Presentation on theme: "Temesgen Belayneh Monika Komon-Zelazowska Christian P. Kubicek & Irina S. Druzhinina Indigenous Hypocrea/Trichoderma species as efficient agents for control."— Presentation transcript:
Temesgen Belayneh Monika Komon-Zelazowska Christian P. Kubicek & Irina S. Druzhinina Indigenous Hypocrea/Trichoderma species as efficient agents for control of coffee wilt disease in Ethiopia Institute of Chemical Engineering Research Area Applied Biochemistry and Gene Technology Group of Fungal Evolution and Biodiversity
Ethiopia as a hotspot for the global diversity special country in terms of landraces and biological diversity a country situated in the Horn of Africa Many of the plant species are still untouched and still unspoiled Of the several species of coffee, Ethiopia is the center of origin and diversity of Coffee arabica L. it accounts for 75% of coffee exports in the world.
Coffea arabica L. in Ethiopia The economy of Ethiopia is based on agriculture and it highly depends on coffee production, therefore coffee is critical to the Ethiopian financial system Coffee belongs to the botanical family Rubiaceae, which has some 500 genera and over 6,000 species. Most are tropical trees and shrubs which grow in the lower storey of forests Coffee is one of the most important agricultural commodities in the world, worth up to US$ 14 billion annually
Coffee plant is a large bush with dark-green oval leaves Varieties of Coffea arabica L.:Varieties of Coffea arabica L.: Typica and Bourbon Typica and Bourbon
Coffee wilt desease (tracheomycosis) Currently, the Ethiopian national average of coffee yield is about 472 Kg ha-1. That is much below the research results of 1500-2000 Kg ha-1. Such a substantial loss is to large extend determined by the wide spread of coffee wilt diseases which are usually caused by Fusarium species
Coffee wilt desease (tracheomycosis) Before its occurrence in Ethiopia these fungi were earlier reported to be well known pathogen of other coffee species in the West and Central Africa attacking mostly Coffee excelsa plantations especially in Cameroon and later C. canephra (Robusta coffee) in Ivory Coast and Zaire. Its occurrence in Ethiopia was identified in the early 1970s when Kranz and Mogk (1973) isolated pure culture from dying coffee trees.
Established in 1974 by the former USSR with the science and technology development agreement Ethiopian Plant Protection Research Center
Sections: Mycology Bacteriology Virology Nematology Entomology Departments and Biocontrol is a section within biotechnology Ethiopian Plant Protection Research Center
MSc Temesgen Balayneh
Coffee project Ethiopian coffee ceremony
Coffee wilt disease and type of forestry making of artificial coffee plantations by desruption of original forest, cultivation of fast growing shadow trees and subsequent introduction of coffee plants introduction of individual plants of C. arabica in the natural forest ecosystem
Resistance to coffee wilt disease (hypothesis) due to presence of native antagonists in rhizosphere of C. arabica due to symbiotic fungi (Glomus spp. and ?? Trichoderma ???) due to multidimentional interactions between coffee plant, symbionts and rhizosphere microbionts
Goals of the research to study the native biodiversity of Trichoderma in Ethiopia to identify the causative agent of coffee wilt disease (Fusarium spp.) to test the potential of different Trichoderma isolates from rhizosphere of Coffea arabica L. to control Fusarium
Road side survey Jimma Harerga SNNP Wellega With 10 to 15 km stop of carWith 10 to 15 km stop of car Collected in plastic bagsCollected in plastic bags Stored at -4°C until processingStored at -4°C until processing Pilot project for diversity studyPilot project for diversity study
Fusarium diversity strains of Fusarium causing coffee wilt disease were isolated directly from infected roots based of tef1 sequence analysis using FUSARIUM-SEQ (Geiser et al., 2004) we identified them as Gibberella fujikuroi/ Fusarium oxysporum species complex:
Trichoderma biodiversity Generally, we collected 60 soil samples - Different coffee growing areas - Diff. Cultivation:- Forest, Semi- forest and Plantation - Alt. Range:- 1300 - 2400 m.a.s.l. With the visual and microscopic identification - Found 45 samples of Trichoderma spp.
Trichoderma biodiversity All Trichoderma strains have been identified based on ITS1 and 2 and tef1 sequence analyses using TrichOKEY and TrichoBLAST tools, respectively (www.isth.info)
Trichoderma biodiversity List of species:AmountStrain numbers in CPK collection: T. harzianum51807, 1812, 1818, 1825, 1840 T. brevicompactum11828 T. oblongisporum11809 T. spirale21822, 1839 T. hamatum51810, 1811, 1814, 1826, 1827, 1835 T. koningiopsis51813, 1816, 1821, 1823, 1831 T. asperellum41819, 1820, 1829, 1838 T. atroviride11832 T. longibrachatum21817, 1889 T. orientalis21815, 1837 New species9 1808, 1833, 1834, 1836, 1841, 1888, 1890, 1892, 1893
Trichoderma diversity in C. arabica rhizosphere
Trichoderma biodiversity in Ethiopia (coffee growing forest) New species 1, Sect. Longibrachiatum, related to T. longibrachiatum - H. orientalis species complex New species 2, Sect. Pachybasium, related to T. tomentosum - T. cerinum from T. harzianum species complex New species 3 Sect. Trichoderma, related to T. asperellum New species 4 Sect. Pachybasium, related to T. spirale Jimma Welega Jimma Harerga SNNP Jimma New species 5 Sect. Pachybasium, related to T. helicum
Trichoderma biodiversity in Ethiopia (coffee growing forest) Trichoderma biodiversity in Ivory Coast (coccoa plantations)
in vitro tests of antagonistic potential Fusarium – Trichoderma confrontations on plates Ability of Trichoderma to overgrow Fusarium cultures experimental strategies P1 strain of Trichoderma atroviride as the reference
in vitro tests of antagonistic potential List of species: Amount Numbers from CPK collectionJimmaHarergaSNNPWellega T. harzianum51807, 1812, 1818, 1825, 1840 T. brevicompactum11828 T. oblongisporum11809 T. spirale21822, 1839 T. hamatum61810, 1811, 1814, 1826, 1827, 1835 T. koningiopsis51813, 1816, 1821, 1823, 1831 T. asperellum51819, 1820, 1829, 1838 T. atroviride11832 T. longibrachatum11817 T. orientalis21815, 1837 New species 131808, 1833, 1892 New species 221836, 1893 New species 321841, 1890 New species 411888 New species 511834 strong moderate weak no response
T. oblongisporum (Jimma)
T. koningiopsis Samuels et al., ms submitted to Stud. Myc.
T. atroviride (Jimma)
T. sp. 1 (Jimma and SNNP)
T. sp. 2 (Welega and SNNP)
Conclusions The first road side survey study has revealed 10 known and 5 potentially new species of Trichoderma inhibiting the rhizosphere of Coffea arabica. The biodiversity of Trichoderma is very high. In all four areas coffee wilt disease is caused by strains of Fusarium oxysporum species complex. The biodiversity of Fusarium is low. 25 out of 45 (55%) Trichoderma strains have strong potential to prevent the growth of Fusarium oxysporum.
Aknowledgements The research was supported by Ethiopia: PPRC scholarship to Temesgen Balayneh PPRC scholarship to Temesgen Balayneh and partly by FWF project