Presentation on theme: "Here to Stay: Faculty-Student Relationships facilitated by Ginny Hronek."— Presentation transcript:
Here to Stay: Faculty-Student Relationships facilitated by Ginny Hronek
As a result of attending this workshop, participants will be able to : understand some factors related to why students leave college and why they stay in college explore ideas to create conditions that promote student retention identify what faculty can do to support satisfying student relationships describe how to practice dialogue, rather than monologue, to achieve greater learning and promote student-faculty relationships apply activities to promote a learner-centered environment
People dont leave companies, they leave bad bosses. 76% do not communicate their real reason for leaving. Marcus Buckingham & Curt Coffman, 1999. First, Break All the Rules: What the World's Greatest Managers Do Differently.
Why do students leave college before earning a degree? Inadequate funds Credit card addiction Too much partying Relationship trauma Family matters Poor academic preparation Distaste for lecture- paper-exam grind Lack of connection/ feel isolated Unmet expectations Lack of respect
Factors affecting attrition that may be in our control Unmet expectations Lack of connectedness Lack of respect
Learner-Centered Culture of Accountability An environment in which people want to work and learn
Learner Centered Culture of Accountability Focus on meeting students needs through: streamlined student delivery of services a full range of student-centered learning environments and activities accountability and responsibility for results (I need to polish this up)
Accountability Model * Other-DirectedSelf-Directed Authority Autonomous ComplyRebelAgreeDisagree ResentResist Accept Consequences Im Not Responsible I am Responsible Like a Victim Get Revenge Accountable I Have to I Choose to Attitude Belief Behavior Feeling Reaction Keith Ayers, Integro Learning.
A learner-centered culture of accountability is grounded in trust
The Elements of Trust Acceptance... people are respected for their contributions, differences are valued and leadership is shared Reliability... people can count on each other for support, keep their commitments and strive for excellence in what they do TM Keith Ayers, Integro Learning.
The Elements of Trust Openness... we exchange information, discuss feelings and opinions and do not keep secrets Straightforwardness... expectations are clear, disagreements are discussed and resolved and individual performance is discussed and agreed on
The Elements of Trust Acceptance Reliability Openness Straightforwardness
Culture is formed by Behaviors Beliefs Attitudes Feelings Trust
Creating a culture of accountability: making connections
Three critical "connections" that need to occur with students at the outset of a course: student-instructor connection, the student-student (peer) connection student-course (subject matter) connection.
Student Instructor Connection: Know Yourself How are you perceived by students?
Annoying Behaviors of Faculty Gonsalves, Sonia. What you dont know can hurt you: students perceptions of professors annoying teaching habits: College Student Journal, 9/1/03. Disorganized teaching Talk too fast/too slow Monotone Degrading students Lack of interaction Lack of enthusiasm Not available outside class, do not show up for office hours
Annoying Behaviors of Faculty Gonsalves, Sonia. What you dont know can hurt you: students perceptions of professors annoying teaching habits: College Student Journal, 9/1/03. Unclear assignments Opinionated Reading from book or notes Keeping class overtime (disrespectful) Too much overlap with book Unfair testing/grading Talking to the board/pacing/staring at students
Seek regular feedback Take a pulse How I am doing? More of / less of? ? ?
Know your students
Name tents or Name tags
Best vs. Worst Learning Experience Best Reflect on a learning experience when the concept or skill really clicked, when you were motivated to learn. Identify the characteristics of the experience that supported the learning. Worst Reflect on a learning experience when the concept or skill just didnt click., when you were not motivated to learn. Identify the characteristics of the experience that de-motivated the learning.
Student-course connection: know learning styles develop an understanding of various models that will help you understand how students learn determine strategies and techniques for including course materials in a way that takes multiple styles into account
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator TM Kolb/McCarthy Learning Cycle Felder-Silverman Learning Styles Model Grasha-Riechmann Learning Styles VARK: - Visual, Auditory, Reading/Writing, Kinesthetic Gardners Multiple Intelligences Models of Learning Styles
Input Preferences VARK* VisualAuditory Read/write Kinesthetic TasteSmell *Fleming, Neil. VARK, A guile to learning styles: http://www.vark-learn.comhttp://www.vark-learn.com See slides 67-70.
Gardners Model of Multiple Intelligences 8 Pathways to the Brain Process Preferences Logical/Math Musical Naturalist Linguistic Inter- personal Kinesthetic Visual/ Spatial % 7 > Intrapersonal Adapted from Howard Gardners Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21 st Century, 2000.
Create opportunities for success! Frame the course in positives Communicate expectations (different from rules) Design an early win Build complexity of skill development, projects Recognize & reinforce
Give em an A On first day of class, ask students students to write a letter in past tense on how they earned an A. Periodic 1-on-1 review
Coach rather than tell Dont tell students something you can ask them. How do you think that can be accomplished? What may be getting in the way of achieving the goal? How can you do this differently?
Challenge mental models Mental models are deeply engrained assumptions, generalizations, or even pictures or images that influence how we understand the world and how we take action. - Peter Senge, The Fifth Discipline
What was necessary to come up with the answer? How did the presentation of this exercise influence what you saw as a solution? How does presentation of data influence what students see?
Applying the Skills The Story
Statements about the Story: Answer True, False, or Unknown ? ( T, F, ? ) 1. A man appeared after the owner turned off the lights in his store. ( T, F, ? ) 2. The thief was a man. ( T, F, ? ) 3. The man who appeared did not demand money. ( T, F, ? ) 4. The store owner scooped up the contents of the cash register and sped away. ( T, F, ? ) 5. Someone opened a cash register. ( T, F, ? ) 6. After the man demanded money and took the contents of the cash register, he fled.
( T, F, ? ) 7. Even though there was money in the cash register, the story does not tell how much. ( T, F, ? ) 8. The thief demanded money from the store owner. ( T, F, ? ) 9. The story tells of a chain of events that involves only three people: the store owner, the man who demanded money, and a police officer. ( T, F, ? ) 10. The following three things happened in the story: someone demanded money, a cash register was opened, and a man fled from the store.
Statements about the Story: Answer True, False, or Unknown ? ? 1. A man appeared after the owner turned off the lights in his store. ? 2. The thief was a man. F 3. The man who appeared did not demand money. ? 4. The store owner scooped up the contents of the cash register and sped away. T 5. Someone opened a cash register.
? 6. After the man demanded money and took the contents of the cash register, he fled. T 7. Even though there was money in the cash register, the story does not tell how much. ? 8. The thief demanded money from the store owner. ? 9. The story tells of a chain of events that involves only three people: the store owner, the man who demanded money, and a police officer. ? 10. The following three things happened in the story: someone demanded money, a cash register was opened, and a man fled from the store.
Observable data (things I see & experience) Add meaning to selected data from experiences Make assumptions based on meaning I add Draw conclusions based on assumptions Take actions based on conclusions Climbing the ladder of Inference * Reflective Loop our conclusions & actions affect what data we select next time
Reflective Loop our conclusions & actions affect what data we select next time
Not Getting Stuck on the Ladder: Skills for Dialogue Reflection Advocacy Inquiry
Reflection: Becoming aware of your thinking and reasoning. How have I arrived at this? Explain to me how you see it that way.
I. Reflection : Reflect on your thinking to deal with the tendency to resist, withdraw, insist, demand. Examine where you may be on the ladder of inference. Reflection occurs throughout the dialogue. What has led me to think / feel this way? Why didnt I say what I was thinking? What assumptions am I making about…? What are the costs of acting this way? What are the benefits? What prevents me from acting differently?
Not Getting Stuck on the Ladder: Skills for Dialogue Advocacy: Making your thinking and reasoning visible to others. This is how I see it.
Advocacy : Making thinking process visible (walk up the ladder of inference slowly). What to doWhat to say State your assumptions, and describe the data that led to them. "Heres what I think, and heres how I got there. Explain your assumptions"I assumed that…." Make your reasoning explicit. "I came to this conclusion because…" Explain the context of your point of view: who will be affected by what you propose, how they will be affected and why. "To get a clear picture of what Im talking about, imagine that youre the person who will be affected… As you speak, try to picture the other peoples perspective on what you are saying.
Advocacy (continued) Publicly test your conclusions and assumptions. What to doWhat to say Invite others to explore your thinking, your assumptions, and your data. "What do you think about what I just said?" or "Do you see any defects in my reasoning?" or "What can you add?" Avoid defensiveness when your thoughts or ideas are questioned. If youre advocating something worthwhile, then it will only get stronger by being tested. Reveal where you are in your thinking. Defuse opposition. "Heres one aspect which you might help me think through…." Listen and stay open, and encourage others to provide different views. "Do you see it differently?"
Not Getting Stuck on the Ladder: Skills for Dialogue Inquiry: Seeking to understand others thinking and reasoning in a non- adversarial way. Explain to me how you see it that way.
Listen: to others without resistance to yourself – be aware of thought to your reactions – pay attention to emotions Listening is not waiting for your turn to talk!
What to doWhat to say Find out what data others are operating from. "What leads you to conclude that?" "What data do you have for that?" "What causes you to say that?" (Be aware of tone of voice; defensive). Use non-aggressive language, particularly with people who are not familiar with these skills. Instead of "What do you mean?" or "Whats your proof?" say, "Can you help me understand your thinking here?" Draw out reasoning. Find out as much as you can about why they are saying what they re saying. "What is the significance of that?" "How does this relate to your other concerns?" "Where does your reasoning go next?" Explain your reasons for inquiring, and how your inquiry relates to your own concerns, hopes, and needs. "Im asking you about assumptions here because…" Inquiry : Ways to ask others to make their thinking process visible.
What to doWhat to say Test what they say by asking for broader contexts, or for examples. "Can you give an example…?" "How would your idea affect..?" "Is this similar to …?" Check your understanding of what they have said. "Am I correct that youre saying?" Listen for the new understanding that may emerge. Dont concentrate on preparing to destroy the other persons argument or promote your own agenda. Compare your assumptions to theirs.
When… you might say… Strong views are expressed with- Id like to understand more. out any reasoning or What leads you to believe….? illustrations… The discussion goes off on an Im unclear how that connects apparent tangent… to what weve been saying. Can you explain how you see it as relevant? Two members pursue a topic at Id like to give my reaction to length while others observe… what you two have said so far, and then see what you and others think. Opening Lines
Applying the Skills Ask students to compare and clarify assumptions about each other, the course, the instructor, with you. Sit in pairs and have one person state an assumption and the other person respond. The assumption does not have to be negative. The other party will refute or confirm the assumption. Examples: I assume you like this class because you frequently asking questions. I get the idea from what you say about your last school that you are satisfied with this school. Is that right?
Apply Dialogue Skills in Learning Communities Establish and support informal learning communities to promote: -Student/faculty dialogue -Faculty dialogue -Faculty-administration dialogue "Once a group has achieved community, the single most common thing members express is: I feel safe here. M. Scott Peck, M.D.
Create and support Learning Communities * A learning community is an alternative form of education directed by participants, not a designated instructor. It can occur in many forms such as online, or small groups meeting face-to-face. Generally, a learning community commits to regular meetings and format for discussion, dialogue and growth. Groups may consist of all students or a combination of students and faculty. Importantly, there is a common goal and collaboration. Learning communities are particularly effective for group learning projects. *Wilson, Brent & Rider, Martin. Dynamic Learning Communities: An Alternative to Designed Instructional Systems. Available online at: http://carbon.cudenver.edu/~mryder/dlc.html
Suggested activities to further promote a learner centered environment
Get and keep attention! Start or interject the class with fun facts, humor, or a brain twister. Example : What is peculiar about the number 8549176320? Hint: -You need no mathematical skills to solve the problem. -Each digit is used once. -The sequence of the numbers is significant.
Silent Start Objective: Apply critical thinking skills and prepare for discussion. Materials: Paper, pen Start the class with a brief writing assignment by posting 2-3 questions. Give students 5 minutes to write responses. Group students in pairs or triads for discussion. Allow 6-8 minutes. Facilitate discussion. Compare and contrast responses. Summarize and bring to closure. Examples: -What is feminism? Are you a feminist? Why/why not? -Should grades be eliminated and replaced with a pass/fail system? Why/why not?
Partner Progress Objective: Compare information, share ideas; opportunity to assess. Depending on the nature and time frame of the class, ask students to turn to one another (online - exchange emails) and compare notes or exchange any questions or concerns about the class content. If the class involves skill application, i.e., draw, design, etc., have students assess each others work with predetermined criteria. Give them 3-5 minutes. After this activity ask what they learned about the content or another persons perspective. Ask what questions they have as a result of the partner exchange.
Summary Swap Objective: Summarize a segment of content and identify key learning points. Materials: Index cards or students paper After a period of time, roughly 10 minutes, in class or lab, ask students to summarize the key learnings from that segment of the class. On an index card, or sheet of paper, they are to put their name at the top. Use only one side to record the summary. Take about two minutes for this. Ask everyone to stand up and exchange the card with someone. The person who received the card will read it over and add anything they think is important that the card owner may have left out. Exchange cards 2-3 times with different students. Direct everyone to return the card to the owner. Ask for a volunteer to read their summary and what was added to the card. The cards make a great tool for review.
Activate the concept Objective: To strengthen learning by acting out the concept Physically acting out a concept may be a more effective and engaging for students than simply reading or hearing about the concept. The example below was used in a research methods class. It can be adapted to many different concepts and learning environments. Learning objective: Distinguish between independent and dependent variables. Identify possible antecedent and intervening variables. 1)Have the entire class stand in a group. 2)Pose the following research question: What is the correlation between sex of the driver and being stopped for speeding? 3)Advise students to first identify the independent variable (sex of driver), the attributes of that variable (male/female), and the dependent variable (stopped for speeding). 4)Next, tell the students that they need to actually show how we would research this by moving around the room. Ask, What would you do first? Here the students need to divide into the two attributes, male and female. 5)State, Now that you are in two groups, what is the question? (Who has been stopped for speeding?) 6)This activity can go on as you ask students to identify possible antecedent and intervening variables. 7) Ask if correlation implies causation.
Props Objective: Learn an abstract with a tangible Materials: Miscellaneous props Roll dice or flip a coin to teach probability. Have students work in pairs or small groups with dice to experience this first-hand. Use candy to show measures of central tendency. Jelly beans or M&Ms work well with this activity. Give pairs or groups of students candy and data. They are to use the candy to depict a bar chart, histogram, polygon, etc. A human histogram or scatter gram can be created by asking students to position themselves in the room as if each person were data.
When we teach, we learn Objective: To reinforce learning by teaching to a peer Advise students that they are to select one concept, skill, formula, etc., from what has been covered today, to teach to a classmate. Allow about 3-4 minutes for preparation. The teaching should only take 2-2.5 minutes each. Pair students for the teach/learn activity. They may select their own partner or you may ask them to pair with someone they dont know, or havent paired with previously. Give then some directions to begin, i.e., the person whose first name begins first in the alphabet. Tell them they have 5 minutes total for both students to teach and ask questions. Advise them when half of the time has elapsed. Ask: What was difficult about this activity? What was easy or fun about this activity? How did the teaching reinforce the learning? Teaching is the highest form of understanding. Aristotle
References Buckingham, Marcus & Coffman, Curt, 1999. First, Break All the Rules: What the World's Greatest Managers Do Differently, New York: Simon & Schuster, Doyle, W., & Rutherford, B. 1984. Classroom research on matching learning and teaching styles. Theory Into Practice, 23, 20-25. Felder, R.M., 1996. Matters of Style. ASEE Prism, 6(4), 18-23). Felder, R.M., & Silverman, L.K. 1988. Learning styles and teaching styles in engineering education. Engineering Education, 78(7), 674-681. Fleming, Neil. VARK, A guide to learning styles: http://www.vark-learn.comhttp://www.vark-learn.com Gardner, Howard, 2000. Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century. New York: Basic Books. Grasha, A.F. (1996). Teaching with style: A practical guide to enhancing leaning by understanding teaching and learning styles. Pittsburgh: Alliance Publishers.
References Grow, Gerald O. (1991/1996). Teaching Learners to be Self-Directed. Adult Education Quarterly, 41 (3), 125-149. Expanded version available online at: http://www.longleaf.net/ggrow. McKeachie, W. (1994) Teaching tips: A guidebook for the beginning college teacher (9th edition). Lexington, MA: Heath. McKeachie, W.J. (1995). Learning styles can become learning strategies. The National Teaching and Learning Forum, 4(6), 1-3. Oxford, R., Ehrman, M, and Lavine, R. 1991. Style wars: Teacher-student style conflicts in the language classroom. In S. Magnan, (Ed.), Challenges in the 1990's for College Foreign Language Programs. Boston: Heinle and Heinle. Wilson, Brent & Rider, Martin. Dynamic Learning Communities: An Alternative to Designed Instructional Systems. Available online at: http://carbon.cudenver.edu/~mryder/dlc.html
Visual materials (e. g., pictures, charts) Description of images Color to highlight important points in the text To take notes or illustrate idea Study in a quiet place Visual Learners Prefer
Discussion To make class presentations A tape recorder during lectures instead of taking notes Read text aloud Analogies and story telling Mnemonics and musical jingles to aid memorization Auditory Learners Prefer
Detailed note taking Essay exams Printed materials (e. g., handouts, texts, lecture notes, lists) Articulation and full sentences Independent study Reading/Writing Learners Prefer
Hands-on, moving around, touching objects Doodling Take frequent study breaks Inconsistent eye contact Chew gum/listen to music while studying Kinesthetic Learners Prefer