Presentation on theme: "Big Game and Early Seral Habitat Doug Cottam Herman Biederbeck Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife."— Presentation transcript:
Big Game and Early Seral Habitat Doug Cottam Herman Biederbeck Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife
Big Game Bears, cougars, deer, elk. Cougars deer, elk. Brief details on bears.
Early Seral Forest Habitat Different definition for wildlife? For deer and elk: –Food –Cover: weather and predators –Birth, grow antlers… –Microclimate and microhabitat Quality vs. quantity Early seral: post disturbance to closed canopy (little or no understory).
Black Bears The real reason why Im being brief on bears! –Omnivorous, intelligent, eat anything. –Berry producing vegetation high on the list as they ripen. Plant species diversity - increase bear use.
Black-tailed Deer Range CA to AK Variety of habitats Population density –Highest in early seral
Black-tailed Deer Deer rumen: less volume:body mass –Microbial digestion relatively short time –High quality diet requirement: Digestible Nutritious Forage quickly Seek cover to ruminate Decreased winter metabolic rate –Must gain weight/body fat in growing season.
Black-tailed Deer Plant species diversity important. Quality is important Majority of food is browse. –Stems, leaves woody vegetation Preference and use seasonal.
Black-tailed Deer Important foods: –Trailing blackberry –Vine maple –Huckleberry –Grasses (green) –Red Alder –Ocean spray –Madrone –Oak (acorns) –herbs
Black-tailed Deer Non-native plants Native increasers Non fire managed early seral
Elk Roosevelt elk Cascades west. Variety of habitats Population density –Highest in early seral Significant differences with deer.
Roosevelt Elk Elk rumen: large volume:body mass –Microbial digestion breaks down more indigestible vegetation. Consume 50% more than deer. Forage quickly. Seek cover to ruminate. Decreased winter metabolic rate. –Must gain weight/body fat in growing season.
Roosevelt Elk More capable than deer on low quality diet. Low quality – high quantity. Compared to Rocky Mt elk: –Significantly lower calf production due to nutrition
Roosevelt Elk Grazers and browsers: –Consume grasses (including rank) – winter and spring –Grass legume mix –Browse all seasons Diet varies seasonally Cover can differ from deer.
Roosevelt Elk Cover: –Thermal issues both summer and winter. –Sexual segregation. –Antler development.
Deer and Elk Deer and elk are generalists. –Deer more specialized than elk. Reach higher densities – early seral forest habitats. –Not entirely dependent upon early seral forests. Use and importance is much more complicated.
Big Game and Early Seral Forests Challenges Deer numbers in western OR in decline. –Habitat suspected Elk numbers increasing, but misleading? –Only recently reintroduced. Lack of scientific research in PNW. –Effects of modern forestry on wildlife –Future role of federal lands Other early seral species?
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