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XML, Databases and Business Intelligence Presentation to the GCPCUG Data Warehousing SIG - March 19, 2001.

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Presentation on theme: "XML, Databases and Business Intelligence Presentation to the GCPCUG Data Warehousing SIG - March 19, 2001."— Presentation transcript:

1 XML, Databases and Business Intelligence Presentation to the GCPCUG Data Warehousing SIG - March 19, 2001

2 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - Presentation Overview b Introduction to XML b XML and Databases b XML and Business Intelligence b XML Resources

3 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - What is XML? b Extensible Markup Language - born 2/1998 b Extensible - allows new markup languages b More than HTML, less than SGML b XML family of specifications XML, XSL, DOM, XML Namespaces, XLink, XPointer, XPath, etc.XML, XSL, DOM, XML Namespaces, XLink, XPointer, XPath, etc. b More specifications on the way XML Schema, XML Query LanguageXML Schema, XML Query Language

4 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - Uses of XML b Data Storage b Data Interchange b Data Display/Rendering b Its about data

5 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - Uses of XML b Data Storage Products marketed as XML databasesProducts marketed as XML databases –Tamino –TEXTML Texts dealing with XML databasesTexts dealing with XML databases XML-enabled databasesXML-enabled databases

6 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - Uses of XML b When is XML Suited for Data Storage? Data needs to be accessed by many systemsData needs to be accessed by many systems Hierarchical dataHierarchical data Smaller data setSmaller data set Speed not criticalSpeed not critical Simpler queries usedSimpler queries used Data types not criticalData types not critical Data must be stored for a long timeData must be stored for a long time

7 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - Uses of XML b Data Interchange No middleware needed if applications can read and write XMLNo middleware needed if applications can read and write XML By 2003, up to 80% of data interchange between applications over public networks will be in XML (per Gartner Group)By 2003, up to 80% of data interchange between applications over public networks will be in XML (per Gartner Group)

8 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - Uses of XML b Data Display/Rendering Present the same content differently for different devicesPresent the same content differently for different devices b Before XML... Either support older standard only (e.g., HTML 3.2)Either support older standard only (e.g., HTML 3.2) Or develop multiple sets of pages and redirect user based on their browserOr develop multiple sets of pages and redirect user based on their browser

9 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - Uses of XML b With XML... One set of XML documentsOne set of XML documents –One XSL document for each browser/device If a new device or new use for existing device emerges…If a new device or new use for existing device emerges… –develop new standard protocol (e.g., WAP) –develop another XSL document

10 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - Uses of XML b Then either serve XML and XSL to clientserve XML and XSL to client b Or transform XML with XSL at servertransform XML with XSL at server serve appropriate markup to clientserve appropriate markup to client

11 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - Why is XML needed? b Consider HTML HyperText Markup LanguageHyperText Markup Language Based on SGMLBased on SGML Most web pages use HTMLMost web pages use HTML

12 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - Why is XML needed? b Advantages of HTML Easy to learn compared to most programming languagesEasy to learn compared to most programming languages Readily available authoring tools (even a text file editor) Readily available authoring tools (even a text file editor) Readily available rendering tool Readily available rendering tool Browsers are free, all new PCs have browsers installed Browsers are free, all new PCs have browsers installed

13 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - Why is XML needed? b Disadvantages of HTML Deviation from its original purposeDeviation from its original purpose –Presentation should be based on a styling language Lack of extensibilityLack of extensibility Toleration of faulty codeToleration of faulty code –acceptable for web page design –unacceptable for transmission of drug data

14 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - Why is XML needed? b Consider SGML Standard Generalized Markup LanguageStandard Generalized Markup Language –No toleration of faulty code –Completely extensible HTML, XML based on SGMLHTML, XML based on SGML

15 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - Why is XML needed? b The advantages of SGML are actually disadvantages in the web environment b Complete extensibility of SGML means It is not cost-effective to develop browsers to support SGMLIt is not cost-effective to develop browsers to support SGML Potentially huge bandwidth and storage issuesPotentially huge bandwidth and storage issues

16 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - Why is XML needed? b XML allows the use of metadata - data about data b HTML tags The Gettysburg Address was written by Abraham Lincoln The Gettysburg Address was written by Abraham Lincoln b XML elements The Gettysburg Address was written by Abraham Lincoln The Gettysburg Address was written by Abraham Lincoln

17 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - Basic XML Contact List Sanford Bill VP, Controller SDC, Inc Homestead Rd. Parma OH XML Markup includes: XML declaration Root Element Elements Attributes Entities

18 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - XHTML b Next-generation of HTML b HTML specification rewritten to be XML compliant b XML is not going to replace HTML, XHTML is b Differences between HTML, XHTML include: lower case tags requiredlower case tags required proper nesting and closure of tagsproper nesting and closure of tags quoting attributesquoting attributes

19 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - Parsers b A parser is a program that processes an XML document. b IE includes a parser that allows the rendering of XML documents. b Parsers are either validating or non- validating.

20 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - Well-formedness b An XML document is well-formed if attribute values are in quotesattribute values are in quotes tags are properly nestedtags are properly nested start and end tags are the same casestart and end tags are the same case there is one root elementthere is one root element empty elements must be formatted properlyempty elements must be formatted properly b If its not well-formed, its not XML

21 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - Document Type Definition (DTD) b Used to specify how elements, attributes, etc. relate to each other b DTDs are not XML documents, but are used by them b DTDs do not support data typing b XML Schema being developed to address lack of data typing Schemas currently exist (e.g., Microsoft XDR)Schemas currently exist (e.g., Microsoft XDR) The W3C is working on an XML Schema recommendationThe W3C is working on an XML Schema recommendation

22 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - Document Type Definition (DTD)... ETC.

23 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - Validating XML b An XML document that conforms to its DTD is valid b Validating parsers IBM's XML4J ParserIBM's XML4J Parser –online at check00.html IBM's DOMit: A servlet for XML validationIBM's DOMit: A servlet for XML validation –online at xml/XmlValidatorForm.htm IE itself, modified by installing a download from itself, modified by installing a download from

24 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - Validating XML

25 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - Validating XML

26 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - Validating XML

27 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - XSL b Extensible Stylesheet Language b Two specifications XSL Transformations (XSLT)XSL Transformations (XSLT) XSL Formatting ObjectsXSL Formatting Objects b XSLT is a W3C recommendation, XSL Formatting Objects is not (yet)

28 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - XSLT b Transforms XML into other markup languages b Often used to transform XML to HTML b Limited query-like functionality

29 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - An XSL Document SELECT WHERE ORDER BY XSLT Query-like functionality:

30 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - An XSL Document XSLT HTML CSS Other functionality:

31 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - XML, XSL and JavaScript Test XML Page var xmlObject = new ActiveXObject("microsoft.xmldom") xmlObject.async = false xmlObject.load("contacts.xml") var xslObject = new ActiveXObject("microsoft.xmldom") xslObject.async = false xslObject.load("contacts.xsl") document.write(xmlObject.transformNode(xslObject))

32 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - XML, XSL and JavaScript

33 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - XML and Databases b Microsoft SQL Server 2000 b Oracle products (various) b IBM DB2 UDB v. 7.1

34 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - Microsoft SQL Server 2000 b SQL can retrieve results in XML format b Three XML modes: Raw, Auto, Explicit b Raw mode - result row tagged b Raw mode - result row tagged b Auto mode - more control over tags b Explicit mode Default tags - table names, field namesDefault tags - table names, field names Overwrite by specifying DTD with queryOverwrite by specifying DTD with query Specify shape of the XML treeSpecify shape of the XML tree Requires relatively complex SQL queriesRequires relatively complex SQL queries

35 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - Microsoft SQL Server 2000 b XML View Mapper Create schema file to relate XML Data Reduced (XDR) schema to SQL Server schemaCreate schema file to relate XML Data Reduced (XDR) schema to SQL Server schema b Updategrams Express changes to XML document as database inserts, updates, and deletesExpress changes to XML document as database inserts, updates, and deletes

36 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - Oracle Products b Intelligent Webhouse Initiative b Oracle 8i - the worlds first XML-enabled database b Oracle Reports 6i Reports can be stored as XSLReports can be stored as XSL

37 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - Oracle Products b Oracle JDeveloper 3.1 Allows development of web applications that process XML dataAllows development of web applications that process XML data Syntax-checking for XML, XSLSyntax-checking for XML, XSL XSQL: Java programs that read XML from and write XML to databaseXSQL: Java programs that read XML from and write XML to database Integration with Oracle 8iIntegration with Oracle 8i

38 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - IBM DB2 UDB v. 7.1 b DB2 XML Extender facility to enable DB2 to work with XMLfacility to enable DB2 to work with XML b Net.Data macro language for DB2 UDBmacro language for DB2 UDB

39 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - IBM DB2 UDB v. 7.1 b DB2 XML Extender Repository for XML and DTDsRepository for XML and DTDs Storage methodsStorage methods –XML column –XML collection

40 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - IBM DB2 UDB v. 7.1 b XML column Entire XML document stored in one column as an XML UDTEntire XML document stored in one column as an XML UDT Data Access Definition (DAD) defines indexes based on elements and attributesData Access Definition (DAD) defines indexes based on elements and attributes b XML collection Relational tables mapped to/from XMLRelational tables mapped to/from XML DAD maps DTD to tables and columnsDAD maps DTD to tables and columns

41 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - IBM DB2 UDB v. 7.1 b DB2 XML Extender also allows SQL to query XML based on elements and attributesSQL to query XML based on elements and attributes Stored procedures to generate XML from DB2Stored procedures to generate XML from DB2

42 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - IBM DB2 UDB v. 7.1 b Net.Data Allows conversion of SQL results to XMLAllows conversion of SQL results to XML Is not restricted to DB2 UDB as a data sourceIs not restricted to DB2 UDB as a data source

43 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - XML and Query Languages b XPath not based on XMLnot based on XML limited functionalitylimited functionality relatively difficult to understandrelatively difficult to understand b XSLT based on XMLbased on XML works with XPath, HTML, CSSworks with XPath, HTML, CSS also has limited functionalityalso has limited functionality

44 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - XML and Query Languages Per the W3C website: "The mission of the XML Query working group is to provide flexible query facilities to extract data from real and virtual documents on the Web, therefore finally providing the needed interaction between the web world and the database world. Ultimately, collections of XML files will be accessed like databases. (emphasis added)

45 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - XML Editors b Microsoft - XML Notepad b Tanyitech - Easy XML 1.0 –$39 at b Altova - XML Spy –$199 at b Extensibility - Turbo XML –$269 at b Popkin Software - Envision XML –http://www.popkin.com

46 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - XML Editors

47 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - XML Servers/Databases b IxiaSoft - TEXTML Server TEXTML Server Lite, a free evaluation version, is availableTEXTML Server Lite, a free evaluation version, is available b Software AG - Tamino

48 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - XML and Business Intelligence b XML for Analysis b Common Warehouse Metamodel (CWM) b Predictive Model Markup Language (PMML)

49 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - XML for Analysis b A platform-independent Microsoft specification b Enable access to analytical data from XML for Analysis-compliant clients b Based on HTTP, XML, SOAP, OLE DB for OLAP, OLE DB for Data Mining b Supporters include AlphaBlox, Brio, Business Objects, Cognos, SAS, SPSS

50 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - Common Warehouse Metamodel Per the CWM website (http://www.cwmforum.org): The purpose of OMGs Common Warehouse Metadata Initiative (CWMI) is to enable easy interchange of metadata between data warehousing tools and metadata repositories in distributed heterogeneous environments.

51 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - Common Warehouse Metamodel b The CWM is a specification for modeling metadata (relational, non-relational, multidimensional) found in a data warehousing environment. b Instances of the metamodel are exchanged via XMI (XML Metadata Interchange) documents. b The ultimate goal of CWM is to do for data warehousing and business intelligence tools what HTML did for web browsers.

52 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - PMML b Predictive Model Markup Language Developed by the Data Mining Group (http://www.dmg.org/html/pmml_v1_1.html)Developed by the Data Mining Group (http://www.dmg.org/html/pmml_v1_1.html) b Allows reuse of predictive models between PMML-compliant applications

53 Copyright © 2001 by Michael A. Mina - XML Resources b World Wide Web Consortium b The XML Industry Portal b XML101.com b XML Magic

54 Thank You For Attending Thank You For Attending


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