineering projects. WATER GOVERNANCE FACILITY (n.y.) 5

6 11/02/12 2. What is Corruption? --> Source: QUINO (n.y.) 6

7 11/02/12 2. What is Corruption? Source: QUINO (n.y.) 7 7

8 2. What is Corruption? Many definitions of corruption.
11/02/12 2. What is Corruption? Many definitions of corruption. Misuse of office (private, public, or non-profit institution) for personal gain. e.g. charging an illicit price for a service or using the power of office to further illicit aims Source: RODRIGO (2009) “Corruption is the abuse of entrusted power for private gain”. TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL (2009) 8

9 2. What is Corruption? Definition
11/02/12 2. What is Corruption? Definition Corruption = Monopoly + Discretion - Accountability KLITGAART (1988) Corruption can entail acts of: Omission or commission Legal or illegal activities Internally in the organisation (e.g. embezzlement) or externally (e.g. extortion) Corruption leads to inefficiency, injustice and inequity. This equation is very useful and relevant for understanding the problems posed for the water sector, as it highlights the aggregate effect of monopoly and discretionary power, which are common in water institutions (PLUMMER 2008). Adapted from KLITGAART et al. (1996) 9 9

10 3. Water and Corruption: A Destructive Partnership
11/02/12 3. Water and Corruption: A Destructive Partnership Water crisis Water corruption catalyses the worldwide water sector crisis: Removes investment Diverts finance from the maintenance of infrastructure Charges escalated costs and bribes for drinking water from the poor. Discourages the society in believing in a well functioning water sector. Adapted from PLUMMER (2008) cause catalyst Source: water.jpg [Accessed: ] Water corruption Water corruption catalyses the worldwide water sector crisis – it is corruption in resources and services vital for life and development. Each year, millions of people die of waterborne diseases because access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation has not been prioritised. “Corrupt practices exacerbate these gaps, removing investment that might be used to extend services to the poor, diverting finance from the maintenance of deteriorating infrastructure and taking cash from the pockets of the poor to pay escalated costs and bribes for drinking water” (PLUMMER 2008). 10

11 3. Water and Corruption: A Destructive Partnership
11/02/12 3. Water and Corruption: A Destructive Partnership Water crisis cause catalyst Source: water.jpg [Accessed: ] Water corruption Water crisis is a crisis of governance: At the heart of all these failures is the crisis of governance in water – a crisis in the use of power and authority over water and how countries manage their water affairs: Institutional dysfunction (see also building an institutional framework), poor financial management and low accountability show that many governments are not able to respond to the crisis, and weak capacity and limited awareness leave citizens and non-governmental organisations in many countries unable to demand change. Misuse of power & authority Institutional dysfunction Poor financial management PLUMMER (2000); WIN (2011) Low accountability Low transparency Low participation 11

12 The Impact of Corrupt Practices Can Also Be Environmental
11/02/12 3. Water and Corruption: A Destructive Partnership The Impact of Corrupt Practices Can Also Be Environmental Increased pollution Depleted groundwater Increased salinity Increased deforestation and desertification PLUMMER (2008) 12

13 4. Who is Involved in Water Corruption?
11/02/12 4. Who is Involved in Water Corruption? It’s not only the politicians! Corrupt politicians. Source: UNKNOWN (n.y.) It includes a wide range of stakeholders: International actors (donor representatives and companies) Construction companies Consultancy firms and suppliers Large and small operators A range of middlemen Consumers Civil Society Organisations National/ regional/ local politicians Civil servants and utility staff Enforcement Bodies Adapted from PLUMMER & CROSS (2006) Corrupt activities between these stakeholders occur at a range of institutional levels, with different stakeholders often involved in one or more types of corruption. 13

14 How to Fight Against Water Corruption? An Overview
11/02/12 5. Anti-Corruption: Training Manual on Water Integrity .. How to Fight Against Water Corruption? An Overview Identifying corruption risks Anti-corruption laws and institutions Improve transparency and access to information Strengthening accountability WATER GOVERNANCE FACILITY et al. (n.y.) The fight against water corruption is crucial for development in the water and sanitation sector. 14

15 Identifying Corruption Risks
11/02/12 5. Anti-Corruption: Training Manual on Water Integrity Identifying Corruption Risks The water sector needs to be better informed on corruption risks: By assessing potential corruption risks. Link identified corruption risks to actions against corruption. WATER GOVERNANCE FACILITY et al. (n.y.) 15 15

16 Anti-Corruption Laws and Institutions
11/02/12 5. Anti-Corruption: Training Manual on Water Integrity Anti-Corruption Laws and Institutions Anti-corruption laws, i.e. legal definitions of criminal offences, authorities which investigate infractions and enforce laws when they are violated. International conventions as advocacy tools (e.g. UN Convention Against Corruption) Institutional reforms (e.g. decentralisation, stakeholder participation, private sector participation, a new goal for the organisation) Strengthening accountability through anti-corruption agencies, ombudsmen, public auditors, judiciaries, the media and NGOs WATER GOVERNANCE FACILITY et al. (n.y.) Traditionally, corruption is perceived as a problem of the public sector, and that its solution therefore requires a specialised agency or public body with enough powers to confront other public bodies. In order for this approach to work, laws need to be promulgated to create these agencies and to outlaw corrupt practices. 16 16

17 Tools to Improve Transparency and Access to Information
11/02/12 5. Anti-Corruption: Training Manual on Water Integrity Tools to Improve Transparency and Access to Information Public meetings with stakeholders and citizens (including a facilitator, e.g. a NGO) “Access-to-information”-laws Community participation methodologies (e.g. participatory appraisal, community mapping) Raising citizens’ voice by cooperation with local action groups. Participatory budgeting Complaints and ombudsman’s offices Monitored procurement Promoting access to information is a key tool for strengthening transparency. WATER GOVERNANCE FACILITY et al. (n.y.) 17 17

18 Some Simple Actions to Improve Water Integrity
11/02/12 5. Anti-Corruption: Training Manual on Water Integrity Some Simple Actions to Improve Water Integrity Keep technologies and designs as simple, practical and relevant as possible. Plan water service with the community, involving leaders, rich and poor, men as well as women. Simplify information, plans, designs, reports and accounts so that they are understandable by all stakeholders. WATER GOVERNANCE FACILITY et al. (n.y.) 18 18

19 Strategies for Strengthening Accountability
11/02/12 5. Anti-Corruption: Training Manual on Water Integrity Strategies for Strengthening Accountability Working on parallel fronts to influence policies and laws, their implementation and monitoring, support of action groups, community participation, research and tools, etc. Preventive and positive approaches to ensure that individuals and institutions are willing to improve accountability. Collaboration and partnerships: always work with a number and mix of actors from the government, the public and private sector, as well as formal and informal groups. Awareness raising and capacity building of institutions and their personnel. Clarifying responsibilities in private and governmental sector. WATER GOVERNANCE FACILITY et al. (n.y.) 19 19

20 5. Anti-Corruption: Training Manual on Water Integrity
11/02/12 5. Anti-Corruption: Training Manual on Water Integrity Your NO counts Time to wake up. Source: [Accessed: ] 20

21 11/02/12 References ANTI-CORRUPTION BUREAU, MAHARASHTRA (n.y.): Flyer Don‘t Give, Don‘t Take. URL: [Accessed: ] KLITGAART, R. (1988): Controlling Corruption. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. KLITGAART, R.; MACLEAN-ABAROA, R.; PARRIS, H.L. (1996): A Practical Approach to Dealing With Municipal Malfeasance. Urban Management Programme. Marrakech: UNDP/UNCHS/WORLD BANK. URL: [Accessed: ]. PLUMMER, J. (2008): Water and corruption: a destructive partnership. In: TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL (Editor) (2008): Global Corruption Report Corruption in the Water Sector. New York. URL: [Accessed: ]. PLUMMER, J.; CROSS, P. (Editor) (2006): Tackling Corruption in the Water and Sanitation Sector in Africa. Starting the Dialogue. In: Campos, E. ; Pradhan, S. (Editor) (2007): The Many Faces of Corruption. Tracking Vulnerabilities at the Sector Level. Washington D.C. RODRIGO (2009). Corruption. URL: [Accessed: ]. QUINO (n.y.). Corruption. URL: [Accessed: ]. TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL (Editor) (2008): Global Corruption Report Corruption in the Water Sector. New York: Cambridge University Press. URL: [Accessed: ]. 21

22 11/02/12 References TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL (2009): The Anti-Corruption Plain Laguage Guide. Berlin: Transparency International. URL: [Accessed: ] UNDP (2011): Fighting Corruption in the Water Sector: Methods, Tools and Good Practices. New York: United Nations Development Programme. URL: [Accessed: ]. UNKNOWN (n.y.): Corrupt politicians. URL: [Accessed: ] WATER GOVERNANCE FACILITY; WATER INTEGRITY NETWORK; WATERNET; CAP-NET (n.y.): Training Manual on Water Integrity. New York: United Nations Development Programme. URL: [Accessed: ]. WIN (2011): TAP risk map of water supply. Assessing Transparency, Accountability and Participation (TAP) in the relationships of stakeholders in local water supply. Berlin: Water Integrity Network. URL: [Accessed: ] 22 22

23 “Linking up Sustainable Sanitation, Water Management & Agriculture”
11/02/12 “Linking up Sustainable Sanitation, Water Management & Agriculture” SSWM is an initiative supported by: Created by: 23


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