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Training Session # 1 Disability Overview

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1 Training Session # 1 Disability Overview
Distribute all Handouts before Training Session begins to save on time and prevent against interruptions/disruptions.

2 MISSION To ensure that youth with disabilities are provided full access to high quality services in integrated settings in order to maximize their opportunity for employment and independent living The National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth (“The Collaborative”) was formed in 2001 It is funded by the Office of Disability Employment Policy in the Department of Labor. Work of the Collaborative has started with the end in mind. NCWD/Youth recognizes that to achieve this, it needs to: 1) Improve State & Local Policy 2) Strengthen Workforce Development Service Delivery 3) Improve Knowledge, Skills, & Abilities of Direct Service Workers National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

3 COLLABORATIVE PARTNERS
Center for Workforce Development, the Institute for Educational Leadership        Disability Studies & Services Center, the Academy for Educational Development National Conference of State Legislatures National Association of Workforce Boards National Center on Secondary Education & Transition, the University of Minnesota National Youth Employment Coalition TransCen, Inc. The Collaborative consists of organizations with expertise in education, disability and workforce development. Each of the partners has specific responsibilities with regard to specific audiences that the Collaborative is trying to reach. Those audiences include: Youth service providers (professionals who work directly with youth) Administrators of programs Employers Policymakers Youth with disabilities and their families National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

4 TYPES OF PRODUCTS AND RESOURCES
How to Guides Information and Policy Briefs Backgrounders Hot Topics Syntheses Funding Sources Training Materials We encourage you to visit our website at to see what is available. The “Hot Topics” section of the website, for example, contains in-depth examinations of a variety of topics written by the Collaborative’s experts. Each topical area includes analysis, research, references, resources, & answers to key questions for each of our audiences. Topics investigated include youth development and leadership, preparatory experiences, assessment, and work-based learning, National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

5 What will you find in this Session?
Disability Definitions & General Statistics Legislative Requirements for Serving Youth with Disabilities Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Vocational Rehabilitation Act (VR) Workforce Investment Act (WIA) Disability Awareness & Etiquette Resources/Handouts We are going to start with the basics – the foundation – of serving youth with disabilities. We will begin with a discussion of the relevant legislation for youth and adults with disabilities. Next, we will discuss factors that affect services to individuals with disabilities. National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

6 Why is this Information Important?
There is an increasing number of youth and adults with disabilities with varying needs and supports entering the workforce. The workforce development system needs to possess a general understanding of rights, responsibilities, and rules pertaining to disability issues and how best to work with various populations. Good news and bad news We have a growing number of youth and adults with disabilities entering the workforce, their employment successes continue to remain positive despite obstacles. As we will see in some upcoming slides, not all the statistics are good. National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

7 Disability Statistics (Lou Harris Poll- 2004)
54 million Americans have a disability 35% of working-age individuals with disabilities work full-time or part-time 78% of working-age individuals without disabilities work full-time Other statistics from the Harris poll Three times as many live in poverty with annual household incomes below $15,000 (26 percent versus 9 percent). People with disabilities remain twice as likely to drop out of high school (21 percent versus 10 percent). Research tries to explain why the gap in employment persists despite legislation. Oftentimes, employers express concerns regarding employability of persons with disabilities and a fear of costly modifications to the workplace and the lack of accommodations and supports needed for those with disabilities which are necessary for success of persons with disabilities on the job. More information is available from the National Longitudinal Transition Studies I and II. [Results have been compiled and analyzed based on the first and second study. There are 2 resources (Blackorby, et al. And the Cameto, et al.) available in the reference/resource section in the back of this session.] National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

8 Employment of Youth in America
Approximately half of the youth in America do not go on to college and, in turn, receive little assistance in making the transition from school to employment Between the ages of 18 and 27, the high school graduate not enrolled in a postsecondary educational program holds approximately six different jobs and experiences unemployment four to five times High schools across the country overemphasize college as the only viable and appropriate post school endeavor. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, there is little follow-through from high school teachers/counselors for those pursuing employment instead of postsecondary environments. There is no standard curriculum for preparing for employment besides work experiences. From the Bureau of Labor Statistics, among the 20 fastest growing occupations, on-the-job training is the most significant source of education or training for 8 of them—medical assistants, social and human service assistants, home health aides, physical therapist aides, hazardous materials removal workers, occupational therapist aides, dental assistants, and personal and home care aides. National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

9 Employment of Youth with Disabilities
Exceptionally high levels of unemployment and underemployment High job turnover rate Extremely low levels of wage, promotion, and independent living Typically trained for low wage, entry-level jobs Guided towards certain jobs and careers due to misconceptions of disability An article written by Berry (1999) discusses the employment status for youth with disabilities. Here are a few key points. Persons with varying levels and types of disabilities still experience dismal employment outcomes and lack of opportunities and choices. Youth with disabilities continue to be “tracked” into certain jobs or career fields, and into low skill, low wage jobs that do not offer hope of financial self-sufficiency. A complete listing of sources are available in the reference/resource section in the back of this session. National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

10 Why Focus on Youth with Disabilities?
Employment outlook for youth with disabilities remains poor as compared to employment outcomes for youth without disabilities There was a 12% decrease in unemployment for individuals without disabilities as compared to individuals with disabilities 60% unemployment rate for individuals with mild disabilities 80-90% unemployment rate for individuals with significant disabilities According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, there are some facts that set the stage as to why there is a need to focus on youth with disabilities: Some discouraging statistics for persons with disabilities as compared to those without disabilities despite changes to legislation and best practices aimed to prepare youth with disabilities for postschool environments. There are still poor outcomes. Many youth and adults with disabilities would prefer to work but have not been employed or had work experiences. National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

11 Factors Influencing Poor Employment Prognosis
Estimates of youth in juvenile corrections system with any type of disability range from 32-80% 34.1% of all persons with disabilities do not complete high school Enrollment of persons with disabilities in postsecondary programs is still 50% lower that it is for the general population Unemployment rate for persons with disabilities remains 60-70% These facts set the stage as to the need to focus on youth with disabilities. The statistics presented in this slide came from various references and sources as that are in the reference/resource page for this session. Thurlow, M.L., Sinclair, M.F., & Johnson, D.R. (2002). Students with disabilities who drop out of school: Implications for policy and practice. Issue Brief 1 (2), NCSET, Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota. Blackorby, J., & Wagner, M. (1996). Longitudinal postschool outcomes of youth with disabilities: Findings from the National Longitudinal Transition Study. Exceptional Children, 62, Johnson, D.R., Sharpe, M., & Stodden, R. (2000). The transition to postsecondary education for students with disabilities. IMPACT, 13 (1), Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Institute on Community Integration. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (1995). Juvenile offenders and victims: A national report. Pittsburgh, PA: National Center for Juvenile Justice. Kumpfer, K.L., & Alvarado, R. (1998, November). Effective family strengthening interventions. Juvenile Justice Bulleting, Family Strengthening Series. Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

12 Diverse Disabilities Congenital v. Acquired Disabilities
Visible v. Hidden Disabilities Sensory Physical Cognitive At this time, disseminate Handouts 1-3 on the various disability types and definitions. Refer to Handout #3 for the discussion on slide When we use the term “disability” it encompasses many types of disabilities. Here are some common terms used to describe disabilities. Some disabilities are present at birth (congenital) often resulting from infections in the mother during pregnancy or injury during or soon after birth. Other disabilities are acquired and may result from an accident, injury, disease or illness during an individual’s lifetime. Visible Disabilities-These are disabilities more apparent to someone by their exterior appearance. Hidden Disabilities- Disabilities that are invisible on the outside, but may limit an individual’s ability to learn, think, speak, complete a task, communicate. Sensory Disabilities-These are disabilities that may affect our senses. Developmental Disabilities-These are a diverse group of physical, cognitive, sensory,and speech impairments that begin anytime during development up to 18 years of age. Progressive Disabilities-These are disabilities that can cause a progressive deterioration in a person’s health or a progressive degree of disability. . National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

13 Disability Legislation
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Vocational Rehabilitation Act (VR) Workforce Investment Act (WIA) (At this time, disseminate the blue “Guide to Disability Rights Laws” Booklet) These 4 pieces of legislation will be discussed in detail in the next section. But why these four pieces? The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a comprehensive federal civil-rights statute protecting the rights of people with disabilities. IDEA protects the education right of students with disabilities in elementary and high school. National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

14 Definition of Disability (under the ADA)
Anyone with a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the following major life activities (examples): Walking Working Speaking - Taking care of self Sitting - Learning Hearing - Breathing Thinking - Standing Seeing Sleeping Concentrating - Reproduction At this time, disseminate the booklet titled “EEOC Federal Laws Prohibiting Job Discrimination: Questions and Answers”- U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. This is an informative additional resource. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a law enforced through the Disability Rights Section of the U.S. Department of Justice. Unlike the IDEA, which generally applies up until high school completion or age 21, the ADA is lifelong and based on nondiscrimination. You can view the law in its entirety at the following link: National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

15 Definition of Disability (under the ADA) (Continued)
Individuals associated with persons with disabilities (i.e., spouses, children, etc.) Anyone with a record of such impairment of substantial limitation Being regarded as having such an impairment At this time, disseminate the resource from the U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, Disability Rights Section titled:” Myths and facts about the Americans with Disabilities Act. The second bullet, which refers to anyone with a record, may include school or employment records National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

16 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990
Prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities in employment, transportation, public accommodations, communications, and activities of state and local government Prohibits discrimination in private sector employment/training programs; and in state and local government employment, activities, and programs At this time, disseminate the following resources: “Facts about the Americans with Disabilities Act” and “ADA Information Services” For additional information as to the origin of the ADA and how it is implemented, the Disability Rights Section of the U.S. Department of Justice may be helpful. A complete listing of the website is available in the references/resource section in the back of this session. National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

17 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 (continued)
Covers compensation, promotion, fringe benefits, assignments, transfers, training, evaluations, discipline, social/recreation programs, application procedures, interviewing, and advancements At this time, disseminate the resource titled “Americans with Disabilities Act Requirements Fact Sheet” and the yellow booklet titled: “The Americans with Disabilities Act: Questions and Answers”. Both of these resources are from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission & U.S. Department of Justice. These resources are a great source of information when trying to distinguish the services and supports that are covered under the ADA. National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

18 Titles of Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
Title I: Employment Title II: State and Local Governments Title III: Private Entities Title IV: Telecommunications Title V: Miscellaneous Provisions There are five titles of the ADA, but for the purpose of this presentation, we will focus our discussion on the first 2 titles (Employment and State and Local Governments). National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

19 Important ADA Terminology
Qualified person with a disability Essential job functions Reasonable accommodations Undue hardship There will be more detailed discussions on the following 4 terms relating to the ADA . National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

20 Qualified Person with a Disability
An individual with a disability who can: satisfy the required skills, experience and education for the desired or held position and perform the “essential functions” of the position, with or without “reasonable accommodations.” National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

21 Essential Job Functions
These are the tasks that are fundamental and necessary to perform a given position. They do not include marginal duties. An example of essential job functions can be found under Slide #29- Undue Hardship Scenario #2 National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

22 Reasonable Accommodations
This is any change an employer makes that enables a qualified person with a disability to: Have equal opportunity in the selection process, Perform the essential functions, and Enjoy equal benefits and privileges of employment. At this time, disseminate the resource titled: “ Complying with the Americans with Disabilities Act: A Guide for Employers” In addition, disseminate the resource titled: “The Job Accommodation Process”- Job Accommodation Network (JAN) and “Job Accommodation Ideas” These are extensive resources provided by the ADA Information Center for the Mid-Atlantic Region and the Job Accommodation Network. There are ADA Information Center around the country where information, resources, and material can be gathered. National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

23 Reasonable Accommodations (Examples)
Reasonable Accommodations may include: Extended breaks during work day Providing or modifying equipment Making facilities accessible and removing barriers Providing readers and sign language interpreters Allowing job coach participation Many of the examples can be found on the Job Accommodation Network website (www.jan.wvu.edu) and may apply to community living, workplace, school, home, etc. and for varying ability levels. Oftentimes, when we think of reasonable accommodations, we think of costly accommodations to the job or workplace, but there are many instances when accommodations are not costly, but require some creative planning or shifting resources/services/supports that are already present. Examples of reasonable accommodations may include: Different lighting in an office space Quieter office space (less traffic) Color-coding files or keeping written directions posted as prompts National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

24 Undue Hardship An employer needs to provide accommodations unless the accommodation would require “significant difficulty or expense” based on: The size of the business operation The financial resources of the employer There are specific questions an employer should ask when determining if there is undue hardship. An employer must provide a reasonable accommodation that would not cause him/her “undue hardship.” Oftentimes, an employer may determine that one kind of accommodation will cause undue hardship, where another kind will be effective and will not cause an undue hardship. The employer would be required to provide the latter accommodation. See slide #27 for continuation on Undue hardship National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

25 Undue Hardship (Continued)
The cost of the accommodation in relation to the size of the business and its resources, The disruption to other workers The alteration to the employer’s business or the changes in the delivery of services. Oftentimes, when you think of undue hardships to employers, you think of excessive costs. Although many situations are about cost, there are situations that affect the “essential functions” of the job. National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

26 Undue Hardship Scenario #1
There is a small not-for-profit employment establishment (approximately 20 employees). They have access to limited resources and one of the employees is deaf and is seeking a full-time interpreter as an accommodation. After exploring all possible options, the cost of hiring a full-time interpreter would be at least $20,000. The small business is not able to afford such a cost and must seek other sources of support (possibly through VR) to help compensate the business. These are also available on Handout #5 titled: “ Undue Hardship Scenarios” Scenario #1 focuses on cost which is a fairly common undue hardship concern National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

27 Undue Hardship Scenario #2
An employer is seeking a full-time position for someone to perform various administrative duties while the office is open for operation (9-5 pm). One of the functions of the job is to answer the telephones during office hours. An employee with a disability is seeking alternate hours for working at this job (11-7 pm) as an accommodation. The employer would essentially have to waive the essential functions of the job as they were posted for the job opening. The office is only opened from 9-5 pm and an additional part-time position would need to be filled in order to accommodate the alternate hours. This may be viewed as an undue hardship to the employer. The second scenario focuses on how it may affect the essential functions of the job as it is written in the job description. National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

28 Title II of the ADA Title II of the ADA covers public entities and public transportation. It contains 2 parts: Part 1: applies to all state and local governments and is enforced by the Department of Justice and designated federal agencies Part 2: applies to public transportation and is enforced by the Department of Transportation At this time, disseminate the resources titled: “ Title II Highlights”- U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, Disability Rights Section and the resource titled:“ Work in Progress: A video about State and Local Government Compliance with Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)- Adaptive Environments & Barrier Free Environments, Inc. Both of these resources are available through the ADA Information Center. The ADA pertains to public entities and all their activities Public entities include: Counties Cities/municipalities Districts Agencies Departments School districts Public entity activities include: Employment services and programs Public transportation Public school, university, and college services Police and fire protection Town meetings Elections/voting National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

29 The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
mandates public school districts receiving federal funds provide a “free appropriate public education” in the least restrictive environment mandates transition services including activities that promote the movement from school to post-school activities, and appropriate placement options for all students who are eligible prohibits public school students with disabilities from being excluded from school-based or work-based learning activities This piece of legislation is appropriate for students receiving special education services who are trying to obtain a public education. The law applies to students identified with disabilities and who qualify to receive special education services up until they leave school or graduate. Least Restrictive Environment- Services, supports, education, etc. all provided in an environment that provides accommodations, individualized instruction, etc. BUT is as close to the general education environment as possible. Standard is to begin in the general education environment and add supports and services as needed. An excellent resource is the IDEA Partnerships that will bring multiple perspectives on how to implement the IDEA. A complete website listing is available in the resource/reference section in the back of this session. An additional resource that outlines the 6 principles of IDEA titled “IDEA Notes” can be located in the references/resource section at the back of this session. National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

30 IDEA (continued) requires the inclusion of a transition statement relating to a student’s course of study beginning at age 16 focuses attention on how individual educational programs could be developed to help the youth successfully transition to life after high school The amendments are important because of their changes that address improved transition services for youth with disabilities. The intent is to put more emphasis on improving the outcomes for youth as they leave school for various post-school environments (work being one of those environments). In addition, the intention of the regulations is to include transition statements, family involvement, and agency involvement. Another excellent source of information pertaining to transition services and definitions is the National Center on Secondary Education and Transition (NCSET). A complete website listing is available in the resource/reference section in the back of this session. National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

31 Definition of Disability (under the IDEA)
As defined by IDEA, the term “child with a disability” means a child: With mental retardation, hearing impairments (including deafness), speech or language impairments, visual impairments (including blindness), serious emotional disturbance, orthopedic impairments, autism, traumatic brain injury, other health impairments, or specific learning disabilities; and who by reason thereof, needs special education and related services. At this time, refer to Handout #2 that includes definitions of specific disabilities. In addition, disseminate the brochure titled “ADA and IT Information Center.” The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is the law that “education” follows for special education placement, services, supports, etc. for persons from birth through age 21. Someone may qualify under one law as having a “disability” but not under another law. Each law has differences in criteria that qualify someone to having a disability. There are differences between entitlement and eligibility especially for legislation that is lifelong. For example, the IDEA entitles children and youth until their 22nd birthday for special education services and supports while in school, but after their 22nd birthday, services and supports will cease. An additional resource is available on the National Collaborative on Work force and Disability for Youth website that details the IDEA by topic area and what the laws states. A complete website listing is available in the reference/resource section in the back of this session. *If you are interested in looking specifically at the law: National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

32 Differences Between IDEA & ADA
Free, Appropriate, Public Education (FAPE) vs. Reasonableness Benefit vs. Nondiscrimination Prescriptive vs. Flexible Services vs. Accommodations Definition of Disability At this time, disseminate Handout #4 “Differences Between IDEA and ADA”. This handout will explain the primary differences in the terms described in slide # 33. As youth with disabilities transition out of secondary education, there are significant changes in the type of assistance that Federal policy requires and the intent of the laws. Once students graduate, the IDEA no longer applies and the Rehab Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) are the primary laws. National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

33 The Rehabilitation Act
A priority to serve persons with severe disabilities was mandated. The establishment of the Individual Written Rehabilitation Program (IWRP) was a major step to ensure the enhanced involvement of the consumer in developing a rehabilitation plan of action. Key Points under the Rehab Act: 1. Individuals with disabilities are responsible for identifying themselves, undergoing assessment and seeking out assistance. 2. Public institutions bear the cost of assistance provision. 3. There is a focus on services and supports. 4. There is a focus on nondiscrimination. 5. The receipt of Federal funds by public institutions is linked to compliance with the law. 6. The law applies across all environments but is applied mostly in postsecondary and employment environments. For additional information about the Rehab Act, you may want to visit the National Rehabilitation Information Center. A complete listing of this reference is available in the reference/resource section in the back of this session. If you are interested in the law itself, see the following website: www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/29/ch16.html National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

34 Section 504 of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act
Section 504 of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act states that no individual with a disability can be denied access to any program or activity that receives federal funds because of his/her disability. Programs that receive federal funds must be accessible to people with disabilities Barrier-free Reasonable accommodations must be provided At this time, disseminate Handout #6 (Table 1: Comparison of Assistance Across IDEA, ADA, and Section 504) This handout is formatted to provide an overview of what types of assistance is provided, the roles of the stakeholders, and intended outcomes (Stodden, Jones, & Chang, 2003). Section 504 was the primary access law protecting individuals with disabilities in postsecondary educational institutions and employment before the ADA became law. Reasonable accommodations may include transportation, assistive devices or interpreters. National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

35 Section 508 of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act
Section 508 of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act requires that federal agencies’ electronic and information technology be accessible to people with disabilities, including employees and members of the public At this time, disseminate the resource titled:“ Section 508 Overview for managers: Electronic and Information Technology” Here are some Internet resources that provide additional information on Section 508 of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act. *This is a portal for information on the law, products, training programs, and a list of federal agency 508 contacts. *This site provides guidance materials from the Access Board on its 508 standards. *Several 508 stakeholders provide ongoing collaboration. National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

36 The 5 Titles of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
Title I- Vocational Rehabilitation Services Title II- Research & Training Title III- Special Federal Responsibilities Title IV- Administration and Program and Project Evaluation Title V- Miscellaneous At this time, disseminate Handout #7 titled: “5 Titles of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973” This handout provides a general overview of what each title includes and entails. National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

37 Rehabilitation Services under the Rehabilitation Act for eligible consumers provided at no cost
Education and training Work training Assessment Referral services Vocational counseling Assistive technology Independent living skills Vocational evaluations Job placement Job coaching On-the-job training Post-employment services These provisions are included in the law. To better clarify or define these terms, the following definitions are used: work training- also known as vocational training; preparation for a specific occupation in a specific industry. assessment-Information gathering aimed at 1) evaluating previous performance, 2) describing current behavior, and 3) predicting future behaviors. referral services-the process of recommending individuals for specific types of employment based on their abilities vocational counseling- providing direction or advice relating to employment decisions or a course of action independent living skills-skills that will enable an individual to lead an independent life (e.g., bathing, grooming, shopping, budgeting) vocational evaluations-evaluations that target an individual’s vocational abilities, strengths, and challenges job placement- the process of finding employment that will match an individual’s abilities and strengths job coaching-temporary or ongoing assistance on the job for individuals who may need a variety of supports on-the-job training-assistance or employment training that occurs in the natural work environment post-employment services- these are services needed in order to maintain, regain, or enhance employment. These services include a wide range of strategies including, but not limited to: continuing support services following employment (job coaching), mentoring, education and training for career growth, emergency assistance (housing, utilities, etc.), transportation services, etc. National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

38 Workforce Investment Act (WIA) of 1998
Creates a comprehensive job training system that consolidates a variety of federally funded programs into a streamlined process allowing individuals to access job training and employment services easily; and Requires states to develop and implement workforce investment systems that fully include and accommodate the needs of individuals with disabilities On August 7, 1998, President Clinton signed the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA), comprehensive reform legislation that supersedes the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) and amends the Wagner-Peyser Act. WIA also contains the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (title II) and the Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1998 (title IV). WIA reforms Federal job training programs and creates a new, comprehensive workforce investment system. The reformed system is intended to be customer-focused, to help Americans access the tools they need to manage their careers through information and high quality services, and to help U.S. companies find skilled workers. An additional resource is available on the National Collaborative for Workforce and Disability for Youth that details the WIA by topic area and what the law states. A complete website listing is available in the reference/resource section in the back of this session. For those interested in the law itself, see the following website: National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

39 Five Titles of WIA Title I Workforce Investment Systems authorizes the new Workforce Investment System and provides services for adults, youth, and dislocated workers Title II Adult Education and Literacy Title III Workforce Investment Related Activities Title IV Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1998. Title V General Provisions The Act has five Titles. Title I Workforce Investment Systems authorizes the new Workforce Investment System and provides services for adults, youth, and dislocated workers. Title II Adult Education and Literacy reauthorizes Adult Education and Literacy Programs. Title III Workforce Investment Related Activities contains amendments to the Wagner‑Peyser Act, and mainly makes changes to the nation's employment statistics system, which are explained in its own section. It also provides for linkages with other programs, and authorizes the Twenty‑First Century Workforce Commission. Title IV Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1998 contains amendments to the Rehabilitation Act. Title V General Provisions contains General Provisions relating to the Act. National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

40 WIA: Basic Principles Streamlining Services Empowering Individuals
Universal Access Increased Accountability Strong Role for Local Boards State and Local Flexibility Improved Youth Programs This new law embodies seven key principles. They are: 1) Streamlining services through better integration at the street level in the One-Stop delivery system. Programs and providers will co-locate, coordinate and integrate activities and information, so that the system as a whole is coherent and accessible for individuals and businesses alike. 2) Empowering individuals in several ways. First, eligible adults are given financial power to use Individual Training Accounts (ITA's) at qualified institutions. Second,individuals are empowered with greater levels of information and guidance, through a system of consumer reports providing key information on the performance outcomes of training and education providers. Third, individuals are empowered through the advice, guidance, and support available through the One-Stop system, and the activities of One-Stop partners. 3) Universal access. Any individual will have access to the One-Stop system and to core employment-related services. Information about job vacancies, career options, student financial aid, relevant employment trends, and instruction on how to conduct a job search, write a resume, or interview with an employer is available to any job seeker in the U.S., or anyone who wants to advance his or her career. 4) Increased accountability. The goal of the Act is to increase employment, retention, and earnings of participants, and in doing so, improve the quality of the workforce to sustain economic growth, enhance productivity and competitiveness, and reduce welfare dependency. Consistent with this goal, the Act identifies core indicators of performance that State and local entities managing the workforce investment system must meet--or suffer sanctions. However, State and local entities exceeding the performance levels can receive incentive funds. Training providers and their programs also have to demonstrate successful performance to remain eligible to receive funds under the Act. 5) Strong role for local workforce investment boards and the private sector, with local, business-led boards acting as ``boards of directors,'' focusing on strategic planning, policy development and oversight of the local workforce investment system. Business and labor have an immediate and direct stake in the quality of the workforce investment system. Their active involvement is critical to the provision of essential data on what skills are in demand, what jobs are available, what career fields are expanding, and the identification and development of programs that best meet local employer needs. 6) State and local flexibility. States and localities have increased flexibility, with significant authority reserved for the Governor and chief elected officials, to build on existing reforms in order to implement innovative and comprehensive workforce investment systems tailored to meet the particular needs of local and regional labor markets. 7) Improved youth programs linked more closely to local labor market needs and community youth programs and services, and with strong connections between academic and occupational learning. Youth programs include activities that promote youth development and citizenship, such as leadership development through voluntary community service opportunities; adult mentoring and followup; and targeted opportunities for youth living in high poverty areas. National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

41 Workforce Development System
Encompasses organizations at the national, state, and local levels that have direct responsibility for planning, allocating resources (both public and private), providing administrative oversight and operating programs to assist individuals and employers in obtaining education, training, job placement, and job recruitment. National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

42 Workforce Development System
Included in this broad network are several federal agencies charged with providing specific education and/or training support and other labor market services such as labor market information. At the state and local levels the network includes state and local workforce investment boards, state and local career and technical education and adult education agencies, vocational rehabilitation agencies, recognized apprenticeship programs, state employment and unemployment services agencies, state and local welfare agencies, and/or sub-units of these entities. National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

43 Workforce Development System
A wide array of organizations provide direct education, training, or employment services (e.g. technical schools, colleges, and universities, vocational rehabilitation centers, apprenticeship programs, community based organizations, one-stop centers, welfare to work training programs, literacy programs, Job Corp Centers, unions, and labor/management programs). National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

44 One-Stop Career Center Services
Core Services: available to all at no cost (work skills, exploration, job search) Intensive Services: if unable to get employment with core services (skills assessment, 1:1 resume consultation, case management, etc.) Training: if eligible and have not gotten employed with above services (work skills training, OJT training, adult education/literacy) A Career One-Stop is designed to provide a full range of assistance to job seekers under one roof. Established under the Workforce Investment Act, the centers offer training referrals, career counseling, job listings, and similar employment-related services. Customers can visit a center in person or connect to the center’s information through PC or kiosk remote access (Department of Labor, 2002) There are webcourses available to the public and One-Stop staff. They are designed to help One-Stop Center employees develop a better understanding of accessibility and accommodation issues for customers with physical, sensory, psychiatric or cognitive disabilities. Additional resources/references are available in the reference/resource section in the back of this session. National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

45 Benefits for Youth Information about local job/skills needed
Skills development, interviewing, job search, resume writing Opportunities for internships, summer jobs, mentoring, etc. Learn about community resources Professional environment To further clarify professional environment, we define this as: Professional Environment- the surrounding conditions, attitudes, values, and atmosphere generally by those in charge of any particular company or organization. National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

46 Role of Youth Councils Coordinates youth activities
Recommends youth service providers to Local Workforce Investment Boards (LWIB) Conducts oversight of youth activity providers Members must include: Parents - Members of LWIB Local public housing Job corps reps - Service agencies The role of youth councils is a very important aspect of the youth activities initiated under the WIA. The U.S. Department of Labor, Employment & Training Administration/ Office of Youth Services/Office of Youth Opportunities- has developed a Youth Council Toolkit that provides extensive resources that facilitate the development of a youth council. A complete reference is included in the reference/resource section in the back of this training session. National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

47 Attitudes/Etiquette In addition to the present legislation, there is an underlying “spirit of the law” that deals with the interaction of the public with persons with disabilities. There are still misconceptions, lack of knowledge, and fear that accompany this interaction. While it is appropriate that people with disabilities needs are mandated, more importantly, it is the humane thing to do. There are, however, still barriers that exist that must be overcome in our society today. We begin to look at a few on slides For additional resources, visit the Nation Collaborative on Workforce and Disability for Youth (NCWD/Y) website basics National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

48 Attitudes Regarding Individuals with Disabilities
Negative attitudes are often accompanied by lack of knowledge. Exposure to people with disabilities helps reduce stereotypes. Individuals with disabilities who learn alongside non-disabled peers have more success in schools, post-school environments and in workplaces than students who learn in segregated environments. These are issues that need to be addressed in order for persons with disabilities to be fully integrated. It is a matter of human rights. National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

49 Attitudes Regarding Individuals with Disabilities
Employers’ lack of knowledge may contribute to the myth that hiring individuals with disabilities is not cost-effective and they will contribute less to the profitability of the company as compared to individuals without disabilities. According to Gilbride (2000) there are misconceptions regarding the employability traits of persons with disabilities which feed the frenzy of employer concerns. Employment opportunities for people with disabilities have improved in significant ways in the last two decades as their abilities to contribute in the workplace have been repeatedly demonstrated. Business interests in expanding workforce diversity has contributed to enhancing employment opportunities for people with disabilities. According to Unger (1999), many employers, supervisors, and co-workers play instrumental roles in providing accommodations and support to workers with disabilities. In fact, they often go beyond compliance with the ADA’s reasonable accommodation provisions. Still, research shows that many people with disabilities continue to confront employers who maintain less than optimistic views regarding their work potential and capabilities (Gilbride, 2000; Hernandez, Keys, & Balcazar, 2000). Understanding employer attitudes and encouraging employers to effectively integrate people with disabilities into the workplace is imperative to successful job identification and matching. National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

50 Communicating With and About Persons with Disabilities
Respect not pity It is important to use “person first language.” Emphasize an individual’s abilities- not limitations. Do not label individuals as part of a disability group. Be thoughtful and treat adults with disabilities as adults. Allow for independence and choice. At this time, disseminate Handout #8 titled:“ Common Courtesies and Etiquette”- adapted from ODEP grantee Bridges to Work Person-first language can be interpreted as thinking of the person first, not the disability. For example, use “person with a disability” instead of a “disabled person” or “This is John; he is someone with a visual impairment” instead of “the blind guy or Blind John.” This is something that many people do not even realize they are saying. Labeling is also a practice that can go unnoticed, but it can be demeaning for a person who has the disability. Labels such as “the handicapped” or “the disabled” can be interpreted as losing a part of one’s individuality. For example, if you are a person of a particular faith and are only referred to as a member of that faith, then your individuality becomes lost. The same can be said about individuals with disabilities. Treating adults as adults is very important. Giving excessive praise for simple tasks can be patronizing. Many individuals with disabilities may have difficulty speaking or doing simple tasks for themselves, but it is so important to let them do for themselves as much as possible and WAIT for them to ask for assistance instead of trying to do something for them. National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

51 Communicating With and About Persons with Disabilities
Always direct your communication to the individual with a disability. Never address your comments to the companion. Use normal speaking tone and style. If a louder voice is needed, the person will ask you to do so. When introduced, it is appropriate to offer to shake hands. People with limited hand use or artificial limbs can usually shake hands. National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

52 Contact NCWD/Youth 1-877-871-0744 (toll free)
(TTY toll free) ***************************** At the website, you can sign-up for our newsletter, Intersection. You can also ask questions through a feedback system. More details on many of these topics are at the website in the form of briefs and other publications National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment

53 WHERE TO FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
AND QUESTIONS ??????? National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth -- Making the Connection between Youth with Disabilities & Employment


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