Presentation on theme: "IPM in wheat. The EU requires IPM by 2014 - what does this mean??? 1.Blind Chemical control –Schematic and routine treatments 2.Chemical control based."— Presentation transcript:
The EU requires IPM by 2014 - what does this mean??? 1.Blind Chemical control –Schematic and routine treatments 2.Chemical control based on advice –Recommendation given by region often using broad spectrum pesticides 3.Specific control –Use economic threshold levels. differentiate between pesticides (including impact on beneficials) 4.Integrated plant protection –Use mainly cultural methods and only limited input of pesticides 5.Integrated agricultural production –Use and exploit all positive factors in the agro-ecosystem Definition given by IOBC
Two case studies: –fungicides in cereals –herbicides in cereals
National monitoring of diseases Data on variety susceptibility Data on fungicide efficacy. Need for lots of field trials which support the use of reduced rates Implematation of threshold models Elements in wheat IPM
Need for treatment No need (45 loc.) Monitoring network
Major thresholds in wheat DiseaseExamples of threshold in CPO Eyespot >35% plants attacked at GS 30-32 Mildew >10% plants attacked from GS 29 (S) >25% plants attacked from GS 29 (R) No treatments after GS 40 Septoria 4 days with precipitation from GS 32 (S) 5 days with precipitation from GS 37 (R) Or attack on third leaf from GS 45-60 Brown rust >25% plants attacked (S) Yellow rust GS 29-60 > 1% plants attacked (S)
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 00.20.40.60.8 TFI –dose /ha Dt/ha grain per ha Gross yield Net yield Control of Septoria in wheat -different input 6 trials from DK Appropriate and reduced dosages of fungicides
TFI/Relative dose Source: Farmstat/Kleffmann/Pesticide statistics Development of fungicide use in winter wheat
Dose. l/ha Net loss compared with optimum. dt/ha 15.0 2.1 9.8 1.1 5.9 0.7 5.3 1.0 8.4 1.5 Source: Danish Agricultural Advisory Service Summary of 73 Danish field trials on ear treatment in winter wheat
TFI Fungicides Winter wheat Spring barley Official statistics (2005-2007) 0.710.34 Target 0.650.35 CPO (trial results) 0.70.4 Fungicide use stays close to the optimum
Herbicide performance is affected by many biotic and physicochemical factors such as: –weed flora –growth stage of weeds –crop competitiveness –climatic conditions –application technique –adjuvants –the presence of other pesticides in the spray solution Herbicides in cereals
Decision-making for weed control is a three step procedure –Consider preventive measures such as crop rotation or cultivation techniques to reduce the potential losses due to weeds –Assess the need to apply herbicides (threshold) –Herbicide choice and dose rate
Monitoring for weeds is difficult and time consuming
Autonomous sprayer with weed sensor. The future?
Conclusions: –Only integrated pest control approaches will be sustainable –Integrated disease and insect control can often be practised without major changes in the cropping practice (1-year perspective). –Integrated weed management often requires major changes in cropping practices (multi-year perspective)
Barriers for using thresholds and DSS As little as possible. as much as neccessary
Factors influencing the optimal theoretical pestice need Spray capacity. No. of hours to spray. timing Family. spare time. holidays. Risk of crop failure Scaling up trials to fields Problematic areas. limited harvest capacity. Employees. education. working hours Climate changes. unknown factors. Poor control experiences Other activities on the farm. animal. job? Management and available information Optimal pesticide use in DK 1.7-2.3 TFI Price relations
What do growers want? Reliable and robust solutions Economically sound solutions Simple and easy messages A dialogue with advisors If they should do something else; they need incentives!
Jokers! Increasing problems with fungicide resistance Limitations in available fungicides (DK has no chlorothalonil, prochloraz) Registration of heavy-loaded fungicides triazole mixtures! Climate changes have been estimated to increase disease risk and TFI
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