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Open Access policies in Europe and in the USA Iryna Kuchma eIFL Open Access program manager, Jan Andrzej Nikisch Poznańska Fundacja Bibliotek.

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Presentation on theme: "Open Access policies in Europe and in the USA Iryna Kuchma eIFL Open Access program manager, Jan Andrzej Nikisch Poznańska Fundacja Bibliotek."— Presentation transcript:

1 Open Access policies in Europe and in the USA Iryna Kuchma eIFL Open Access program manager, Jan Andrzej Nikisch Poznańska Fundacja Bibliotek Naukowych Presented at the Second International Conference on Open Access Torun, Poland, January 14, 2010

2 not for profit organisation that enables access to knowledge through libraries in developing and transition countries 47 countries in Eastern Europe, Middle East and Central Asia, South-East Asia and Africa eIFL Open Access (OA) Program: adoption of OA policies and sustainability of open repositories

3 Drivers Knowledge economy E-science, E-research, Virtual Learning Environment Accountability and Assessment Freedom of information Open Access Policies: An Overview by D (based on Open Access Policies: An Overview by David Prosser, SPARC Europe Director:

4 Lisbon Agenda In March 2000, the EU Heads of States and Governments agreed their aim to make the EU the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-driven economy by Open Access Policies: An Overview by D (from Open Access Policies: An Overview by David Prosser, SPARC Europe:

5 Lisbon Agenda 2 One of the key strategic means of achieving this goal was identified as preparing the transition to a knowledge-based economy and society by better policies for the information society and R&D… and specifically increasing investment in R&D to 3% of GDP. Open Access Policies: An Overview by D (from Open Access Policies: An Overview by David Prosser, SPARC Europe:

6 Lisbon Agenda 3 In a post-industrial economy there is increasing acknowledgement of the relationship between: Investment in R&D Access to knowledge Technology transfer Wealth creation Open Access Policies: An Overview by D (from Open Access Policies: An Overview by David Prosser, SPARC Europe:

7 European Commission EC pilot, August 2008: OA to results from approximately 20% of projects from the 7 th Research Framework Programme (FP7) – in health, energy, environment, social sciences and information and communication technologies.

8 European Commission 2 Grantees required to: deposit peer reviewed research articles or final manuscripts resulting from their FP7 projects into an on - line repository, with either six or twelve month embargo (depending on subject area).

9 European Commission 2009 In a report on e-science infrastructure, EC promised "reinforce [its] catalytic investment under FP7 in scientific data infrastructure, to support accessibility...policies. European Research Area Conference 2009, Brussels, October 21-23, 2009 "to come up with recommendations for policies on Open Access that the Commission can take forward.

10 ERC In December 2007 the European Research Council (ERC) issued Guidelines for Open Access and the ERC Scientific Council has established the following interim position on OA: All peer-reviewed publications from ERC-funded research projects be deposited on publication into an appropriate research repository where available and subsequently made Open Access within 6 months of publication. Open Access Policies: An Overview by D (from Open Access Policies: An Overview by David Prosser, SPARC Europe:

11 OpenAIRE Three-year EU-funded OpenAIRE project (Open Access Infrastructure for Research in Europe) launched on December 1, partners covering almost all 27 European Union member states and one associated state (Norway). Will deliver an electronic infrastructure and supporting mechanisms for the identification, deposition, access and monitoring of FP7 and ERC funded article.

12 EUROHORCs All the major public funding agencies in 24 European countries are members of European Heads of Research Councils (EUROHORCs) In May 2008 the General Assembly of EUROHORCs agreed to recommend a minimal standard regarding Open Access to its Member Organisations. The proposed minimal standard is an intermediate step towards a system in which free access to all scientific information is guaranteed without jeopardizing the system of peer review, quality control and long-term preservation. Open Access Policies: An Overview by D (from Open Access Policies: An Overview by David Prosser, SPARC Europe:

13 EUROHORCs 2 It encourages its members to reduce embargo time to not more than six months and later to zero. All MOs of EUROHORCs should sign the Berlin Declaration on Open Access (2003); all scientists, either funded by or doing research for MOs, should be informed about the already existing mechanisms for Open Access and strongly advised to make use of them. Open Access Policies: An Overview by D (from Open Access Policies: An Overview by David Prosser, SPARC Europe:

14 Berlin Declaration Our mission of disseminating knowledge is only half complete if the information is not made widely and readily available to society. Signatories should promote Open Access by encouraging researchers/grant recipients to publish in Open Access. Encouraging the holders of cultural heritage to support Open Access by providing their resources on the Internet.

15 Berlin Declaration 2 Open access contributions must satisfy two conditions: 1.The author(s) and right holder(s) of such contributions grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship (community standards, will continue to provide the mechanism for enforcement of proper attribution and responsible use of the published work, as they do now), as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.

16 Berlin Declaration 3 2. A complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in an appropriate standard electronic format is deposited … in … on - line repository using suitable technical standards (such as the Open Archive definitions) that is supported and maintained by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency or other well- established organization that seeks to enable Open Access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability and long- term archiving.

17 Berlin Declaration 4 Developing means to evaluate Open Access contributions and on - line-journals in order to maintain the standards of quality assurance and good scientific practice; advocating that Open Access publication be recognized in promotion and tenure evaluation.




21 Funder mandates The Welcome Trust in the UK was the first funder to mandate Open Access. The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), implemented a policy requiring that its grant recipients make articles resulting from NIH funding publicly available within twelve months of publication in a peer-reviewed journal.

22 FRPAA The largest proposed mandate the Federal Research Public Access Act (FRPAA) in the US Senate. The bill would mandate OA at all the major US federal funding agencies endorsed by 85 presidents and provosts of US universities, 41 Nobel laureates, seven major US library associations, six major US student organizations, a number of NGOs and even received support from business-oriented groups.

23 OSTP President Obama's call for public comments on ways to extend OA policies across the federal government. The White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) is collecting comments, so far overwhelmingly in favour of a government-wide green OA mandate with a short embargo period. At the end of the comment period (January 21, 2010), the OSTP will formulate a policy which the President could implement by executive order.

24 Funder mandates 2009 Five Canadian funding agencies adopted OA mandates: the Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research, the Canadian Breast Cancer Research Alliance, the Fonds de la recherche en sante du Quebec, the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation and the Canadian Cancer Society.

25 Funder mandates 2009 The UK Engineering & Physical Sciences Research Council was the seventh of the seven Research Councils UK to adopt an OA mandate.

26 Funder mandates 2009 OA mandates were also adopted by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hungarian Scientific Research Fund, the Norwegian Research Council, Swedish Research Council, the Spanish principality of Asturias…

27 Governments Since January 2007 Ukraine has a law: mandate for Open Access to publicly funded research. And a new Lithuanian law on science requires public on - line access for publicly-funded research.

28 University associations European University Association: Universities should develop institutional policies and strategies that foster the availability of their quality-controlled research results for the broadest possible range of users, maximising their visibility, accessibility and scientific impact. The basic approach …should be the creation of an institutional repository or participation in a shared repository… Open_Access_adopted_by_the_EUA_Council_on_26th_of_March_2008_final.pdf

29 Finland In October 2009, 26 of Finland's Universities of Applied Sciences adopted a joint OA mandate. The largest number of institutions adopting a common OA policy in the history of OA!!!

30 University presses Ten US and Canadian university presses called for OA to publicly-funded research. The statement was organised by 2009 SPARC Innovator Mike Rossner, Executive Director of Rockefeller University Press.

31 OA policy options Open Access policy options for funding agencies and universities. Request or require? If you're serious about achieving Open Access for the research you fund, you must require it. (Based on The SPARC Open Access Newsletter, issue #130 and The SPARC Open Access Newsletter, issue #127, by Peter Suber: and

32 Green or gold? Recommendation: If you decide to request and encourage Open Access, rather than a mandate it, then you can encourage submission to an Open Access journal and encourage deposit in an Open Access repository as well, especially when researchers publish in a toll access journal.

33 Green or gold? 2 Recommendation: But if you decide to mandate Open Access, then you should require deposit in an Open Access repository, and not require submission to an Open Access journal, even if you also encourage submission to an Open Access journal.

34 Deposit what? Recommendation: Require the deposit of the final version of the author's peer-reviewed manuscript, not the published version. Require the deposit of data generated by the funded research project. In medicine and the social sciences, where privacy is an issue, Open Access data should be anonymised. A peer-reviewed manuscript in an Open Access repository should include a citation and link to the published edition.

35 Deposit what? 2 Recommendation: Allow the deposit of unrefereed preprints, previous journal articles, conference presentations (slides, text, audio, video), book manuscripts, book metadata (especially when the author cannot or will not deposit the full-text), and the contents of journals edited or published on campus. The university itself could consider other categories as well, such as open courseware, administrative records, and digitization projects from the library, theses and dissertations.

36 Scope of policy? Recommendation: For simplicity and enforceability, follow the example of most funding agencies: apply your Open Access policy to research you fund "in whole or in part.

37 What embargo? Recommendation: No more than six months. Any embargo is a compromise with the public interest; even when they are justified compromises, the shorter they are, the better.

38 What exceptions? Recommendation: Exempt private notes and records not intended for publication. Exempt classified research. Either exempt patentable discoveries or allow an embargo long enough for the researcher to apply for a patent. (This could be a special embargo not allowed to other research). And unless you fund research, which often results in royalty- producing books, exempt royalty-producing books.

39 Thank you! Questions? Iryna Kuchma The presentation is licensed with Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

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