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5.3 School toilets Learning objective: to get acquainted with the special management and construction needs of school toilets Can schools inspire good.

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Presentation on theme: "5.3 School toilets Learning objective: to get acquainted with the special management and construction needs of school toilets Can schools inspire good."— Presentation transcript:

1 5.3 School toilets Learning objective: to get acquainted with the special management and construction needs of school toilets Can schools inspire good hygiene and promote ecological sanitation ?

2 Variations in the quality of school toilets J-O Drangert, Linkoping university, Sweden

3 Hygienic conditions for pupils and school staff Water tap for washing hands using 0.1 litre per hand wash Courtesy of Maria Ines Matiz, Colombia and Subburaman, Scope, India Incinerator for sanitary pads

4 Siting: indoors or in the yard ? Today Tomorrow Class rooms Class rooms toilets J-O Drangert, Linkoping university, Sweden TOILETS OUTSIDE INSIDE TOILETS Impact on individual Impact on environ- ment - No hand washing - Soiled shoes or feet - May choose not to use toilet (due to cold, dirt, flies etc.) - Groundwater pollution - Excreta stay in the ground - Loss of nutrients - Hand washing - Clean shoes - Attractive for girls - No groundwater contamination - Productive use possible - Some smell when emptying

5 School toilet planning - FUNCTIONS Criterion 1: waiting time Criterion 2: Access to water Criterion 3: No disease spread Criterion X: cleanliness Adequate number of toilets Use allowed all times of the day Introduce female urinals Enough time to eat Complement existing source Pupils bring along water Hand washing before eating Clean floors Monitoring J-O Drangert, Linkoping university, Sweden

6 Construction & cost reduction School toilet in historic village of Hougou Village, China Courtesy of Peter Morgan, Zimbawe Girls school urinals

7 School toilet design J-O Drangert, Linkoping university, Sweden Bird's eye view : Section

8 Smell of urine in the toilet room J-O Drangert, Linkoping university, Sweden Urine pipes and tanks in inspection chamber under the toilet floor Inspection chamber cubicle Urine tank

9 Girls´ school toilet Courtesy of Scope, India and Naning Adiwoso, Indonesia Girls´ urinals in a Musiri school, India with a water storage for washing Girls´ school toilet, Indonesia with natural light and ventilation

10 Where does urine and faecal matter end up? J-O Drangert, Linkoping university, Sweden

11 School gardens and production of food Soil from organic compost, Colombia Plant trials in Zimbabwe with only water (left) and also urine (right) given to canola, spinach and maize Courtesy of Peter Morgan, Zimbabwe and Maria Ines Matiz, Colombia Urine fertilised plants in Brazil Courtesy Ana Claudia Braga

12 From garden via kitchen to the pupils plates Courtesy of Kitchengarden Foundation, Australia Beans for the meal Preparation of school meal School toilet

13 Example 1 : Urban and rural schools in Kenya Girls´ observed handwash Boys´ observed handwash Girls reported toilet use Boys observed toilet use Clean toilets Water for handwash in toilet No of children per tap School has all three facilities Water for washing hands in toilet Number of pupils per tap O&M carried out Perceived toilet cleanliness Perceived privacy in toilet Girls´ school absences Source: V. Njuguna et al. 2009

14 Example 2 : Rural schools in Colombia TABLE #9 Name Nº students toilets wash bowls soap towel El Cabral 15 4 yes yes yes El Copial 18 6 yes no no El Consuelo 48 4 yes no no El Higuerón Las Mercedes 48 5 yes yes no Santa Lucía 15 4 yes yes yes San Antonio yes no no La Guasima 18 3 yes no no Lutaima 22 2 yes yes yes La Palmichera 18 4 yes yes yes El Rosario Santa Ana 34 2 yes no no Andalucía 18 2 yes no no Calichana La Esmeralda 19 1 yes no no La Esperanza Golconda 28 2 no no no Panamá 39 2 yes no no Patio Bonito yes no no Sanitary services in rural schools in Anapoima Courtesy of Maria Ines Matiz, El Bosque University, Colombia

15 TABLE#16 Name Entry Inside Exit El Bejucal Guacamaya Guacana Nueva Charcolargo El Naranjal Naranjalito Pantanos Escuela Salcedo Nueva rural La Vega Cachimbulo La Orqueta Palmar Esc. Nva. rural Meseta Paloquemado San Antonio Assessing conditions in schools in Colombia Daily aqueduct service Aqueduct Service, every 3 days Aqueduct service every 2 days. No service. Depend on rain fall and water truck. Filters or boil Nothing Open field Sewer and septic hole Courtesy of Maria Ines Matiz, El Bosque University, Colombia

16 J-O Drangert, Linkoping university, Sweden Example 3: Rural and urban schools in the Ukraine

17 Management options Item Conditions (OK, fair, needs) Measure to take (repair, replace) Who is responsible Cost estimate Toilet room: Toilet floor Pedestal or pan janitor Water seal Ventilation Urine pipes janitor Water seal H/master Drainage pipe Soak-away Door and hinges H/master Plaster on walls Paint of urinal J-O Drangert, Linkoping university, Sweden

18 Management of school sanitation facilities Courtesy of Oliver Ives, Amanz abantu Services Ltd, South Africa

19 Population increase as a challenge J-O Drangert, Linkoping university, Sweden YearPopu- lation New class- rooms , , , , , ,000 Increase 000´ in Total Newborn Number of classes (000´) in Standard I II III IV V VI VII Number of additional teachers and classrooms required to provide primary education for all new-born

20 Awareness raising From Ajzen (2002)


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