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Georeferencing Introduction to georeferencing

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1 Georeferencing Introduction to georeferencing
A proposal Against the background of the seven hypotheses presented in this document, the European Forum for Geostatistics (EFGS), under a generous grant from EUROSTAT, have from the beginning of this year started work on the GEOSTAT ESSnet project. The project consortium of nine NSI’s is led by Statistics Norway. The need to take action for the integration of geography and statistics should not be limited to the European scale. We therefore propose: The establishment of a Global Forum For Geostatistics (GFGS) to serve as a professional reference group (PRG) for Geostatistics and provide a professional link between UN and the NSI’s in issues related to this field.. This PRG will primarily be concerned with questions related to the integration of geography (GSDI projects) and statistics (GEOSTAT) The initiation of a joint UN spatial data infrastructure (SDI) project for geostatistics. This is the first step towards a GSDI based Global Integrated Information System (GGIISS) and should be developed in close cooperation with the national mapping agency (NMA) -led GSDI and INSPIRE projects. The initiation of the GEOSTAT GSSgrid project to provide a high-resolution harmonised infrastructure for geostatistics liberated from administrative areas and demonstrating its power and utility through a UN project to plot the global population on km grids. Keywords: GSDI (Global Spatial Data Infrastructure), GSS (Global Statistical System), Small area statistics, GIS (Geographical Information System), GGIISS (Global Geographic Integrated Information Systems of Systems) Mr Vilni Verner Holst Bloch MSc Resourcs Geography and Landscape Ecology Statistics Norway 460 Construction and service statistics Oterveien 23 N-2225 Kongsvinger NORWAY Tel: Mob ESTP course on Geographic Information Systems (GIS): Use of GIS for making statistics in a production environment Statistics Norway, Oslo, 26th to 30th of March 2012 Attribution (by) Licensees may copy, distribute, display and perform the work and make derivative works based on it only if they give the author or licensor the credits in the manner specified by these.

2 Content Georeferencing Geocoding Reverse geocoding Geocoder Excercise

3 Georeferencing To georeference something means to define its existence in physical space. That is, establishing its location in terms of map projections or coordinate systems. The term is used both when establishing the relation between raster or vector images and coordinates, and when determining the spatial location of other geographical features. Examples would include establishing the correct position of an aerial photograph within a map or finding the geographical coordinates of a place name or street address. Most georeferencing tasks are undertaken either because the user wants to produce a new map or because they want to link two or more different datasets together by virtue of the fact that they relate to the same geographic locations.

4 Georeferencing needs Georeferencing is crucial to making aerial and satellite imagery, usually raster images, useful for mapping as it explains how other data, such as the above GPS points, relate to the imagery. Very essential information may be contained in data or images that were produced at a different point of time. It may be desired either to combine or compare this data with that currently available. The latter can be used to analyze the changes in the features under study over a period of time. Different maps may use different projection systems. Georeferencing tools contain methods to combine and overlay these maps with minimum distortion. It may be required to establish the relationship between social survey results which have been coded with postal codes or street addresses and other geographic areas such as census zones or other areas used in public administration or service planning.

5 Georeferencing hardware
Artist's conception of GPS Block II-F satellite in Earth orbit. Civilian GPS receiver in a marine application. Automotive navigation system in a taxicab. GPS receivers are now integrated in many mobile phones.

6 Georeferencing methods
There are various GIS tools available that can transform image data to some geographic control framework, like ArcMap, PCI Geomatica, or ERDAS Imagine. One can georeference a set of points, lines, polygons, images, or 3D structures. For instance, a GPS device will record latitude and longitude coordinates for a given point of interest, effectively georeferencing this point. A georeference must be a unique identifier. In other words, there must be only one location for which a georeference acts as the reference. In situations where data has been collected and assigned to postal or area codes, it is usually necessary to convert these to geographic coordinates by use of a definitive directory or gazetteer file. Such gazetteers are often produced by census agencies, national mapping organizations or postal service providers. At their simplest, these may simply comprise a list of area codes or place names and another list of corresponding codes, names or coordinate locations. The range and purpose of the codes available is country-specific. An example is the UK's National Statistics Postcode Directory which shows each postcode's membership of census, administrative, electoral and other geographical areas. In this case, the directory also provides dates of creation and deletion, address counts and an Ordnance Survey grid reference for each postcode, allowing it to be mapped directly. Such gazetteer files support many web-based mapping systems which will place a symbol on a map or undertaken analysis such as route-finding, on the basis of postal codes, addresses or place names input by the user.

7 List of some geocoding systems
(some of these code systems are free for use, others have different licences): ISO 6709 Standard Representation for Geographic Point Location by Coordinates C-squares - compact encoding of geographic coordinate bounds (latitude-longitude) FIPS country codes (FIPS 10-4), area code, administrative, free IATA airport codes, area /point codes, airports ICAO airport codes, area /point codes, airports IANA country codes similar to ISO alpha-2 IOC country codes, area, worldwide ISO 3166 country and subdivision codes NUTS area code, partially administrative, worldwide: countries, Europe : country to community ONS code, UK only, administrative OpenPostcode algorithm applied for geocoding Irish locations. Postal codes, area, worldwide, country-codes by UPU, free Quarter Degree Grid Cells UN M.49 region codes, area code, continents, countries (like ISO numeric) SALB (Second Administrative Level Boundaries), by UN [2] UN/LOCODE, area, administrative, cities WMO squares

8 Geocoding Geocoding is the process of finding associated geographic coordinates (often expressed as latitude and longitude) from other geographic data, such as street addresses, or zip codes (postal codes). With geographic coordinates the features can be mapped and entered into Geographic Information Systems, or the coordinates can be embedded into media such as digital photographs via geotagging. Reverse geocoding is the opposite: finding an associated textual location such as a street address, from geographic coordinates. A geocoder is a piece of software or a (web) service that helps in this process.

9 Reverse geocoding Reverse geocoding is the opposite geocoding: finding an associated textual location such as a street address, from geographic coordinates.

10 Geocoder A geocoder is a piece of software or a (web) service that helps in this process.

11 Hands-on exercise: Georeferencing
A proposal Against the background of the seven hypotheses presented in this document, the European Forum for Geostatistics (EFGS), under a generous grant from EUROSTAT, have from the beginning of this year started work on the GEOSTAT ESSnet project. The project consortium of nine NSI’s is led by Statistics Norway. The need to take action for the integration of geography and statistics should not be limited to the European scale. We therefore propose: The establishment of a Global Forum For Geostatistics (GFGS) to serve as a professional reference group (PRG) for Geostatistics and provide a professional link between UN and the NSI’s in issues related to this field.. This PRG will primarily be concerned with questions related to the integration of geography (GSDI projects) and statistics (GEOSTAT) The initiation of a joint UN spatial data infrastructure (SDI) project for geostatistics. This is the first step towards a GSDI based Global Integrated Information System (GGIISS) and should be developed in close cooperation with the national mapping agency (NMA) -led GSDI and INSPIRE projects. The initiation of the GEOSTAT GSSgrid project to provide a high-resolution harmonised infrastructure for geostatistics liberated from administrative areas and demonstrating its power and utility through a UN project to plot the global population on km grids. Keywords: GSDI (Global Spatial Data Infrastructure), GSS (Global Statistical System), Small area statistics, GIS (Geographical Information System), GGIISS (Global Geographic Integrated Information Systems of Systems) Mr Vilni Verner Holst Bloch MSc Resourcs Geography and Landscape Ecology Statistics Norway 460 Construction and service statistics Oterveien 23 N-2225 Kongsvinger NORWAY Tel: Mob ESTP course on Geographic Information Systems (GIS): Use of GIS for making statistics in a production environment Statistics Norway, Oslo, 26th to 30th of March 2012 Attribution (by) Licensees may copy, distribute, display and perform the work and make derivative works based on it only if they give the author or licensor the credits in the manner specified by these.

12 Vision: Georeference all NICUs in Europe
Example: Newborn Intensive Care Units in Belgium

13

14 Geocoding task Find a post address list for all/part of the hospitals in your country (e.g. using internet phonebook, wikipedia or national health portal) Prepare hospital list in Excel (arrange columns, column titles, divide into; hospital-id, country, region, street address etc) Use to geocode Display and and download as kml-file Inspect kml-file structure in a simple text-editor Download shape-files for your country (or part of) from Geofabrik: From point.shp find ”hospital” Compare and describe ”your” hospitals with the Geofabrik/OSM hospitals


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