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4.5 Greywater is man-made – an untapped water and nutrient resource constructed wetland, gardening, wastewater pond, biol. treatment, membrane- technology.

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Presentation on theme: "4.5 Greywater is man-made – an untapped water and nutrient resource constructed wetland, gardening, wastewater pond, biol. treatment, membrane- technology."— Presentation transcript:

1 4.5 Greywater is man-made – an untapped water and nutrient resource constructed wetland, gardening, wastewater pond, biol. treatment, membrane- technology Greywater (shower, washing, cleaning, etc.) irrigation, groundwater recharge or direct reuse Learning objective: the role of households in tackling environmental and resource challenges

2 Challenges and possibilities Greywater represents environmental challenges: - Unpleasant odours - Health hazard (pathogens and toxic compounds) - Soil erosion - Pollution of surface water and groundwater - Mosquito breeding Benefits of using treated greywater and sludge: + Reduces water shortage + Reduces environmental degradation, eutrophication and health hazards + Reclaims otherwise wasted nutrients + Alleviates food shortages and poverty + Protects the quality of groundwater Courtesy of Nicola Rodda University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban

3 Rain Urban horizontal water and nutrient flows Jan-Olof Drangert, Linköping University, Sweden

4 Urban unintended vertical flows of contamination Landfill Groundwater (saturated aquifer ) Sludge bed Soil layer with organic material, clays and charged particles Irrigation Septic tank Petrol station Sewers Pit latrines Jan-Olof Drangert, Linköping University, Sweden

5 Water volumes (supply & disposal) Shallow wells Deeper wells Periurban wells Imported water Effect on quantity : None Falling grw-level Over extraction Excess infiltration Effect on quality : None Growing pollution Excessive pollution The effects of urbanisation on groundwater utilisation, quantity and quality Courtesy of G. Jacks, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm Settlement size time

6 All groundwater under cities is polluted Source: Powell et al., 2003

7 Wastewater = clean water + what has been added Courtesy of Peter Ridderstolpe, WRS, Uppsala, Sweden

8 What do we put into the water? Detergents can contain (check list of contents on package) – Phosphorous in water and on soil – which can be replaced by potassium or – Salts: sodium or – Bleaches: chlorine and peroxide – Fluorescent whitening agents – Non-degradable substances: zeolites or and fillers or What is in soap, detergents, shampoos, solvents, disinfectants, paints, medicines, pharmaceuticals, etc ? Courtesy of H. Jönsson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden Soap contains alkali salts with long-chained fatty acids: Hard soap usually contains sodium (Na) Liquid soap usually contains potassium hydroxide (K)

9 Toxic organic compounds Phthalates (ß-D- Glc -IPM) O HO OH O P O NH Cl Ifosfamide 0% biodegradable O P O NH Cl HO Glufosfamide 70% biodegradable, improved up-take in the gut Source: Kümmerer, 2007

10 Metals in wastewater & excreta 1.2.3.4.5.6. Element Daily intake (mgr) Output in faeces (mgr/kg P) Found in sludge (mgr/kg P) QuotientOutput in urine (mgr/kg P) Quotient CopperCu 1,400 1,000 14,000 14 68 206 Chromium Cr 300 214 1,300 6 0.652,000 NickelNi 120 88 7208.316 78 ZincZn11,0007,20025,0003.5424 69 LithiumLi1712 MercuryHg 5 3,5 40 11 0.64 63 LeadPb 23 16 1,500 94 16 94 CadmiumCd 14 10 44 4 0.32 137 Courtesy of G. Lindgren, Sweden

11 Can we cope with the chemical society ? 30 000 chemical compounds treatment 29 980 unknowns 20 monitored What we know: 1. Metals and man-made organic material do NOT disappear, but 2.... they may adsorb to particles 3. Organics decompose into... 4. inorganic substances and gas, but do NOT disappear Jan-Olof Drangert, Linköping University, Sweden

12 Minimise water use, reduce contamination by chemicals, oil, particles, fats, excreta Storage of urine/faeces, septic tank, grease filter, screen, etc. Aerobic process: - Trickling filter - Soil/sand filter - Mulch filter - Vertical flow con- structed wetland - Ponds– facultative maturation etc. Anaerobic process: - Anaerobic baffled reactor - Anaerobic pond Service water Resorption Surface irrigation Sub-soil irrigation Infiltration To surface water Quality of material & workmanship is a FIRST priority! Usages: Courtesy of Peter Ridderstolpe, WRS, Uppsala, Sweden A: Source control comes first

13 Households can contribute – NOW! Use as little water as possible by mimicking the use of water in buckets (do not wash under running tap, take quick showers, mend leaking taps, put full loads in washing machines,...... ) Do NOT add solid matter to water (put food scraps from plates and utensils in the waste bin, do not flush tooth picks etc. down the toilet, do not put cigarette butts in urinal,...... ) Do NOT add chemicals and oils to the water while using it (put fat from frying pan in the solid waste bin, use biodegradable soap and detergent, do not flush paint, medicines or other chemicals down the toilet,.... ) Buy and use environmentally friendly products for your home Then you can use greywater in your garden, and you avoid blockages Jan-Olof Drangert, Linköping university, Sweden

14 Households can invest: install proper devices in your kitchen and bathroom When you build or retrofit your home: - Buy water- and energy-saving devices e.g. water-efficient shower heads, taps, washing machines and low-flush toilets - Install a dry or low-flush urine-diverting toilet to recover nutrients and to save water - Avoid leaking taps and keep a record of the amount of water used every now and then to monitor your usage Example: A new suburb in Stockholm, Sweden with proper saving devices achieved (www.stockholmwater.se):www.stockholmwater.se - a 40 % reduction in water use - a 25% reduction in hot water use (= energy saving) - a 50% reduction in eutrophying substances to the lake Jan-Olof Drangert, Linköping university, Sweden

15 Benign by design - manufacturers need not make products with problematic content Classical view on functionality of chemical products: + stable (persistent) + effective + efficient + affordable New view: + complete and fast degradation + no risk of harmful effects TPS non-biodegradable for washing powder Source: Kümmerer, 2007 LAS readily biodegradable replacement of TPS + effective + efficient + affordable

16 Supervision: nonylphenol in car care products mg/kg dry matter Nonylphenol in digested sludge Car wash New law Courtesy of Arne Jamtrot, Stockholm City

17 Media attention: Triclosan in toothpaste MEDIA Reports Your toothpaste is full of poison % in 2010: 000 00 00 0 00 0 0 % in 2006: Courtesy of Arne Jamtrot, Stockholm City % of toothpastes containing triclosan

18 Section of sewer with Hg nuggets Subsidies: Hg in sewers at dental clinics Did the campaign make a difference? 280 kg mercury was removed 1998 and 2004 Courtesy of Arne Jamtrot, Stockholm City


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