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4.7 Greywater treatment constructed wetland, gardening,

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Presentation on theme: "4.7 Greywater treatment constructed wetland, gardening,"— Presentation transcript:

1 4.7 Greywater treatment constructed wetland, gardening, wastewater pond, biol. treatment, membrane- technology Greywater (shower, washing, cleaning, etc.) irrigation, groundwater recharge or direct reuse Learning objectives: Get familiar with various treatment options and with the application of various processes Can we remove all the pathogens and heavy metals? What is in the sludge?

2 Application of processes
Chemical Biological phosphorus, pathogens, metals G BOD, nitrogen, pathogens F B A D E C BOD, suspended solids Physical Jan-Olof Drangert, Linköping university, Sweden

3 Overview of possible technical options
Treatment: Possible technical solutions for greywater: Physical (SS and BOD-levels) Screen, grease trap, septic tank, sedimentation pond Biological I (BOD-level reduction) ABR, anaerobic filter, UASB, soil filters, reactive filters, trickling/bio-filter, stabilisation pond, sub-surface wetlands, irrigation Biological II (N & pathogen reduction) Nitrification-denitrification in wetland or sandfilter, maturation pond, crop production, mulch beds, overland flow Chemical (P, pathogen, metal removal) soil filters, reactive filters, precipitation pond, irrigation Sludge management Thickeners, centrifuge, sieve, fermentation, lime, drainage bed, reed beds, composting, lime stabilisation Karin Tonderski, Linköping univeristy, Sweden

4 Screens and grease traps
Organics from kitchen pipe sorted out in a plastic screen Over-flow Jan-Olof Drangert, Linköping university, Sweden

5 Sedimentation pond Karin Tonderski, Linköping university, Sweden 5

6 Simple septic tank Scum layer Bird’s eye view Sediment Sediment
Jan-Olof Drangert, Linköping university, Sweden 6

7 Anaerobic pond CH4, CO2 scum layer sludge
Karin Tonderski, Linköping university, Sweden

8 Anaerobic baffled reactor
Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) Off-plot system Anaerobic baffled reactor Pedro Kraemer, BORDA, India 8

9 Anaerobic Filter (off-plot biogas system)
Courtesy of Pedro Kraemer, BORDA, India 9

10 UASB Reactor biogas Air pump Jan-Olof Drangert, Linköping university

11 Horizontal subsurface flow wetlands
Internal water level Influent Outlet shaft Collection and drainage pipe Cross distribution trench Cross collection trench Main filter filled with graded gravel and sand Effluent Courtesy of Roshan Shrestha, UN-Habitat, Nepal

12 Construction of horizontal flow wetlands
Karin Tonderski, Linköping university, Sweden 12

13 Soil filters – leachfield or mound systems
Jan-Olof Drangert, Linköping university, Sweden 13

14 Trickling filter Jan-Olof Drangert, Linköping university, Sweden

15 Vertical flow subsurface wetland
Influent Main filter filled with graded gravel and sand Collection and drainage pipe Effluent Courtesy of Roshan Shrestha, UN-Habitat, Nepal (revised)

16 Biofilter and wetland for greywater treatment
Biofilter with nozzle distribution Wetland Total area 100 m2 Courtesy of Thor-Axel Stenström, SMI, Sweden 16

17 Common problems in soil filters
1. Overloading (suspended solids, high BOD, water) 2. Uneven distribution (over surface, over clay) 3. Failure in drainage (waterlogging, roots) 4. Wrong choice of sand and gravel (texture, mineral particle shape) 1 2 3 4 Jan-Olof Drangert, Linkoping university, Sweden

18 Improved distribution using controlled clogging
Geotextile unit Pre- treatment in sedimentation tank 10 m 0.6 m in sand 3 m in silt Courtesy of Peter Ridderstolpe, WRS. Sweden

19 Bird´s eye view of a mulch bed system for a single house
Distribution boxes Registro de división de flujos Bath kitchen Mulch beds Cajete de acolchado Wash room Courtesy of Kim Andersson, Colombia

20 Greywater pipe from household
Mulch bed filter Greywater pipe from household Mulch from garden Depth max. 40 cm Entrance with stones 3-10 litres of greywater per m2 per day Courtesy of Kim Andersson, Colombia 20

21 Wetland irrigation and overland flow
Karin Tonderski, Linköping university, Sweden

22 Aerobic biofilters and energy
Extensive Intensive Sorption and irrigation systems Rapid infiltration systems Biofilter reactors - Drain mulch basin Swales & resorption trenches Wetland irrigation (overland flow & sub- surface flow, and impounding wetlands) Soil filters: - Infiltration (open, covered submerged - Sandfilters Artificial filter media: - Indrän, infiltra etc. - Trickling filter - Bio-rotors Revised from P. Ridderstolpe, WRS, Uppsala

23 Removal rate of microorganisms in various wastewater treatments (log units)
Process Bacteria Helminths Viruses Cysts Primary sedimentation: Plain Chemically assisted UASB 1-2 Activated sludge 0-2 0-1 Sub-surface flow wetland 2-6 2-3 Aerated lagoon 1-3 Slow sand filtration/infiltration 3-6 Disinfection 0-4 0-3 Waste stabilization pond 2-4 1-4 Large variations in practice due to quality of management Sources: WHO, 2006 and Jimenez et al., 2010 23 23

24 E: Treatment of sludge Limits Cd Cr Cu Hg Ni Pb Zn Old 20-40 - 1,100-
1,750 16-25 750- 1,200 2,500- 4,000 New 5 150 400 50 250 600 New limits on organics proposed under Option 3 from EU (2008) PAH 6 mg/kg dry matter PCB 0.8 mg/kg dry matter PCDD/F 100 ng ITEQ/kg dry matter LAS 5 g/kg dry matter NPE 450 mg/kg dry matter - All treatment processes produce sludge, be it much or little Choice of treatment according to kind of reuse We need to de-toxify our chemical society Source: EU, 2008 24

25 Start from the end ! (centralised example)
Our thinking is now on global challenges as well as on local wishes for system performance and status Sludge drying bed We decide what quality we would like the final products to have. CO2 & methane gases Dried sludge itself percolating effluent water Jan-Olof Drangert, Linköping university, Sweden 25

26 Pathogen reductions achieved by selected health-protection measures
Control measure Reduction (log units) Comments Wastewater treatment 1-4 Usually achieved reduction but depends on type and functionality of the treatment system Drip irrigation: - low-growing - high-growing 2 4 Root crops and crops such as lettuce that grow just above but partially in contact with soil. Crops such as tomatoes and fruit trees not in contact. Pathogen die-off per day Die-off on crop surfaces between last irrigation and consumption, depends on sunshine, crop type etc. Crop-washing: with water - disinfection 1 2-3 Washing salad crops, vegetables and fruit with: clean water. Weak disinfectant and rinsing in clean water. Produce peeling Produce cooking 1-2 6-7 Fruits, cabbage, root crops. Immersion in boiling or close-to-boiling water. Source: Bos, R., Carr, R. and Keraita, B

27 Environmental and Human health hazards
Pathogenic microorganisms Chemical compounds Num-bers A few hundreds: handfull unknown added each year 100,000 man-made; Hundreds new man-made added each year Expo-sure In food, by skin penetration, insect bites, in aerosols. - In food, by skin penetration, on skin, in aerosols. Water bodies, soil accumulation Dose-response One up to millions; a few to millions needed for infection Nano- to microgrammes; small amounts that may accumulate. Vulne-rable Humans but not environment. Mainly children & elderly Both humans and environment. All, but particularly babies Barriers Wash hands & veggies, no finger in mouth, heat food, etc Only biodegradable, caution with medicines, effluents to soil Jan-Olof Drangert, Linköping university, Sweden

28 mix as few flows as possible
Summary of strategies to improve wastewater treatment and nutrient use in agriculture and energy production Principle: Organic ≠ other solid waste Stormwater ≠ sewage Industrial ≠ household wastewater Black toilet water ≠ greywater Faeces ≠ urine mix as few flows as possible Jan-Olof Drangert, Linköping University, Sweden 28


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