Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Module 9 Environmental systems analysis methodology Can totally different sanitation systems be fairly compared? How are environmental impacts."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 4 Module 9 Environmental systems analysis methodology Can totally different sanitation systems be fairly compared? How are environmental impacts measured?
Life cycle assessment (LCA) Aim – Evaluate environmental burdens of a product or service – Using a cradle-to-grave perspective from raw material extraction to waste management and final disposal. Raw material acquisition Processes Transport Manufacture Use Waste management
LCA work with an expanded system Comparison require delivery of similar product – That leave you with compared system – And compensatory system (external system) Compared systemCompensatory system Product
Example of a system comparison Source: Jan-Olov Sundquist, IVL
Functional unit, valued products Core system incineration Waste Heat Power Functional unit Core system Landfill Waste Heat Power Heat production Power production Compensatory or external system Functional unit
Resources – Energy and materials Water Land Impacts on human health (toxicological and non-toxicological impacts, excluding and including work environment) Global warming Depletion of stratospheric ozone Acidification Eutrophication Photo-oxidant formation Eco-toxicological impacts Habitat alterations and impacts on biological diversity Impact categories to be considered in an LCA
TitleTitle Collection and aggregation of data NO x NH 3 P etc. CO 2 CH 4 N 2 O Eutrophication Global warming Index InventoryCharacterisation Weighting
Which environmental effect is most important? Global vs local Long-term vs short-term Importance of the impact – Compare the system impact with total national emissions
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