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INTEGRATED PRODUCTION – THE APPROACH OF PREVENTION FIRST Malavolta Carlo International Organisation for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals.

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Presentation on theme: "INTEGRATED PRODUCTION – THE APPROACH OF PREVENTION FIRST Malavolta Carlo International Organisation for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals."— Presentation transcript:


2 INTEGRATED PRODUCTION – THE APPROACH OF PREVENTION FIRST Malavolta Carlo International Organisation for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (IOBC) Commission IP Guidelines and Endorsement What future for Integrated Production? European Economic and Social Committee - NAT Section Bruxelles March 25th 2010

3 International Organization for the Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (IOBC) WHAT IS IOBC-WPRS Scientific Non-profit, Non Governmental Organisation since 1956

4 West Palaearctic Regional Section: one of 6 regional sections of IOBC

5 Promote research and implementation of sustainable (environmentally safe, economically feasible, socially acceptable) control-methods of pests of agricultural and forestry crops Promote the development of biological control and its application in Integrated pest management and Integrated Production programmes IOBC OBJECTIVES

6 (20)(2)(4) (12+3) (6) Scientific Community and Larger Public IOBC WPRS General Assembly Council Executive Committee Study Groups Working Groups Commissions ORGANIZATION OF IOBC WPRS

7 Organisation of scientific meetings to foster exchange of information and ideas Presentation platforms: workshops, symposia, proceedings, publicationsPresentation platforms: workshops, symposia, proceedings, publications Implementation of scientific knowledge into advising & executing production Collaboration with other international organisationsCollaboration with other international organisations Production of Guidelines for integrated production IOBC WPRS ACTIVITIES

8 Commission IP Guidelines and Endorsement ( ACTIVITIES IN INTEGRATED PRODUCTION Production of Guidelines Endorsement of growers organizationsEndorsement of growers organizations

9 Guidelines for Integrated Production. Principles and Technical Guidelines 1993: First edition 1999: Second edition 2004: Third edition (IOBC/WPRS Bull. 27(2)) Developed by IOBC/WPRS Executive Committee and Council Experts that represent the Working Groups Commission on Integrated Production IOBC BASIC DOCUMENTS ON IP


11 1.Blind chemical control (Lutte chimique aveugle) General, schematic and routine applications of the most potent pesticides; advice from industry 2.Chemical control based on advice (Lutte chimique conseillée) Application of usually broad spectrum pesticides after consultation with an official advisory service 3.Specific control (Lutte dirigée) Transitory phase Introduction of the concept of "economic threshold levels"; application of pesticides with no negative side- effects; protection of beneficial organisms 4.Integrated plant protection*) (Protection intégrée) Dynamic phase Similar to specific control, but in addition integration of biological and biotechnical methods and methods of good agricultural practice; chemical control strongly regulated 5.Integrated agricultural production*) (Production agricole intégrée) Open dynamic phase, further develop-ment possible in the whole world Similar to integrated plant protection, but in addition observance, integration and exploitation of all positive factors in the agro-ecosystem according to ecological principles The Evolution of Plant Protection Methods (modified from IOBC 1977)

12 Grapes Citrus Arable Crops Olives Field Vegetables Pome, Stone and Soft Fruits Definition 5 Objectives 11 Principles Technical Guideline I Organisation and Members Technical Guideline II Agronomic Aspects THE IOBC CONCEPT OF IP

13 Integrated Production/Farming is a farming system that produces high quality food and other products by using natural resources and regulating mechanisms to replace polluting inputs and to secure sustainable farming. IOBC DEFINITION OF INTEGRATED PRODUCTION (short version)

14 Structure of IP crop specific guidelines choice of plantation site plantation system seeding/rotation soil management fertilisation plant protection and weed control ecological infrastructures irrigation harvest

15 Specific guidelines for IP label Post harvest treatment storage/conservation selection quality index (harvest/commercialisation) packaging commercialisation self (in-home) checking proc. + external checking proc.

16 IP Guidelines: plant protection & weed control –prevention by preliminary choice (e.g.resistant cvs)and agronomic methods (e.g.rotation) –risk assessment & monitoring: treatment applied only when necessary (by theresholds, forecasting models, etc.) and with correct timing (forecasting models, bullettins, ecc.) –direct plant protection methods a.i. choice based on lower impact on human health and environment (priority to biological/biotechnol.= e.g. mating disruption) – checking and calibration of spraying machines

17 The prevention and/or suppression of key pests, diseases and weeds should be achieved/supported especially by : choice of appropriate resistant/tolerant cultivars; use of an optimum crop rotation (where applicable); use of adequate cultivation techniques (e.g. stale seedbed technique, sowing dates, sowing densities, undersowing, etc); use of balanced fertilisation (especially nitrogen) and irrigation practices; protection and enhancement of important natural enemies by adequate plant protection measures; utilisation of ecological infrastructures inside and outside production sites to enhance a supportive conservation biological control of key pests by antagonists.

18 Examples of prevention (1): Maize: crop rotation in maize prevents corn borer (Diabrotica) infestation Maize: the destruction of stalks by mulching has long been recognized as an important element of European Corn Borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) prevention Grape vines: defoliate the grape zone in order to have better air circulation and thus less humidity within the grapes to prevent infection with Botrytis.

19 Examples of prevention (2): Pear: balanced fertilization to prevent excessive Psylla populations. Grape vines and tomato (processing): balanced fertilization to prevent downy mildew infections Apple and Grape vines : use of selective insecticides, rather than broad-spectrum insecticides (e.g pyrethoides) is a preventive measure against spider mite problems because of predatory mites natural biological control

20 Examples of prevention (3):

21 Book on Ecological Infrastructures Green and Yellow lists of control measures Database on Pesticide selectivity to natural enemies SESAME: Software for inspection THE IOBC IP TOOLBOX Tools to facilitate the implementation on IP by growers organizations


23 A: Lifespan B: Flowering period C: Source of nectar D: Diversity of the Fauna E: Overwintering refugia Boller et al. (2004) FLOWERING PLANTS

24 Should address the relevant indirect and direct plant protection measures: Choice of cultivars, protection of old and establishment of new ecological infrastructures,.. Use of fertilizers, habitat-management, use of key antagonists,.. Use of monitoring tools Direct plant protection (control): Restrictive list of highly selective control procedures THE GREEN LIST

25 Should complement the green list with a restrictive list of second choice plant protection measures – mostly pesticides – that exhibt minor negative side-effects The plant protection measures listed in the yellow list can be applied only if the green list does not provide adequate results The yellow list must provide complete information and precise indications against what target and under which circumstances the product can be used THE YELLOW LIST



28 IPM – pesticide treatment justification Guidelines application at farm level Respect of thresholdsMandatory - no funding Advisory servicesAvailabilty meteo data Availability/respect of official forecasting models Availability/respect of official bullettins Spraying equipment checking and calibration Mandatory each 5 years by officially recognised bodies CROSS - COMPLIAN CE Application of Nitrate Directive and other mandatory national laws POSSIBLE IMPLEMENTATION OF IPM/IP AFTER 2013 REQUIREMENTS/OBBLIGATIONSFUNDING

29 POSSIBLE IMPLEMENTATION OF IPM/IP AFTER 2013 REQUIREMENTS/OBBLIGATIONSFUNDING Integrated production Crop rotation payment through agro- environme ntal measures (Reg 1698) or Environme ntal strategy CMO F&V (Reg 1234/07) from Euro/ha/ye ar or future art. 68 CAP** IrrigationIrrigation plan based on ETP and soil condition Soil protection Fertilisers reductionFertilisation plan based on uptake and soil availability of macro elements (N, P K) IPM – pesticide selection 2nd step Use of only Bio product (Bt, viruses.), mating disruption, ecc. IPM – pesticide selection 1 st step Exclusion of more dangerous or not selective active ingredients Exclusion or strong reduction of R 40 or R48 or R60-63 or R68 pesticides phrases R


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