Presentation on theme: "Faculty-Student Relationships"— Presentation transcript:
1Faculty-Student Relationships Here to Stay:Faculty-Student Relationshipsfacilitated byGinny Hronek
2As a result of attending this workshop, participants will be able to : understand some factors related to why students leave college and why they stay in collegeexplore ideas to create conditions that promote student retentionidentify what faculty can do to support satisfying student relationshipsdescribe how to practice dialogue, rather than monologue, to achieve greater learning and promote student-faculty relationshipsapply activities to promote a learner-centered environment
3“People don’t leave companies, they leave bad bosses.” 76% do not communicate their real reason for leaving.Popular literature in the business community strongly refutes the notion that people leave jobs for higher pay and other perks. Rather, people leave primarily because of managers who do not meet their expectations or support their role development. While we are not suggesting that the world of business and academe are the same, could there be a parallel? It certainly should raise our awareness about the critical role of faculty in meeting student needs so students do not leave because of “bad faculty”.Marcus Buckingham & Curt Coffman, First, Break All the Rules: What the World's Greatest Managers Do Differently.
4Why do students leave college before earning a degree? Inadequate fundsCredit card addictionToo much partyingRelationship traumaFamily mattersPoor academic preparationDistaste for lecture-paper-exam grindLack of connection/ feel isolatedUnmet expectationsLack of respectClearly some of these factors (left column) are out of our control. Yet, factors on the right hand column warrant our attention. Interestingly, the last two items (unmet expectations and lack of respect) are the same items identified by Gallup as to why people leave a bad boss/a job.)
5Factors affecting attrition that may be in our control Unmet expectationsLack of connectednessLack of respectThese factors to me spell dissatisfaction. Dissatisfaction is damaging for the college at large and specifically for.faculty. Consider that in the marketplace, dissatisfied customers typically do not tell the vendor about their displeasure, but they tell, on the average 11 other people about the lousy service or product. Similarily, most dissatisfied employees don’t tell employers the real reason that they are leaving, which in most cases is because they had a boss who didn’t meet expectations, who didn’t connect (show support, etc) and show respect. While we don’t put institutions of higher ed in the same realm with marketplace, there are some some curious parallels to consider. We don’t regard students as “customers” in the literal sense, yet students are consumers, paying for a service and will go away if they are not satisfied. So what can we do? The immediate, evident solution is to ensure that students are satisfied in the transformation process. This is where faculty development services – workshops, observations, consultations, are of critical importance. Yet, these activities are merely nice events, with short-term results, if not grounded in a learner-centered culture of accountability.
6Learner-Centered Culture of Accountability An environment in which people want to work and learnWhat do I mean by a learner-centered culture of accountability? Let me suggest that this is a culture in which the learner is the focus and everyone is responsible and accountable for the results. That means there is not room for passing the buck, blaming or “us vs. them” conversations. We are all in this for a common purpose and committed to upholding the values of the college. A learner-centered culture of accountability is grounded in trust. Trust is the foundation that will support the development and stability of a culture.
7Learner Centered Culture of Accountability Focus on meeting students needs through:streamlined student delivery of servicesa full range of student-centeredlearning environments and activitiesaccountability and responsibility forresults(I need to polish this up)
8Accountability Model* Other-DirectedSelf-DirectedAutonomousAuthority“I Choose to”“I Have to”BeliefComplyRebelAttitudeAgreeDisagreeReactionResentResistAccept ConsequencesAccountabilty refers to ….being self-directed, autonomous, accepting consequences, being responsibleFeelingI’m Not ResponsibleI am ResponsibleBehaviorLike a VictimGet RevengeAccountableKeith Ayers, Integro Learning.
9A learner-centered culture of accountability is grounded intrust
10The Elements of Trust™Acceptance... people are respected for their contributions, differences are valued and leadership is sharedReliability... people can count on each other for support, keep their commitments and strive for excellence in what they doTM Keith Ayers, Integro Learning.
11The Elements of Trust™ Openness... we exchange information, discuss feelings and opinions and do notkeep secretsStraightforwardness... expectations areclear, disagreements are discussed andresolved and individual performance isdiscussed and agreed on
12The Elements of Trust™ Acceptance Reliability Openness StraightforwardnessEstablishing a high level of trust does not happen in an all-faculty meeting or in a mission or vision statement. Rather, it is an ongoing process that requires commitment, measurement and support. It is the challenge of everyone in the college to work toward developing these elements of trust: among leaders, faculty and staff. When we role model this kind of behavior we set a standard and an expectation for our students to soar. Given this framework, I will move on to some specific examples of what we can do to continuously strengthen faculty-student relationships and thus ensure the viability of the college.
13Culture is formed by Behaviors Beliefs Attitudes Feelings Trust Many popular theories suggest that a culture is based initially on trust that engenders feelings of belonging and commitment. Those feelings affect attitudes that support the culture which leads to beliefs that the culture is right and good. Ultimately, the beliefs affect behaviors which are the hallmark of the culture. The culture of the college and the culture of the learning environment will certainly impact student experience. What are we doing to promote a culture of accountability?
14of accountability: making connections Creating a cultureof accountability:making connections
15Three critical "connections" that need to occur with students at the outset of a course: student-instructor connection,the student-student (peer) connectionstudent-course (subject matter) connection.Let’s first address the student-instructor connection and the student-student connection which are not mutually exclusive. As we make the effort to know our students, we may also promote the peer-to-peer connection.
16Student Instructor Connection: Know Yourself How are you perceived by students?Faculty spend a lot of time talking about students and vice versa. No matter what you think about your own teaching, it is the student’s perception that matters. And perception is reality. What do you know about yourself as a teacher?
17Annoying Behaviors of Faculty Gonsalves, Sonia Annoying Behaviors of Faculty Gonsalves, Sonia. What you don’t know can hurt you: student’s perceptions of professors annoying teaching habits: College Student Journal, 9/1/03.Disorganized teachingTalk too fast/too slowMonotoneDegrading studentsLack of interactionLack of enthusiasmNot available outside class, do not show up for office hoursHow do you rank on this list? Have you gathered student data to know?
18Annoying Behaviors of Faculty Gonsalves, Sonia Annoying Behaviors of Faculty Gonsalves, Sonia. What you don’t know can hurt you: student’s perceptions of professors annoying teaching habits: College Student Journal, 9/1/03.Unclear assignmentsOpinionatedReading from book or notesKeeping class overtime (disrespectful)Too much overlap with bookUnfair testing/gradingTalking to the board/pacing/staring at students
19? ? Seek regular feedback Take a pulse How I am doing? More of / less of?Solicit feedback on a regular basis. Don’t wait until the end of the term. Then, it’s too late. Take a pulse – ask on a scale of 1-5, (5 being high) how am I doing in terms of meeting your needs, course criteria? Or, give out a sheet of paper and ask the questions above. Then, ACT on the feedback.
20Know your studentsKnowing yourself is only part of the equation. You have to know your students.
21Name tents or Name tagsDuring the first few classes use name tents or name tags. Online students should have a photo posted.
22Photo opFirst day of class bring in a digital camera and have students take photos of each other. Use photos to identify students by name in subsequent classes. Another fun idea is to have them write a story about themselves at the beginning of the semester. At the end, do the photo exercise again and write an end of semester essay.
23Best vs. Worst Learning Experience Reflect on a learningexperience when theconcept or skill reallyclicked, when youwere motivated to learn.Identify the characteristicsof the experience thatsupported the learning.WorstReflect on a learningexperience when theconcept or skill just didn’tclick., when you were notmotivated to learn.Identify the characteristicsof the experience thatde-motivated the learning.Divide group in half. Compare experiences. Suggest as an activity with students.
24Student-course connection: know learning styles develop an understanding of variousmodels that will help you understandhow students learndetermine strategies and techniquesfor including course materials in a waythat takes multiple styles into account
26Input Preferences VARK* VisualAuditoryRead/writeKinestheticTasteSmell*Fleming, Neil. VARK, A guile to learning styles:See slides
27Gardner’s Model of Multiple Intelligences 8 Pathways to the Brain Process Preferences Inter-personalLinguistic% 7>KinestheticLogical/MathMusicalIntrapersonalGardner suggests there are 8 MI and we use ALL of those. However, each of us has a preference. What is your primary and secondary preference for learning? Those preferences are likely reflected in your teaching style. So, if I tend to teach to one or two styles, what happens to students who are of other style preferences?Exercise: Tell me what you are good at doing and how you know it? Record it on chart. That is a simple way to identify your intelligence preferences.Visual/SpatialNaturalistAdapted from Howard Gardner’s Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century, 2000.
28Create opportunities for success! Frame the course in positivesCommunicate expectations (different from “rules”)Design an early “win”Build complexity of skill development, projectsRecognize & reinforce
29Give ‘em an “A”On first day of class, ask students students to write a letter in past tense on how they earned an “A”.Periodic 1-on-1 reviewGiving them an “A” is adapted from Benjamin Zander in The Art of Possibility: Transforming Professional and Personal Life by Rosamund Zander and Benjamin Zander.
30Coach rather than tell Don’t tell students something you can ask them. “How do you think that can be accomplished?”“What may be getting in the wayof achieving the goal?”“How can you do this differently?”
31Challenge mental models “Mental models are deeply engrained assumptions, generalizations, or even pictures or images that influence how we understand the world and how we take action.”- Peter Senge, The Fifth Discipline
37Statements about the Story: Answer True, False, or Unknown ? ( T , F , ? ) 1. A man appeared after the owner turned off the lightsin his store.( T , F , ? ) 2. The thief was a man.( T , F , ? ) 3. The man who appeared did not demand money.( T , F , ? ) 4. The store owner scooped up the contents of the cashregister and sped away.( T , F , ? ) 5. Someone opened a cash register.( T , F , ? ) 6. After the man demanded money and took the contents ofthe cash register, he fled.
38( T , F , ? ) 7. Even though there was money in the cash register, the story does not tell how much.( T , F , ? ) 8. The thief demanded money from the store owner.( T , F , ? ) 9. The story tells of a chain of events that involves onlythree people: the store owner, the man who demandedmoney, and a police officer.( T , F , ? ) 10. The following three things happened in the story:someone demanded money, a cash register wasopened, and a man fled from the store.
39Statements about the Story: Answer True, False, or Unknown ? ? A man appeared after the owner turned off the lightsin his store.? 2. The thief was a man.F The man who appeared did not demand money.? 4. The store owner scooped up the contents of the cashregister and sped away.T 5. Someone opened a cash register.
40? 6. After the man demanded money and took the contents of the cash register, he fled.T 7. Even though there was money in the cash register, thestory does not tell how much.? 8. The thief demanded money from the store owner.? 9. The story tells of a chain of events that involves onlythree people: the store owner, the man who demandedmoney, and a police officer.? 10. The following three things happened in the story:someone demanded money, a cash register wasopened, and a man fled from the store.
41Climbing the ladder of Inference* Take actionsbased on conclusionsDraw conclusionsbased on assumptionsMake assumptionsbased on meaning I addReflective Loopour conclusions &actions affect whatdata we selectnext timeAdd meaningto selected data from experiencesObservable data(things I see & experience)
42Reflective Loop our conclusions & actions affect what data we select nexttime
43Not Getting “Stuck” on the Ladder: Skills for Dialogue ReflectionAdvocacyInquiry
44Reflection: Becoming aware of your thinking and reasoning.“How have I arrived at this?”“Explain to me how you see it that way.”
45Why didn’t I say what I was thinking? I. Reflection: Reflect on your thinking to deal with the tendency to resist, withdraw, insist, demand. Examine where you may be on the ladder of inference. Reflection occurs throughout the dialogue.What has led me to think / feel this way?Why didn’t I say what I was thinking?What assumptions am I making about…?What are the costs of acting this way?What are the benefits?What prevents me from acting differently?
46Not Getting “Stuck” on the Ladder: Skills for Dialogue Advocacy: Making your thinking andreasoning visible to others.“This is how I see it.”
47Advocacy: Making thinking process visible (walk up the ladder of inference slowly).What to doWhat to sayState your assumptions, and describe the data that led to them."Here’s what I think, and here’s how I got there.Explain your assumptions"I assumed that…."Make your reasoning explicit."I came to this conclusion because…"Explain the context of your point of view: who will be affected by what you propose, how they will be affected andwhy."To get a clear picture of what I’m talking about, imagine that you’re the person who will be affected…As you speak, try to picture the other people’s perspective on what you are saying.
48Advocacy Publicly test your conclusions and assumptions. (continued) What to doWhat to sayInvite others to explore your thinking, your assumptions, and your data."What do you think about what I just said?" or "Do you see any defects in my reasoning?" or "What can you add?"Avoid defensiveness when your thoughts or ideas are questioned. If you’re advocating something worthwhile, then it will only get stronger by being tested.Reveal where you are in your thinking. Defuse opposition."Here’s one aspect which you might help me think through…."Listen and stay open, and encourage others to provide different views."Do you see it differently?"
49Not Getting “Stuck” on the Ladder: Skills for Dialogue Inquiry: Seeking to understand others’thinking and reasoning in a non-adversarial way.“Explain to me how you see it that way.”
50Listen: to others without resistance to yourself – be aware of thought to your reactions – pay attention to emotionsListening is not waiting for your turn to talk!
51Inquiry: Ways to ask others to make their thinking process visible. What to doWhat to sayFind out what data others are operating from."What leads you to conclude that?" "What data do you have for that?" "What causes you to say that?" (Be aware of tone of voice; defensive).Use non-aggressive language, particularly with people who are not familiar with these skills.Instead of "What do you mean?" or "What’s your proof?" say, "Can you help me understand your thinking here?"Draw out reasoning. Find out as much as you can about why they are saying what they ‘re saying."What is the significance of that?" "How does this relate to your other concerns?" "Where does your reasoning go next?"Explain your reasons for inquiring, and how your inquiry relates to your own concerns, hopes, and needs."I’m asking you about assumptions here because…"
52Compare your assumptions to theirs. Compare your assumptions to theirs.What to doWhat to sayTest what they say by asking for broader contexts, or for examples."Can you give an example…?" "How would your idea affect..?" "Is this similar to …?"Check your understanding of what they have said."Am I correct that you’re saying?"Listen for the new understanding that may emerge. Don’t concentrate on preparing to destroy the other person’s argument or promote your own agenda.
53Opening LinesWhen… you might say…Strong views are expressed with “I’d like to understand more.out any reasoning or What leads you to believe….?”illustrations…The discussion goes off on an “I’m unclear how that connectsapparent tangent… to what we’ve been saying. Can you explain how you see it as relevant?”Two members pursue a topic at “I’d like to give my reaction tolength while others observe… what you two have said so far, and then see what you and others think.”
54Applying the SkillsAsk students to compare and clarify assumptions about each other, the course, the instructor, with you.Sit in pairs and have one person state an assumption and the other person respond. The assumption does not have to be negative. The other party will refute or confirm the assumption.Examples: “I assume you like this class becauseyou frequently asking questions.”“I get the idea from what you say aboutyour last school that you are satisfied with this school. Is that right?
55Apply Dialogue Skills in Learning Communities Establish and support informallearning communities to promote:Student/faculty dialogueFaculty dialogueFaculty-administration dialogue"Once a group has achieved community, the single most common thing members express is: “I feel safe here.”M. Scott Peck, M.D.
56Create and support Learning Communities* A learning community is an alternative form of education directed by participants, not a designated instructor. It can occur in many forms such as online, or small groups meeting face-to-face. Generally, a learning community commits to regular meetings and format for discussion, dialogue and growth. Groups may consist of all students or a combination of students and faculty. Importantly, there is a common goal and collaboration. Learning communities are particularly effective for group learning projects.*Wilson, Brent & Rider, Martin. Dynamic Learning Communities: An Alternative toDesigned Instructional Systems. Available online at:
57Suggested activities to further promote a learner centered environment
58Get and keep attention!Start or interject the class with fun facts, humor, or a brain twister.Example: What is peculiar about the number?Hint:You need no mathematical skills to solve the problem.Each digit is used once.The sequence of the numbers is significant.
59Silent Start Objective: Apply critical thinking skills and prepare for discussion. Materials: Paper, penStart the class with a brief writing assignment by posting 2-3 questions.Give students 5 minutes to write responses.Group students in pairs or triads for discussion. Allow 6-8 minutes.Facilitate discussion. Compare and contrast responses. Summarize and bring to closure.Examples:What is feminism? Are you a feminist? Why/why not?Should grades be eliminated and replaced with a pass/fail system? Why/why not?
60Partner Progress Objective: Compare information, share ideas; opportunity to assess. Depending on the nature and time frame of the class, ask students to turn to one another (online - exchange s) and compare notes or exchange any questions or concerns about the class content.If the class involves skill application, i.e., draw, design, etc., have students assess each other’s work with predetermined criteria.Give them 3-5 minutes.After this activity ask what they learned about the content or another person’s perspective.Ask what questions they have as a result of the partner exchange.
61Summary Swap Objective: Summarize a segment of content and identify key learning points. Materials: Index cards or student’s paperAfter a period of time, roughly 10 minutes, in class or lab, ask students to summarize the key learnings from that segment of the class.On an index card, or sheet of paper, they are to put their name at the top. Use only one side to record the summary. Take about two minutes for this.Ask everyone to stand up and exchange the card with someone. The person who received the card will read it over and add anything they think is important that the card “owner” may have left out.Exchange cards 2-3 times with different students.Direct everyone to return the card to the “owner.”Ask for a volunteer to read their summary and what was added to the card.The cards make a great tool for review.
62Activate the concept Objective: To strengthen learning by acting out the concept Physically acting out a concept may be a more effective and engaging forstudents than simply reading or hearing about the concept. The example belowwas used in a research methods class. It can be adapted to many differentconcepts and learning environments.Learning objective: Distinguish between independent and dependent variables. Identifypossible antecedent and intervening variables.Have the entire class stand in a group.Pose the following research question: What is the correlation between sex of the driverand being stopped for speeding?Advise students to first identify the independent variable (sex of driver), the attributesof that variable (male/female), and the dependent variable (stopped for speeding).Next, tell the students that they need to actually show how we would research this by moving around the room. Ask, “What would you do first?” Here the students need todivide into the two attributes, male and female.State, “Now that you are in two groups, what is the question?” (Who has been stoppedfor speeding?)This activity can go on as you ask students to identify possible antecedent andintervening variables.7) Ask if correlation implies causation.
63Props Objective: Learn an abstract with a tangible Materials: Miscellaneous props Roll dice or flip a coin to teach probability. Have students work in pairs or small groups with dice to experience this first-hand.Use candy to show measures of central tendency. Jelly beans or M&M’s work well with this activity. Give pairs or groups of students candy and “data.” They are to use the candy to depict a bar chart, histogram, polygon, etc.A human histogram or scatter gram can be created by asking students to position themselves in the room as if each person were data.
64When we teach, we learn Objective: To reinforce learning by teaching to a peer Advise students that they are to select one concept, skill, formula, etc., from what has been covered today, to teach to a classmate.Allow about 3-4 minutes for preparation. The teaching should only take2-2.5 minutes each.Pair students for the “teach/learn” activity. They may select their own partner or you may ask them to pair with someone they don’t know, or haven’t paired with previously.Give then some directions to begin, i.e., the person whose first name begins first in the alphabet. Tell them they have 5 minutes total for both students to teach and ask questions. Advise them when half of the time has elapsed.Ask: What was difficult about this activity?What was easy or fun about this activity?How did the teaching reinforce the learning?Teaching is the highest form of understanding. Aristotle
65ReferencesBuckingham, Marcus & Coffman, Curt, First, Break All the Rules: What the World's Greatest Managers Do Differently, New York: Simon & Schuster,Doyle, W., & Rutherford, B “Classroom research on matching learning and teaching styles.” Theory Into Practice, 23,Felder, R.M. , Matters of Style. ASEE Prism, 6(4), 18-23).Felder, R.M., & Silverman, L.K Learning styles and teaching styles in engineering education. Engineering Education, 78(7),Fleming, Neil. VARK, A guide to learning styles:Gardner, Howard, Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century. New York: Basic Books.Grasha, A.F. (1996). Teaching with style: A practical guide to enhancing leaning by understanding teaching and learning styles. Pittsburgh: Alliance Publishers.
66ReferencesGrow, Gerald O. (1991/1996). Teaching Learners to be Self-Directed. Adult Education Quarterly, 41 (3), Expanded version available online at:McKeachie, W. (1994) Teaching tips: A guidebook for the beginning college teacher (9th edition). Lexington, MA: Heath.McKeachie, W.J. (1995). Learning styles can become learning strategies. The National Teaching and Learning Forum, 4(6), 1-3.Oxford, R., Ehrman, M, and Lavine, R Style wars: Teacher-student style conflicts in the language classroom. In S. Magnan, (Ed.), Challenges in the 1990's for College Foreign Language Programs. Boston: Heinle and Heinle.Wilson, Brent & Rider, Martin. Dynamic Learning Communities: An Alternative to Designed Instructional Systems. Available online at:
67Visual Learners Prefer Visual Learners PreferVisual materials (e. g., pictures, charts)Description of imagesColor to highlight important points in the textTo take notes or illustrate ideaStudy in a quiet place
68Auditory Learners Prefer DiscussionTo make class presentationsA tape recorder during lectures instead of taking notesRead text aloudAnalogies and story tellingMnemonics and musical jingles to aid memorization
69Reading/Writing Learners Prefer Detailed note takingEssay examsPrinted materials (e. g., handouts, texts, lecture notes, lists)Articulation and full sentencesIndependent study
70Kinesthetic Learners Prefer Kinesthetic Learners PreferHands-on, moving around, touching objectsDoodlingTake frequent study breaksInconsistent eye contactChew gum/listen to music while studying