3 What was a direct effect of increased food production during Europe’s Agricultural Revolution? 1. Choice C is correct. One result of increased food production during the Industrial Revolution was an increase in the population.
4 During the 1600s, Europe developed a thriving economy based on 2. Choice B is correct. During the 1600s, Europe developed a thriving economy based on money.
5 A defining feature of Europe’s Industrial Revolution was that many commercial goods were 3. Choice D is correct. A defining feature of Europe’s Industrial Revolution was that many commercial goods were made not with tools by hand, but with machinery.
6 A geographic advantage of England in the Industrial Revolution was its 4. Choice A is correct. Its natural harbors provided England with a geographic advantage in the Industrial Revolution.
7 The “Black Country” of England was known for its 5. Choice B is correct. England’s “Black Country” was notorious for the clouds of soot and smoke caused by industrial production.
8 What was one important power source for factories in 18th-century England? 6. Choice D is correct. Water was a key source of power in the Industrial Revolution; the rivers of industrial England were important for this reason.
10 What impact did the steam engine have on the growth of industry? 1. Choice D is correct. The steam engine was a source of industrial power that maximized output of energy.
11 What technology did James Watt improve? 2. Choice A is correct. The English inventor James Watt is famous for his improvements to the steam engine.
12 Which process would be an example of pasteurization? 3. Choice A is correct. Pasteurization is commonly used as a means of sterilizing milk.
13 By the 1840s, England was connected by a network of 4. Choice C is correct. By the 1840s, England was connected by a network of railroads.
14 Which 20th-century invention is most comparable to the telegraph in its impact? 5. Choice B is correct. and the Internet have an impact today that is similar to the telegraph in its time, because they enable written messages to be sent quickly.
15 Which increased as a result of the Industrial Revolution? 6. Choice C is correct. The Industrial Revolution dramatically increased the pace of daily life and business, including travel, work, communications, and business transactions.
17 Between 1800 and 1850, London’s population 1. Choice B is correct. In London between 1800 and 1850, the population more than doubled.
18 Which city had the smallest population throughout 1800–1850? 2. Choice C is correct. Over the years, Edinburgh maintained the lowest population.
19 What is the best explanation for the population growth shown in the graph? 3. Choice A is correct. The population explosion based on improvements in agriculture and science, led to growing numbers as well as growing industrialization and urbanization.
21 Which would have been a common life change in England during the Industrial Revolution? 1. Choice A is correct. During the Industrial Revolution, many people left agricultural lifestyles to take jobs in industrial areas.
22 In Great Britain, the Factory Act of 1819 declared it illegal for children to work more than 12 hours a day. What does the act suggest about labor conditions at that time?2. Choice C is correct. In Great Britain, the Factory Act of 1819 declared it illegal for children to work more than 12 hours a day—not an unheard-of occurrence. However, this act was not enforced for many years.
23 In the 19th century, millions of people seeking work migrated 3. Choice D is correct. In the 19th century, millions of people seeking work migrated from Asia and Europe to North America.
24 Which statement is true of social class during the Industrial Revolution? 4. Choice B is correct. During the Industrial Revolution, social classes became increasingly divided.
25 Collective bargaining was a process of negotiation between 5. Choice A is correct. Collective bargaining was a process of negotiation between employers and employees.
26 In 1902, Pennsylvania coal miners refused to work, returning to their jobs only when guaranteed a 10 percent pay increase and reduction of hours. The miners’ action is an example of6. Choice C is correct. The 1902 strike of Pennsylvania coal miners was a famous success.
28 “They are the leaders on the way to material progress “They are the leaders on the way to material progress They guess what the consumers would like to have and are intent on providing them with these things.” —from Human Action: A Treatise on Economics, Ludwig von Mises 1 The quotation describes the role in an industrial economy played by1. Choice A is correct. The quotation by Ludwig von Mises describes the role of entrepreneurs in an industrial economy.
29 According to the quotation, what skill is important to a business leader? 2. Choice B is correct. Von Mises says that an ability to guess what consumers would desire to buy is a key part of an entrepreneur’s success.
30 What is the goal of industrial production? 3. Choice D is correct. The goal of industrial production is to manufacture consumer goods that can be sold.
31 Which event in 19th-century England most benefited its industrial economy? 4. Choice C is correct. Increased population growth—and the labor it provided—was an enormous benefit to industrializing England.
32 Which social change in 19th-century England would have most benefited an industrial entrepreneur? 5. Choice C is correct. The ready availability of money is essential to entrepreneurship. Lending by new financial institutions such as banks played a key role in the industrialization of England.
34 Which statement would a critic of capitalism have most likely made during the Industrial Revolution? 1. Choice C is correct. Critics of capitalism were concerned that the Industrial Revolution concentrated wealth in the hands of business owners and investors, while many workers lived in poverty.
35 Nineteenth-century socialists made significant gains in 2. Choice B is correct. Nineteenth-century socialists are particularly remembered for their work in the labor movement. They were also among the leaders of the feminist and peace movements.
36 What was the relationship between work and property in a utopian community? 3. Choice D is correct. In a utopian community, people typically lived and worked together and held their property in common.
37 With what economic idea is Karl Marx most closely associated? 4. Choice C is correct. Karl Marx is most closely identified with communism.
38 Citizens in a social democracy expect their government to 5. Choice A is correct. Citizens in a social democracy expect their government to provide them with certain benefits.
39 Which economic system emerged in Europe as a response to both capitalist and socialist ideals? 6. Choice D is correct. Social democracy is the dominant economic system in many European nations today.
41 “How glad I am to be able to roam in wood and thicket, among the trees and flowers and rocks!” —Ludwig van Beethoven What Romantic value is expressed in Beethoven’s words about nature?1. Choice B is correct. Beethoven’s joyful words emphasize his own personal appreciation for nature.
42 Which would have been the most likely subject for a classical painter? 2. Choice C is correct. Classicizing painters sometimes depicted subjects from ancient Greece and Rome, such as Jacques-Louis David’s famous Death of Socrates.
43 Nineteenth-century European Romantics tended to view the past as a 3. Choice D is correct. Nineteenth-century European Romantics tended to view the past as a simpler, gentler time.
44 European Romanticism celebrated the beauty of nature at a time when 4. Choice B is correct. European Romanticism celebrated the beauty of nature at a time when industrialization was polluting the land.
45 European Romanticism celebrated ordinary people at a time when they 5. Choice C is correct. European Romanticism celebrated ordinary people at a time when they were agitating for greater political power.
46 A 19th-century novel that attempted “social criticism” might have shown how a young hero or heroine was affected by6. Choice D is correct. Some novels by Charles Dickens show the effects on industrial pollution on society and the landscape.
48 Which event would be an example of imperialism? 1. Choice A is correct. A powerful nation seizing control of a poor nation and its resources is a classic example of imperialism.
49 Nineteenth-century European imperialism was spurred in part by success in 2. Choice B is correct. Nineteenth-century European imperialism was facilitated by developments in technology.
50 What geography-related goal most motivated 19th-century European imperialists? 3. Choice D is correct. Nineteenth-century European imperialists competed for control of trade routes.
51 The resource of central Africa that would have been most attractive to 19th-century European imperialists was its4. Choice C is correct. Tin and copper mines in central Africa were of great interest to European industrialists.
52 Christian missionaries in colonized lands, in the 1800s, 5. Choice A is correct. Christian missionaries in colonized lands typically sought to convert non-Christians.
53 A 19th-century English Social Darwinist would say that his or her nation’s power was proof of 6. Choice C is correct. A 19th-century English Social Darwinist would say that his or her nation’s power was proof of its superiority.
55 What two European nations colonized most of South America? 1. Choice D is correct. Most of South American was colonized by Spain and Portugal.
56 What two European nations colonized most of Africa? 2. Choice B is correct. England and France were the two largest colonial powers in Africa.
57 During the late 1800s, which European nation had no colony in Africa? 3. Choice D is correct. The Netherlands had no colony in Africa in the late 1800s.
58 Which European nation colonized the most land around the world during the 19th century? 4. Choice C is correct. At the height of its powers, Great Britain controlled two-fifths of the world’s land mass, with colonies on every continent.
59 The purpose of the Berlin Conference was to plan for the 5. Choice C is correct. The purpose of the Berlin Conference was to plan for the division of Africa among colonial powers.
60 Where did the United States acquire a colony in 1898? 6. Choice B is correct. In 1898, as a result of the Spanish-American War, the United States acquired the island nation of the Philippines as its colony.
62 European colonists believed they had the right to colonize Africa because 1. Choice A is correct. Europeans believed that their wealth and power gave them the right to claim foreign lands
63 For Africans, European colonization resulted in 2. Choice C is correct. As a result of European colonization, Africans suffered loss of lands and loss of trade. They also achieved longer life spans and some gains in literacy.
64 What event closely preceded the rise of African nationalist movements? 3. Choice D is correct. The end of World War I preceded a rise in nationalist movements in areas of Ghana and other future African nations.
65 The African prime minister who first came to power in Ghana 4. Choice A is correct. When Kwame Nkrumah became prime minister in 1952, he was the first black African to be an acknowledged leader in the area in more than 50 years.
66 Ghana achieved independence 5. Choice C is correct. Ghana achieved independence in a series of steps.
68 “The British treat nations as the silk-worm farmer treats his worms; as long as they produce silk, he cares for them well; when they stop, he feeds them to the fish.” —from The Vital Problem of China (1917), Sun Yat-sen Which statement best summarizes the danger Sun Yat-sen describes in the quotation?1. Choice C is correct. Sun Yat-sen uses this simile of a silk-worm farmer to say that a colonial power cares for the nations it colonizes only while it enjoys their profits.
69 What made the Haitian revolution a landmark in history? 2. Choice B is correct. The Haitian revolution was unprecedented in that enslaved people won freedom for themselves and established a republic.
70 Struggles for independence in Latin America were led mainly by 3. Choice D is correct. Struggles for independence in Latin America were led mainly by creoles, such as Simón Bolívar.
71 What was the primary means through which Indians sought independence from Great Britain? 4. Choice A is correct. Nonviolent civil disobedience was a defining feature of India’s struggle for independence from Great Britain.
72 From whom did the Chinese win independence in 1911? 5. Choice B is correct. In 1911, the Chinese people won independence from the Qing dynasty and founded a republic.