Presentation on theme: "BioNetwork Bioprocessing Center Technology Enterprise Center (TEC)"— Presentation transcript:
1BioNetwork Bioprocessing Center Technology Enterprise Center (TEC) 1800G North Greene StreetTechnology Enterprise Center (TEC)Greenville, NC 27834fax
2Staff: William T. (Bill) Cooper, Manager firstname.lastname@example.org Greg Smith, PhD, Curriculum CoordinatorVallere Shelton, Administrative Assistant
3What is the Bioprocessing Center? Pitt Community College has established a Bioprocessing Center in conjunction with the statewide BioNetwork initiative. It is one of six specialized biotechnology centers developed by the North Carolina Community College System. This Center is a resource center created to promote biotechnology workforce development. The ultimate goal is to facilitate the growth of biotechnology firms in North Carolina and the surrounding region. Start-up funding for these centers was provided by Golden LEAF.
4Why Biotechnology?Biotechnology is the fastest growing sector of the economy in the State of North Carolina, a state where traditional jobs, such as textiles and tobacco, are by and large extinct.Biotechnology provides products made from living cells that are useful to all of us.Biotechnology is the wave of the future as scientific and technological discoveries are made daily.Biotechnology jobs pay well.
5Ranking of U.S. States in the Number of Biotechnology Jobs
9How does Industrial Systems fit in? Because the nature of products created through biotechnology is so valuable to industrial interests, down-time can cost companies millions of dollars in lost profits. Machinery that keeps this industry running needs to be serviced, calibrated, maintained, and cleaned on a regular, expeditious basis.Technicians trained in the culture of biotechnology are more valuable to a company than those that are not. They understand the needs of the industry and have the specialized training to keep the down-time to a minimum. Additionally, they have the expertise to be able to service the equipment without causing undue contamination to the product and theenvironment.
10What is Contamination?The introduction of an unwanted substance to a particular process or environment, either intentionally or accidentally; that which has been introduced to a controlled environment.Types of contaminants:WaterSoilAirRadiological
11What is Contamination? Sources of contamination: Water (Pseudomonas Aeruginosa)Soil (Bacillus Subtilis)Air (any aerosolized form of contamination)Radiological (any unwanted electromagnetic radiation)
12What is Contamination? Prevention of contamination: Water (filtration or irradiation)Soil (sanitization and/or disinfection)Air (high efficiency particulate air filters- ultrafiltration)Radiological (shielding or non-use)
13What is Contamination?Particles are measured in microns. If you were to slice a 1-inch cube into 25,400 equal size pieces, each slice would be 1 micron thick (so thin that you could not see it).Since cleanroom facilities contain invisible particles that can cause defects, we need to have a way to determine their sizes and possible sources.
14What is Contamination?These particles cannot be seen with the naked eye and yet may cause serious loss to our client and to their ability to manufacture devices without defects.We measure the amount of particles in the air with a device known as a particle counter. This helps us to determine when to perform or restrict certain activities.
15What is Contamination?To combat the tremendous amount of particulate released by the human body, cleanroom personnel are asked to wear special garments that are restrictive and may be uncomfortable if the working conditions (temperature, humidity) are not carefully controlled.
16What is Contamination? Typical Pollutant Sizes That Cause Down Time Smoke.01 to 1.0 MicronsBacteria.25 to 10 MicronsHuman Skin Flakes0.4 to 10 MicronsHousehold Dust0.5 to 100 MicronsMold2.0 to 20 MicronsHuman Hair70 to 100 MicronsPollen5 to 100 Microns
17What is Contamination?People are dressed in booties, gloves, helmets, hoods and special facemasks that are not part of a normal experience. You are also asked to move slowly, to clean up dirt you cannot see, and to follow practices and procedures that may not immediately make sense. The approach to cleanrooms is designed in steps so as to ensure that every effort has been made not to introduce contaminants into the cleanroom.
18What is Contamination?"Humans are walking, breathing, waste pits from a microbiological perspective and there is no indication we are going to evolve into anything cleaner." Human dust combined with sebum will tenaciously adhere to and contaminate surfaces, creating contamination problems that are simultaneously bacterial, chemical and particulate.
19What is Contamination?There is an additional complicating factor - normal human activity. Humans breathe, sneeze, cough, talk and move around. Body and breath temperatures cause heat turbulence in addition to air turbulence.
20What is Contamination?People slough off huge numbers of particles a half micron and larger and these are propelled around by air and body movement. Some examples of how many 0.5 micron and larger particles can be released by simple movement are shown below. Vast amounts of contamination need to be controlled in a cleanroom environment.
21What is Contamination? Activity 0.3µm Particles Released Seated 100,000 particles per minuteHead, arm, neck, and leg motion500,000 particles per minuteAll of the above with foot motion1,000,000 particles per minuteStanding to sitting position2,500,000 particles per minuteMoving 2 miles per hour5 million particles per minuteMoving 3.5 miles per hour7.5 million particles per minuteMoving 5 miles per hour10 million particles per minute
22What is Contamination?Humans also release elemental chemicals that can cause contamination:* Spittle (saliva): potassium, chloride, phosphorus, magnesium, and sodium* Dandruff: calcium, chloride, carbon, and nitrogen* Perspiration: sodium, potassium, chloride, sulfur, aluminum, carbon, and nitrogen* Fingerprints: sodium, potassium, chloride, and phosphorusConsequently, a critical component of cleanroom management is strict adherence to protocol. Cosmetics are prohibited because in addition to their gross particle generation, cosmetics release iron, aluminum, silicone, carbon, titanium, magnesium, potassium, sulfur, and calcium.
23What is Contamination Control? Just as humans are the greatest potential contamination risk, they are also the greatest resource for contamination control. A thorough, comprehensive training program detailing all aspects of cleanroom management will empower the cleanroom operators to control the degree of contamination during the production process.
24What is Contamination Control? Just as all operators must be thoroughly trained in occupational skills, knowledge of the product, and all aspects of the production process, they must also be trained in the unique practices and behaviors required for working in the cleanroom environment. Testing and certification of cleanroom operators and subsequent observation of operators after training assures that the training has been implemented and is effective. Training is mandatory for all personnel (including Management), regardless of frequency of entry or job classification.
25What is Contamination Control? Personal health and hygiene begins at home with daily bathing or showering, shaving, brushing of teeth and hair, and application of silicone-free skin moisturizers to reduce skin flakes. Make-up, hair gels, hair sprays, aromatic after-shave lotions or body lotions are not cleanroom-compatible. While at work, all employees must wash hands after eating and/or using the toilet. Cleanroom-compatible hand cream may be applied prior to gowning.
26What is Contamination Control? As mentioned earlier, any activity by the cleanroom operator generates millions of viable and non-viable particles. Consequently, it is imperative to limit talking and actions in the cleanroom to only those required for the manufacture of the product. Running, horseplay, and other non-professional activities are not permitted.
27What is Contamination Control? Other behavioral requirements include, but are not limited to, the following:Smoking is not allowed inside the manufacturing facility including all cleanroom areas. Smokers release particles for at least one-half hour after smoking one cigarette.
28What is Contamination Control? Nothing is allowed inside the cleanroom complex which is not required in the cleanroom manufacturing process. This includes personal items such as jewelry or keys, cosmetics, tobacco or matches in any form, and food or drink in any form.Hair may not be combed in the cleanroom gowning area.
29What is Contamination Control? Only cleanroom compatible ball-point pens are allowed inside the cleanroom for recording data on cleanroom compatible paper and clipboards.While working in the cleanroom, mannerisms such as scratching or hand-rubbing. Cleanroom personnel may not access the inside of the cleanroom uniform.
30What is Contamination Control? The use of facial tissues is prohibited in the cleanroom. If one must use a cleanroom compatible non-linting tissue, it must be used only in the gowning area and disposed appropriately in waste receptacle.All doors must remain closed when not entering or exiting. Emergency doors may be alarmed with a visual and audible alarm to enforce compliance.
31What is Contamination Control? An integral piece of the cleanroom management program is cleaning of the cleanroom. It is important for all personnel who may work in a cleanroom to understand the critical aspects of maintaining this clean environment.
32What is Contamination Control? Below is a partial list of some of the commonly known contaminants that can cause problems in some cleanroom environments. It has been found that many of these contaminants are generated from five basic sources. The facilities, people, tools, fluids and the product being manufactured can all contribute to contamination.
33What is Contamination Control? FacilitiesWalls, floors and ceilingsPaint, caulk and coatingsConstruction material (sheet rock, wood, saw dust etc.)Air conditioning debrisRoom air and vaporsSpills and leaksRust
34What is Contamination Control? PeopleSkin flakes and oilPerspirationCosmetics and perfumeSpit or salivaCoughing or sneezingClothing debris (lint, fibers etc.)HairGum, Cough DropsFood or drink
35What is Contamination Control? Tool GeneratedFriction and wear particlesLubricants and emissionsVibrationsBrooms, mops and dustersPaperCardboardDuct tapePermanent MarkersNon-clean room pens
36What is Contamination Control? FluidsParticulates floating in airBacteria, organics and moistureFloor finishes or coatingsThinners or solventsCleaning chemicalsPlasticizers (outgases)Deionized water
37What is Contamination Control? Product generatedSilicon chipsQuartz flakesCleanroom debrisAluminum particlesPacking materialAerosols and smoke
38Airborne Particulate Cleanliness Classes (by cubic meter) Monitoring Contamination?Airborne Particulate Cleanliness Classes (by cubic meter)CLASSNumber of Particles per Cubic Meter by Micrometer Size0.1 um0.2 um0.3 um0.5 um1 um5 umISO 1102ISO 2100244ISO 31,000237102358ISO 410,0002,3701,02035283ISO 5100,00023,70010,2003,52083229ISO 61,000,000237,000102,00035,2008,320293ISO 7352,00083,2002,930ISO 83,520,000832,00029,300ISO 935,200,0008,320,000293,000
39Colony forming units per volume Monitoring Contamination?Air MonitoringClassAreasColony forming units per volumeFrequencyClass 100 and Class 1000Critical processing areas for product and container-closures<0.1 cfu per ft3 of air or 3 cfu per m3Each ShiftClass 10,000Less critical processing areas for product and container-closures<0.5 cfu per ft3 of air or 20 cfu per m3DailyClass 100,000Controlled Support Areas2.5 cfu per ft3 of air or 100 cfu per m3Twice/week (product/component contact areas) and once/week (other support areas)
40Monitoring Contamination? Surface MonitoringClass 100 and Class 1000Critical processing areas for product and container-closures3 per 2 inch square ( square cm.) RODAC PlateEach ShiftClass 10,000Less critical processing areas for product and container-closures-5 per 2 inch square (25-30 square cm.) RODAC Plate-10 per 2 inch square (25-30 square cm.) RODAC Plate for the floorDailyClass 100,000Controlled Support AreasNot Applicable
41Monitoring Contamination? Personnel MonitoringClass 100 and Class 1000Critical processing areas for product and container-closures-3 Gloves (25 – 30 square cm.)-5 Gloves (25 – 30 square cm.)Each ShiftClass 10,000Less critical processing areas for product and container-closures-10 Gloves (25 – 30 square cm.)-20 Gloves (25 – 30 square cm.)DailyClass 100,000Controlled Support AreasNot Applicable
42Safety in Controlled Environments: Cleanroom safety is as important (if notmore) than any other facility havinglaboratories. Workers in these criticalenvironments must be conscientiousabout not only their own safety, but thesafety of the people benefiting from theproducts produced in the environment.
43Safety in Controlled Environments: Everything one learns about safety in ageneral safety course is applicable incleanrooms and the responses wouldbe the same. However, in cleanroomsthe product is treated with much morerespect and the way one behaves ismore critical than anywhere else.
44Safety in Controlled Environments: Exposure to chemicals and biologicsis a risk in cleanrooms just as it is inany laboratory setting, but less likelyto occur in controlled environmentsbecause of the likelihood of operationsceasing when maintenance orcalibration procedures are beingperformed.
45Design Considerations and Operation: The method most easily understood and universally applied is the one suggested by the Federal Standard 209E in which the number of particles equal to or greater than 0.5 microns measured in a cubic foot of air designates the class number. For example, a class 100,000 cleanroom limits the concentration of airborne particles equal to or greater than 0.5 microns to 100,000 particles in a cubic foot of air.
46Design Considerations and Operation: Cleanrooms have evolved into two major types which are differentiated by their method of ventilation - turbulent airflow and laminar airflow cleanrooms. The general method of ventilation used in turbulent airflow cleanrooms is similar to that found in buildings such as offices, schools, malls, manufacturing plants, auditoriums, shops, etc. The air is supplied by an air conditioning system through diffusers in the ceiling.
47Design Considerations and Operation: A cleanroom differs from an ordinary ventilated room in three ways:increased air supplythe use of high efficiency filtersroom pressurization
48Design Considerations and Operation: Increased air supply:The increased air supply is an important aspect of particle control. A typical turbulent airflow cleanroom would have at least 10 air changes per hour and likely have between 20 and 60. This additional air supply is mainly provided to dilute to an acceptable concentration the contamination produced in the room.
49Design Considerations and Operation: High efficiency filters:High efficiency filters are used to filter the supply air into a cleanroom to ensure the removal of small particles. The high efficiency filters used in cleanrooms are installed at the point of air discharge into the room.
50Design Considerations and Operation: Room Pressurization:Room pressurization is mainly provided to ensure that untreated air does not pass from dirtier adjacent areas into the cleanroom. The cleanroom is positively pressurized with respect to these dirtier areas. This is done by extracting less air from the room than is supplied to it.
51Design Considerations and Operation: Laminar airflow is used when low airborne concentrations of particles or bacteria are required. This airflow pattern is in one direction, usually horizontal or vertical at a uniform speed of between 60 to 90 ft/min. and throughout the entire space. The air velocity is sufficient to remove relatively large particles before they settle onto surfaces. Any contaminant released into the air can therefore be immediately removed by this laminar flow of air, whereas the turbulent airflow ventilated system relies on mixing and dilution to remove contamination.
52Design Considerations and Operation: Because airflow is such an important aspect of particle control, the design of a cleanroom requires careful consideration of air motion and airflow patterns. Depending on the degree of cleanliness required, it is common for air systems to deliver considerably more air than would be needed solely to meet temperature and humidity design.
53Design Considerations and Operation: Airborne particles can be organic or inorganic. Most contamination control problems concern the total contamination within the air. Particles of different sizes behave differently as air moves through a room. For example, in an eight-foot high room, a particle in the 50 micron range might take 60 seconds to settle, while a 1 micron particle might take 15 hours to settle.
54Design Considerations and Operation: Before any methods of contaminationcontrol of airborne particles can beapplied, a decision must be made as tohow critical this particulate matter is tothe process or product. The quantity ofthe particles of a given size that might bepresent within the area must beconsidered. The source of thecontamination is divided into externalsources and internal sources.
55Design Considerations and Operation: For any given space, there exists the externalinfluence of gross atmospheric contamination.These sources include air pollution in generaland dust storms. External contamination isbrought in primarily through the airconditioning system. Also, externalcontamination can infiltrate through buildingdoors, windows and cracks. The externalcontamination is controlled primarily by thetype of filtration used and spacepressurization.
56Design Considerations and Operation: People and the production process aresome of the greatest sources of internalcontamination. People in the workspacegenerate particles in the form of skinflakes, lint, cosmetics, and respiratoryemissions. Industry generates particlesfrom combustion processes, chemicalvapors, soldering fumes, and cleaningagents.
57Design Considerations and Operation: Other sources of internal contamination are generatedthrough the activity of manufacturing equipment.Although airflow design is critical, it alone does notguarantee that cleanroom conditions will be met.Construction finishes, personnel and garments,materials and equipment, and building entrances andexits are other sources of particulate contamination thatmust also be controlled. Room construction andmaterial finishes are an important part of cleanroomdesign. Room construction is important to provide anenclosure that will house a process to exclude outsidecontaminants and that the material finishes will notcontribute to particle generation in the space.
58Design Considerations and Operation: Walls, floors, ceiling tiles, lightingfixtures, doors, and windows areconstruction materials that must becarefully selected to meet cleanroomstandards. People must wear garments tominimize the release of particles into thespace.
59Design Considerations and Operation: The types of garments depend on the level ofcleanliness required by a process. Smocks,coveralls, gloves, and head and shoe coversare clothing accessories commonly used inclean spaces. Materials and equipment mustbe cleaned before entering the cleanroom.Room entrances such as air locks and passtrough’s are used to maintain pressuredifferentials and reduce contaminants. Also,air showers are used to remove contaminantsfrom personnel before entering the cleanspace.
60Design Considerations and Operation: The ability of a filter to removeparticles from the air is reflected by itsefficiency rating. The AmericanSociety of Heating, Refrigerating, andAir Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)have developed a standard formeasuring filter effectiveness. Thestandard describes test procedures toclassify filters in terms of arrestanceand efficiency.
61Design Considerations and Operation: Arrestance is the amount of dustremoved by the filter, usuallyrepresented as a percentage. Sincelarge particles make up most of theweight in an air sample, a filter couldremove a fairly high percentage ofthose particles while having no effecton the numerous small particles in thesample. Thus, filters with anarrestance of 90 percent have littleapplication in cleanrooms.
62Design Considerations and Operation: Efficiency measures the ability of thefilter to remove the fine particles.ASHRAE efficiencies of between 10percent and 40 percent should remove20 percent to 40 percent of the 1micron particles in the air, but hardlyany of the 0.3 to 0.5-micron particles.ASHRAE efficiencies of 80 percent to95 percent can remove 50 percent to70 percent of the 0.3-micron particles.
63Design Considerations and Operation: A HEPA filter, i.e., high efficiencyparticulate air filter, is defined by itsparticle removal efficiency and itsairflow rate. A HEPA filter is rated byits efficiency in removing smallparticles from air and has a minimumefficiency of percent. These highefficiency filters are usually designedto remove particles of 0.3 microns andlarger.
64Design Considerations and Operation: An ULPA filter, i.e., ultra lowpenetration air, is a filter that hasefficiencies higher than those of astandard HEPA filter. An ULPA filterwill have efficiency greater than 99.99percent. These filters are constructedand will function the same way as aHEPA filters. They differ in that thefilter medium that is used has a higherproportion of smaller fibers and ishence more efficient.
65Design Considerations and Operation: Most cleanrooms require year-round coolingas a result of the fan energy associated withhigh cleanroom airflow as well as the heatgenerated by the process, people, and lightingwithin the facility. Temperature control isrequired to provide stable conditions formaterials, instruments, and personnel comfort.Human comfort requirements typically call fortemperatures in the range of 72F to 75F, sinceworkers frequently wear cleanroom garmentsover street clothes.
66Design Considerations and Operation: Humidity control is necessary toprevent corrosion, condensation onwork surfaces, eliminate staticelectricity, and provide personnelcomfort. The human comfort zone isgenerally in the range of 30 percent to70 percent relative humidity.
67Design Considerations and Operation: A cleanroom facility may consist of multiple roomswith different requirements for contaminationcontrol. Rooms in a clean facility should bemaintained at static pressures higher thanatmospheric to prevent infiltration by wind. Positivedifferential pressures should be maintainedbetween the rooms to ensure airflows from thecleanest space to the least clean space. The onlyexception to using a positive differential pressure iswhen dealing with specific hazardous materialswhere governmental agencies require the room tobe at a negative pressure. Pressure differentialsmust be 0.05 in WC higher in an adjacent clean areafrom the less clean area. This makes airflow critical.
68Design Considerations and Operation: Ventilation and makeup air volumes aredictated by the amount required to maintainindoor air quality, replace process exhaust andfor building pressurization. This providesassurance that carbon dioxide and oxygenremain in balance, that formaldehyde and othervapors given off by building materials andfurniture are diluted, and that air changes occurwith sufficient frequency to minimize thechance for high concentration of airbornepollutants within the building. Typically,makeup air must be 15% of all air per airchange.
69Hygiene and Specialized Attire: Cleanroom environments require peopleand they also require that those peopleare clean.Shower or bath- All employees should shower or bath before coming to work. This help to reduce the amount of dead skin cells that are shed when the employee arrives to work.Clean hair is important for reducing flaking from the scalp
70Hygiene and Specialized Attire: Clean shaven faces will reduce the potential of contamination from hair that may be exposed in some cases.Smoking before entering a cleanroom will create contamination and should not be done at least thirty minutes before entering.Clothing should be newly cleaned and free of lint. Efforts should be made to reduce contact with animals while wearing clothing that will be worn to work.
71Hygiene and Specialized Attire: Hands should be clean and disinfected per the company protocol.Shoes and socks must always be worn. Never wear sandals or open-toed shoes.
72Preparation to Enter a Cleanroom: Personal ConsiderationsHygieneIllnessClean ShavenSmokingJewelryMake-upMaterial ConsiderationsMaterial of ConstructionMinimal Amounts of Materials
73Preparation to Enter a Cleanroom: DisinfectionTools and SuppliesDedicated ToolsHand WashingMaterial TransfersFlow (separate)Multiple Coverings
74Gowning (Supplies and Technique): Hand DisinfectantSafety GlassesAlcoholBeard CoverGownSurgical MaskHair NetSterile Sleeves and GlovesHoodDedicated Cleanroom Shoes or BootsGogglesShoe Covers
75Gowning (Supplies and Technique): Always follow protocolsDisinfect hands prior to gowningObtain gowning supplies according to protocolDon cleanroom attire from head to toe (literally) exceptfootwearDisinfect handsAseptically don sterile glovesObtain footwearDon while crossing over benchDisinfect gloves with alcoholView gowned self in mirrorObtain any other garments before entering (such as sterilesleeves)
76Cleanroom Behavior:Hygiene- Good basic hygiene is a necessity when working in cleanrooms. Shedding skin cells from unclean workers is the most common contaminant. Bacterial contaminants can also thrive on shed skin cells. Workers who have exudative lesions on their bodies (open wounds with blood or pus) must exclude themselves from cleanroom environments or appropriately and completely cover the sores.
77Cleanroom Behavior:Coughing or sneezing sometimes cannot be avoided, but it is important to exclude oneself from working in a cleanroom if the cough or sneeze is from and illness or allergy. When coughing or sneezing, always turn away from the area where cleanliness is desired most. Above all, always wear protective masks.
78Cleanroom Behavior: Facial hair can be shed easily and should be completely covered when working incleanrooms. Beard covers can be utilizedto accomplish this with beards andmustaches. All masks and beard coversare porous and can still allowcontaminants to pass through.
79Cleanroom Behavior:Motion- All behaviors in cleanroom environments should be performed at a moderately slow pace. Quick movements in the cleanroom or any sterile area stir up the particle counts where they can be easily detected and frequently out-of-specification. Slow, deliberate movements are always best to avoid the turbulence that is created that will stir up particles. Scratching oneself through the cleanroom garments, running, jumping, and even handshakes, are all forbidden practices. It goes without saying that eating, drinking, or smoking is also forbidden.
80Cleanroom Behavior: Contact- Contacting surfaces is an easy way to transmit bacteria, viruses, yeast, and molds. Iftouching any area within a cleanroom bynecessity, be sure that you evaluate what you mayhave “picked-up” and transferred to another area.For example, you may open a door knob or handleand then touch a stopper on a vial that will intheory contain a sterile product. A good practice isto regularly and frequently disinfect your gloveswith sterile alcohol between processes. Even aroutine disinfection of gloves is appropriate.
81Cleanroom Behavior: Processes- Obviously, contamination can be generated by the work we do. For techniciansWho are maintaining or repairing equipment,Every mechanical operation performed createsa potential for contamination. Sawing,grinding, fastening screws, hammering,cleaning, drilling, all are sources ofcontamination. Flames used in cleanrooms,whether being used for sterilization or not,create turbulence which in turn stirs upparticles. Even the removal of tools to performThis work will create high particle counts.
82De-gowning:Reverse the order of gowning and refer to protocol for reuse or disposal of materials.
83Documentation:Laboratory Notebooks- Any procedure or protocol that is not part of a standard operating procedure should be documented in a laboratory notebook so that it can be referenced at a later time what activities took place and the results that were obtained.
84Documentation:Data Collection Forms- Provided an SOP is in place that describes the environmental monitoring procedures employed, a data collection form can be used. This form should be referenced in the SOP and designed in an orderly format that allows the manual recording of data and activities that occur during the monitoring procedures
85Documentation:Electronic Data Collection and Part 11 Compliance- Any electronic data that is obtained as part of the monitoring process must be Part 11 complaint to ensure that data integrity is maintained. Written documentation should be double-checked for accuracy and completeness. All printed materials must be intact and maintained so that they can be archived for future reference. Printed data on thermal paper must be photocopied to preserve the original data that will fade otherwise.