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What is Psychology? Chapter 1.

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Presentation on theme: "What is Psychology? Chapter 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 What is Psychology? Chapter 1

2 Why Study Psychology? Section 1

3 Why Study Psychology? Psychology= the scientific study of human behavior and mental processes Behavior= actions that can be measured and observed Cognitive Activities= mental processes (dreams, perceptions, thoughts and memories) Psychological Constructs= used to talk about something we cannot see, touch or measure directly

4 Goals of Psychology: 2. Predicting and Controlling
1. Explaining Behavior Observe and describe Explain behavior in terms of anxiety and performance 2. Predicting and Controlling Do best when anxiety is low/moderate Positive Visualization= imagine a difficult situation and a positive outcome

5 Goals of Psychology: 4. Psychological Theories
3. Psychological Research Surveys= method of collecting data that involves asking questions Experimentation= controlled environment with subjects 4. Psychological Theories Theory= statement that attempts to explain why things are the way they are and why they happen the way they do Principle= basic truth or law that governs behavior and mental processes

6 What Psychologists do Section 2

7 Major Fields in Psychology
1. Clinical Psychology Largest group Interviews and psychological tests Try to change ineffective and harmful behavior Psychiatrists= medical doctors who can prescribe medications 2. Counseling Psychology Interviews and tests Treat people with adjustment disorders (not as serious) Help clarify goals, overcome adjustment problems and meet challenges

8 Major Fields in Psychology…
3. School Psychology Identify and help students who have problems that interfere with learning Talk to teacher, student, administer tests and observe them in the classroom Make recommendations for class placement 4. Educational Psychology Focus on course planning and instructional methods for all students Learning is affected by: Psychological factors: motivation, emotions, creativity and intelligence Cultural factors: religious beliefs and language Economic factors: level of family income Instructional methods used in the classroom

9 Major Fields in Psychology…
5. Developmental Psychology Study changes throughout the life span Physical= height and weight, adolescent growth, sexual maturity and physical aspects of aging Emotional= development of concept and self esteem Cognitive= changes from childhood to adulthood mental image of outside world and how children learn right from wrong Social= bonds between parents and children, relationships with peers or intimate relationships between adults 6. Personality Psychology Identify human characteristics or traits Look for trait development

10 Major Fields in Psychology…
7. Social Psychology Concerned with people’s behavior in social situations Focus on external influences: Ways women and men typically behave Physical and psychological factors of attraction Reasons people conform to group standards/expectations How behavior changes when a member of a group Reasons for and effects of prejudice and discrimination Situations in which people are hostile/help each other 8. Experimental Psychology Explore the biological/psychological reasons for cognitive behavior Basic research= has no immediate application and is done for its own sake

11 What Psychologists Do- Applied Fields in Psychology
1. Industrial and Organizational Focus on people and work Improve working conditions and worker output May assist in HR 2. Human Factors Psychology Find best ways to design products for use How people will use it How it affects daily life Physical characteristics Safe and comfortable to use

12 What Psychologists Do- Applied Fields in Psychology
3. Community Psychology Study and create social systems; promote individual well-being Promote change in social environment Help powerless social groups Prevents threats to mental health 4. Forensic Psychology Work with criminal justice system Identify competence of defendants Explain how psych problems give rise to criminal behavior Police: select officers, job stress and train for dangerous situations

13 What Psychologists Do- Applied Fields in Psychology
5. Health Psychology Examine the ways in which behavior and mental processes are related to physical health Work with healthcare professionals Study the effects of stress on health problems 6. Rehabilitation Psychology Work with patients who are struggling with a disability Help patients develop strategies to compensate for the disability and live a meaningful life 7. Cross-Cultural Psychology Study behavior and mental processes under different cultural conditions Examine depression and anxiety to gauge differences in cultures

14 History of Psych- Early Views
Ancient Greece: Socrates- “Know Thyself” Introspection= learn about ourselves by examining our own thoughts and feelings Associationism= experiences remind us of past Aristotle= Human behavior is guided by principle “seek pleasure and avoid pain” Gods punished people by causing them confusion and madness Hippocrates= problems caused by abnormalities in the brain Middle Ages: Problems caused by demons Possession was punishment

15 Pioneers in Psychology
Wilhelm Wundt (Structuralism): Focus: discover the basic elements of consciousness Objective sensations= reflect the outside world Subjective feelings= emotional responses and mental images Introspection= look inside oneself William James (Functionalism): Focus: relationship between experience and behavior Functionalism= concerned with how mental processes help organisms adapt to their environment Adaptive behaviors maintained because they are successful

16 Pioneers in Psychology…
Sigmund Freud (Psychoanalysis): Focus: emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives and internal conflicts in determining and understanding behavior People are driven by hidden impulses (verbal slips and dreams) “Talking cure” Psychodynamic Thinking= most of mind is unconscious and consists of conflicting impulses, urges and wishes (sexual and aggressive) Id Superego Ego

17 Modern Developments in Psych:
John B. Watson (Behaviorism): Focus: Psychology must be limited to observable and measureable events Agreed with Functionalism about importance of learning Conscious can be known only to the individual B.F. Skinner (Reinforcement): Focus: People learn because of positive and negative reinforcement Same ideas as Behaviorism but added reinforcement Looked at external causes of behavior

18 Modern Developments in Psych:
Gestalt School (Wertheimer, Koffka and Kohler) Focus: our perceptions of objects are more than the sum of their parts Principles: Similarity= when objects look similar, people recognize a pattern and see them as a whole Closure= people fill in missing information when enough of the shape of an object is indicated Reject Behaviorist ideas: Psychologists should focus on observable behavior Learning is mechanical Gestalt beliefs: Learning is accomplished through insight Reorganization of perceptions that enables individual to solve problems

19 Contemporary Perspectives:
Subject Matter Key Belief Influenced By Biological Evolutionary Cognitive Humanistic Psychoanalytic Learning Sociocultural Biopsychosocial Nervous system, glands and hormones, genetic factors Biological processes influence behavior and mental processes Associationism and neuroscience Adaptive organisms survive and transmit their genes to future generations Charles Darwin and evolution Physical traits, social behavior Structuralism, functionalism and Gestalt psychology Interpretation of mental images, thinking and language Perceptions and thoughts influence behavior People make free and conscious choices based on their unique experiences Introspection and free will Self-concept Unconscious processes, early childhood experiences Unconscious motives influence behavior Sigmund Freud Environmental influences, learning, observational learning Personal experiences and reinforcement guide development John B. Watson and behaviorism Sociocultural, biological and psychological factors create individual differences Social, environmental and cross-cultural psychology Ethnicity, gender, culture, religion and socioeconomic status Mental processes are influenced by the interaction of biological, psychological and social factors Biology, psychology and social factors Holistic health and social psychology

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