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Water Corruption 1 Stefanie Kaiser, seecon international gmbh.

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1 Water Corruption 1 Stefanie Kaiser, seecon international gmbh

2 Water Corruption Find this presentation and more on: Copy it, adapt it, use it – but acknowledge the source! Copyright Included in the SSWM Toolbox are materials from various organisations and sources. Those materials are open source. Following the open- source concept for capacity building and non-profit use, copying and adapting is allowed provided proper acknowledgement of the source is made (see below). The publication of these materials in the SSWM Toolbox does not alter any existing copyrights. Material published in the SSWM Toolbox for the first time follows the same open-source concept, with all rights remaining with the original authors or producing organisations. To view an official copy of the Creative Commons Attribution Works 3.0 Unported License we build upon, visit This agreement officially states that: You are free to: Share - to copy, distribute and transmit this document Remix - to adapt this document. We would appreciate receiving a copy of any changes that you have made to improve this document. Under the following conditions: Attribution: You must always give the original authors or publishing agencies credit for the document or picture you are using. Disclaimer The contents of the SSWM Toolbox reflect the opinions of the respective authors and not necessarily the official opinion of the funding or supporting partner organisations. Depending on the initial situations and respective local circumstances, there is no guarantee that single measures described in the toolbox will make the local water and sanitation system more sustainable. The main aim of the SSWM Toolbox is to be a reference tool to provide ideas for improving the local water and sanitation situation in a sustainable manner. Results depend largely on the respective situation and the implementation and combination of the measures described. An in-depth analysis of respective advantages and disadvantages and the suitability of the measure is necessary in every single case. We do not assume any responsibility for and make no warranty with respect to the results that may be obtained from the use of the information provided. Copyright & Disclaimer

3 Water Corruption Find this presentation and more on: Contents 1. Introduction 2. What is Corruption? 3. Water & Corruption: A Destructive Partnership 4. Who Is Involved in Water Corruption? 5. Anti-Corruption: Training Manual on Water Integrity 6. References 3

4 Water Corruption Find this presentation and more on: Why is Corruption in the Water Sector an Issue? 4 1. Introduction Source: UNDP (2011) Corruption??? Water corruption is a cause and catalyst for the water crisis.

5 Water Corruption Find this presentation and more on: Why is Water Corruption an Issue? 5 1. Introduction Water resources management Drinking water Sanitation services Irrigation Hydropower Water corruption affects all aspects and many stakeholders of the water sector: TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL (2008)

6 Water Corruption Find this presentation and more on: What is Corruption? Source: QUINO (n.y.) -->

7 Water Corruption Find this presentation and more on: What is Corruption? Source: QUINO (n.y.)

8 Water Corruption Find this presentation and more on: What is Corruption? Source: RODRIGO (2009) Corruption is the abuse of entrusted power for private gain. TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL (2009)

9 Water Corruption Find this presentation and more on: Definition Corruption = Monopoly + Discretion - Accountability KLITGAART (1988) Corruption can entail acts of: Omission or commission Legal or illegal activities Internally in the organisation (e.g. embezzlement) or externally (e.g. extortion) Corruption leads to inefficiency, injustice and inequity What is Corruption? Adapted from KLITGAART et al. (1996)

10 Water Corruption Find this presentation and more on: Water corruption catalyses the worldwide water sector crisis: Removes investment Diverts finance from the maintenance of infrastructure Charges escalated costs and bribes for drinking water from the poor. Discourages the society in believing in a well functioning water sector. Adapted from PLUMMER (2008) Water and Corruption: A Destructive Partnership Water corruption Water crisis cause catalyst Source: water.jpg [Accessed: ]

11 Water Corruption Find this presentation and more on: Water and Corruption: A Destructive Partnership Water crisis is a crisis of governance: Water corruption Water crisis cause catalyst Source: water.jpg [Accessed: ] Misuse of power & authority Institutional dysfunction Poor financial management PLUMMER (2000); WIN (2011) Low accountability Low transparency Low participation

12 Water Corruption Find this presentation and more on: Increased pollution Depleted groundwater Increased salinity Increased deforestation and desertification PLUMMER (2008) Water and Corruption: A Destructive Partnership The Impact of Corrupt Practices Can Also Be Environmental

13 Water Corruption Find this presentation and more on: It s not only the politicians! Who is Involved in Water Corruption? Corrupt politicians. Source: UNKNOWN (n.y.) International actors (donor representatives and companies) Construction companies Consultancy firms and suppliers Large and small operators A range of middlemen Consumers Civil Society Organisations National/ regional/ local politicians Civil servants and utility staff Enforcement Bodies Adapted from PLUMMER & CROSS (2006) It includes a wide range of stakeholders:

14 Water Corruption Find this presentation and more on: Anti-Corruption: Training Manual on Water Integrity How to Fight Against Water Corruption? An Overview Identifying corruption risks Anti-corruption laws and institutions Improve transparency and access to information Strengthening accountability WATER GOVERNANCE FACILITY et al. (n.y.) The fight against water corruption is crucial for development in the water and sanitation sector.

15 Water Corruption Find this presentation and more on: Anti-Corruption: Training Manual on Water Integrity Identifying Corruption Risks The water sector needs to be better informed on corruption risks: By assessing potential corruption risks. Link identified corruption risks to actions against corruption. WATER GOVERNANCE FACILITY et al. (n.y.)

16 Water Corruption Find this presentation and more on: Anti-Corruption: Training Manual on Water Integrity Anti-Corruption Laws and Institutions Anti-corruption laws, i.e. legal definitions of criminal offences, authorities which investigate infractions and enforce laws when they are violated. International conventions as advocacy tools (e.g. UN Convention Against Corruption) Institutional reforms (e.g. decentralisation, stakeholder participation, private sector participation, a new goal for the organisation) Strengthening accountability through anti-corruption agencies, ombudsmen, public auditors, judiciaries, the media and NGOs WATER GOVERNANCE FACILITY et al. (n.y.)

17 Water Corruption Find this presentation and more on: Anti-Corruption: Training Manual on Water Integrity Tools to Improve Transparency and Access to Information Public meetings with stakeholders and citizens (including a facilitator, e.g. a NGO) Access-to-information-laws Community participation methodologies (e.g. participatory appraisal, community mapping) Raising citizens voice by cooperation with local action groups. Participatory budgeting Complaints and ombudsmans offices Monitored procurement Promoting access to information is a key tool for strengthening transparency. WATER GOVERNANCE FACILITY et al. (n.y.)

18 Water Corruption Find this presentation and more on: Anti-Corruption: Training Manual on Water Integrity Some Simple Actions to Improve Water Integrity Keep technologies and designs as simple, practical and relevant as possible. Plan water service with the community, involving leaders, rich and poor, men as well as women. Simplify information, plans, designs, reports and accounts so that they are understandable by all stakeholders. WATER GOVERNANCE FACILITY et al. (n.y.)

19 Water Corruption Find this presentation and more on: Anti-Corruption: Training Manual on Water Integrity Strategies for Strengthening Accountability Working on parallel fronts to influence policies and laws, their implementation and monitoring, support of action groups, community participation, research and tools, etc. Preventive and positive approaches to ensure that individuals and institutions are willing to improve accountability. Collaboration and partnerships: always work with a number and mix of actors from the government, the public and private sector, as well as formal and informal groups. Awareness raising and capacity building of institutions and their personnel. Clarifying responsibilities in private and governmental sector. WATER GOVERNANCE FACILITY et al. (n.y.)

20 Water Corruption Find this presentation and more on: Anti-Corruption: Training Manual on Water Integrity Time to wake up. Source: [Accessed: ]http://www.wsp.org/about/Cartoon%20Calendars/2006%20Calendar

21 Water Corruption Find this presentation and more on: ANTI-CORRUPTION BUREAU, MAHARASHTRA (n.y.): Flyer Dont Give, Dont Take. URL: [Accessed: ] KLITGAART, R. (1988): Controlling Corruption. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. KLITGAART, R.; MACLEAN-ABAROA, R.; PARRIS, H.L. (1996): A Practical Approach to Dealing With Municipal Malfeasance. Urban Management Programme. Marrakech: UNDP/UNCHS/WORLD BANK. URL: [Accessed: ]. PLUMMER, J. (2008): Water and corruption: a destructive partnership. In: TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL (Editor) (2008): Global Corruption Report Corruption in the Water Sector. New York. URL: [Accessed: ]. PLUMMER, J.; CROSS, P. (Editor) (2006): Tackling Corruption in the Water and Sanitation Sector in Africa. Starting the Dialogue. In: Campos, E. ; Pradhan, S. (Editor) (2007): The Many Faces of Corruption. Tracking Vulnerabilities at the Sector Level. Washington D.C. RODRIGO (2009). Corruption. URL: [Accessed: ].http://www.toonpool.com/user/1631/files/corruption_ jpg QUINO (n.y.). Corruption. URL: [Accessed: ].http://razzmatazz.mgis.in/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/corruption.jpg TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL (Editor) (2008): Global Corruption Report Corruption in the Water Sector. New York: Cambridge University Press. URL: [Accessed: ].http://www.transparency.org/content/download/32994/ References

22 Water Corruption Find this presentation and more on: TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL (2009): The Anti-Corruption Plain Laguage Guide. Berlin: Transparency International. URL: [Accessed: ] UNDP (2011): Fighting Corruption in the Water Sector: Methods, Tools and Good Practices. New York: United Nations Development Programme. URL: corruption/fighting_corruptioninthewatersector.html [Accessed: ].http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/librarypage/democratic-governance/anti- corruption/fighting_corruptioninthewatersector.html UNKNOWN (n.y.): Corrupt politicians. URL: 2inekI/AAAAAAAACC8/5hqqq242hc0/s1600/Corrupt+Politicians.jpg [Accessed: ]http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-W7kKcXQGgYc/Tuty- 2inekI/AAAAAAAACC8/5hqqq242hc0/s1600/Corrupt+Politicians.jpg WATER GOVERNANCE FACILITY; WATER INTEGRITY NETWORK; WATERNET; CAP-NET (n.y.): Training Manual on Water Integrity. New York: United Nations Development Programme. URL: [Accessed: ]. WIN (2011): TAP risk map of water supply. Assessing Transparency, Accountability and Participation (TAP) in the relationships of stakeholders in local water supply. Berlin: Water Integrity Network. URL: [Accessed: ] 22 References

23 Water Corruption 23 Linking up Sustainable Sanitation, Water Management & Agriculture SSWM is an initiative supported by: Created by:


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