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1 PROFESSIONAL ADAPTABLE INDISPENSABLE INVENTIVE CREATIVE Engineering the Future: working together to enhance understanding, commitment and participation in engineering Pupils think about what they are learning: Engineering is a practical and reflective discipline so lends itself easily to Active Learning. It is experiential, hands-on, involved and encourages them to reason about what they are doing. Pupils think about why they are learning: It provides a context which is motivating and up to date and pupils like solving real problems. The relevance of the work being done helps hook the pupils. Pupils think about how they are learning: The systems engineering approach lends itself to changes in pedagogy. Splitting a problem up into sub-sections which then have to feed back to each other encourages pupils to collaborate. Having to explain or perform their learning to other pupils requires higher order thinking rather than simply rote learning. The teacher is freed up from having to cram content into lessons, enabling rich interactions for pupils with both teachers and other pupils. Wii Sports: (Designed for Higher Physics but elements have been used with Int2 and it could be easily adapted for Standard Grade. Cooperation with ICT/Computing curricular area is also possible, indeed desirable). The pupils are familiar with games consoles which realistically model the physics of sports but often think that this just happens naturally. They are often not aware that knowledge of physics is important to software engineers. Indeed the software behind most games will have a separate physics engine in which real physics is simulated. Software houses often have software engineers who deal specifically with the physics. Mars Rover: (Designed for S2 but could be used with Intermediate 1 and Standard Grade.) The work involves planning a Mars mission (balancing scientific benefit against budget and other practical considerations) and specific aspects of electronic engineering relating to robotics. The link with the Mars Rover makes the module up to date and motivating. Why Engineering? Successful learners: Pupils learn more effectively by taking responsibility for their own learning in a context which stimulates and motivates them. They are forced to think for themselves and justify both their reasoning and opinion. This requires a deeper understanding than rote learning. Confident individuals: Using the carousel system of feedback helps develop pupil confidence as they present to a small group of their peers. Their peers show more respect when their fellow pupils become their teachers. Responsible citizens: The nuclear power debate is a live political issue and informed opinion is vital in what can be an emotive subject. Effective contributors: Collaboration is vital to the working of the small groups involved and pupils have to collectively manage their time and other resources. Mars Rover: SCN 4-09b&c, TCH 3-14a, 4-14b, LIT 4-02a, 4-10a The Nuclear Power Debate: SCN 3-11b, 4-11b, LIT 4-02a, 4-10a. Engineering the Future aims to develop a sustainable model of activities that enhance the learning experiences of pupils, develops their knowledge and understanding of contemporary engineering and smoothes the transition into engineering from school to university. St. Aloysius College Partnership Mr. James Cluckie 1, Dr. Victoria Catterson 2, Mr. Gordon Jahn 2, Dr. Stephen MacArthur 2 and Dr. Phil Dobson 3. 1.St. Aloysius College, Glasgow, Scotland 2.Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Scotland 3.Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Glasgow University, Scotland Description of engineering experience Motivation, engagement and pupil response Skills developed, links to Curriculum for Excellence and the four capacities Once the scene is set and pupils organised into groups, three pupils from each become a mars rover and have to navigate bind fold through a mock course. They are led by a driver who has previously produced a set of instructions. This quickly establishes the problems with pre- programmed rovers and a deliberate delay demonstrates why tele-operation isnt possible. In parallel, the other groups work to a design brief to design a rocket and components using Top Trump style cards. These limitations quickly lead to the need for autonomous control and inputs and outputs. The pupils now investigate simple input, output and control devices (logic gates) using the Micro-electronics For All (MFA) boards. The tasks are set within the context of the Mars Rover mission and frequent use is made of the carousel system of feedback where one member from each group joins up with one from the others. They all have to share their findings in turn. The topic lends itself easily to an engineering approach. It is solution- oriented, adopts a systems approach and uses simulation and team work. The learning is purposeful and experiential. It is driven by a particular need and pupils are given specific responsibilities. The problems are based on a real situation and mirror the reality of professional engineering. The project can be very open-ended and can engage pupils in several kinds of learning. Pupils are asked to play the Nintendo Wii-Sports game and make a note of what physics they think is involved. This can be classified under two headings: hardware and software. This project concentrates on the latter. Pupils are introduced to some of the concepts of mechanics by considering the physics which a software engineer would need to implement to make the Wii-Sports game realistic. This sets a context for their learning and provides enhanced motivation. Pupils will then be provided with a number of software templates where they can insert the physics to control the realistic motion of a golf ball or similar object. The Wii was chosen for its ease of use and wide appeal. Wii Sports currently comes free with the console and includes enough physics at a level which is easy to access. Each of these activities could be run individually at an appropriate point in the teaching of the Higher Physics course. Alternatively, a project engineering approach could be taken whereby pupils could be split into teams to investigate each part cooperatively before feeding back to the wider class. The pupils have thoroughly enjoyed their involvement in this project, and so have the teachers, including those who were initially sceptical. We are seeing increased numbers opting for physics in school and improved applications to science and engineering. Pupils think about what they are learning: Pupils think about why they are learning: Pupils think about how they are learning: Engineering is involved in everything. Its the thinking behind the making. It involves both the design and the actual structure/making of the thing. If you think about it, it does come back to Science and Maths. Yes – it justifies science – it shows how science is used, e.g. in car safety developments. It was more challenging because you had to find out for yourself but this makes you learn it well. More fun, when all working together. Less worksheet work here more practical, more enjoyment. Instead of being told step by step what to do you get to vary it yourself. Working together helped with getting better ideas than you got on your own. Rover Race & Rocket Design Engineering Project Practical activities Play Wii Sports Engineering Project Practical activities The Nuclear Power Debate: (Designed for Intermediate 2 Physics but could be easily adapted for Standard Grade.) Pupils firstly read a mock newspaper article about a proposal to build a nuclear power station near their school. They then take on the role of members of a team of scientists and engineers who will advise the public in an inquiry into nuclear power. To do this in an informed way they will need to understand the science of radioactivity and the engineering required to manage nuclear power. Pupils are asked for their immediate response and to debate the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power. The public enquiry needs answers to specific questions: What is radioactivity? How do we measure its effects? What are the long term safety implications? How does a nuclear power station work? The pupils split into four parallel teams of engineers; each team is tasked with one question. Engineering content is explicit in: Using tracers in industry Building your own detector Acting as an engineer in a (simulated) nuclear power station After knowledge exchange between teams using carousel feedback, a final informed debate is held. Course material on the causes and different types of radiation are supplied to teams at the start of the engineering project, and normal course materials are used before the debate to consolidate their learning. Cooperative learning principles and thinking skills are involved in this active learning. Pupils performing their own learning is also a vital part of the activity. Initial debate Engineering Project Practical activities Final debate

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