Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Workshop on Magnetic Self-Organization NSF Center meeting, Aug 4-6, 2004 Michael Brown C. D. Cothran, J. Fung, A. O Murchadha, Z. Michielli, M. Chang Swarthmore.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Workshop on Magnetic Self-Organization NSF Center meeting, Aug 4-6, 2004 Michael Brown C. D. Cothran, J. Fung, A. O Murchadha, Z. Michielli, M. Chang Swarthmore."— Presentation transcript:

1 Workshop on Magnetic Self-Organization NSF Center meeting, Aug 4-6, 2004 Michael Brown C. D. Cothran, J. Fung, A. O Murchadha, Z. Michielli, M. Chang Swarthmore College Collaborators: M. Schaffer (GA), W. Matthaeus (Bartol), D. Cohen (Swarthmore), E. Belova (PPPL) Research supported by US DOE grants ER54604 and ER54490 SSX summary: helicity balance and Ohms law

2 Outline A brief tour of the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment (SSX) Device, diagnostics, plasma parameters Full merging and self-organization to large scale (magnetic helicity conservation, FRC, doublet CT) Local 3D magnetic reconnection studies (generalized Ohms law, Hall terms, energetic ions)

3 Full merging: FRC formation Right-handed Spheromak Left-handed spheromak Large scale structure (FRC)

4 Magnetic structure consistent with FRC/doublet-CT full data m=0 dominates Other modes are present

5 Magnetic reconnection in three dimensions

6 Reconnection in SSX-FRC

7 Ensemble average of 36 identical shots

8 Research program at the Swarthmore Spheromak EXperiment Complete merging Magnetically restricted merging Partial (mechanically restricted) merging magnetic reconnection FRC/doublet-CT formation and stability (B )

9 PART 1 Helicity balance

10 Spheromak formation

11 Complete merging: FRC formation Right-handed Spheromak Left-handed spheromak FRC Helicity conservation leads to a null helicity structure

12 Why Field Reversed Configurations (FRC)? Fusion 1 compact toroid Purely poloidal fields Natural divertor at the ends Can be translated …but must be stable in the MHD fluid limit Experiment (kinetic) says yes Theory/simulation says no

13 Testing stability at large s (fluid MHD limit) s minor radius / ion gyroradius Counter-helicity spheromak merging leads to… Higher flux (4 mWb) Moderate temperature (<100 eV) High s (>10) …thanks to Y. Ono, TS-3 device, U. Tokyo

14 Recent FRC stability predictions Yu. Omelchenko et al Phys. Plasmas 8, 4463 (2001) Hybrid simulation Self-generated toroidal field (from axially sheared toroidal electron flow) stabilizes the tilt mode even for fluid FRCs …but see also E. Belova et al Phys. Plasmas 7, 4996 (2000)

15 External midplane coils for control of reconnection and B Analytic solution (P. Parks, GA) Numerical Grad-Shafronov equilibrium (M. Schaffer et al, GA) 8.0 kA 13.0 kA Increasing midplane field limits merging How much toroidal field is necessary for stability? …is this doublet-CT (two magnetic axes) interesting?

16 The SSX Laboratory 10kV/100kA Pulsed power Cylindrical flux conservers and vacuum chamber ( =0.40m, L=0.65m) Coaxial magnetized plasma guns on each end (1 mWb)

17 Diagnostics at SSX 600 channel 1.25 MHz data acquisition system Magnetic probe arrays Langmuir triple probe He-Ne quadrature interferometer 0.2 m VUV monochrometer Bolometer Retarding Grid Energy Analyzers (RGEA) Soft x-ray photodiodes (SXR) Directional (Gundestrup) Mach probe

18 SSX-FRC parameters

19 Distributed probe array 12 probe stalks: 4 toroidally at three axial positions

20 SSX-FRC design and numerical equilibrium /

21 Magnetic structure consistent with FRC/doublet-CT m=0 (toroidal mode) component Reversed field Very little midplane toroidal field Axially antisymmetric B 70 G RCC field (on axis)

22 Magnetic structure consistent with FRC/doublet-CT full data m=0 dominates Other modes are present

23 Peak poloidal flux and radial flux profile Ends reach 3-4 mWb immediately (3-4 amplification) Midplane flux grows to match ends Reconnection rate 0.04 No private flux after 50 s, but toroidal fields remain Midplane flux profile consistent with R S /2: high FRC 70 G RCC field (on axis)

24 Axisymmetric helicity estimate Poloidal flux = 3 mWb (east and west) Toroidal flux = +/- 3 mWb (east and west) Helicity = 2x10 mWb^2 east – 2x10 mWb^2 west = zero total Rate = 2(1 kV)(1 mWb) x 10 s = 20 mWb^2

25 m=0,1 toroidal and poloidal energy densities

26 m=1 component late in time: tilted CT Geometric axis of CT is perpendicular to the flux conserver axis

27 Elena Belova 2D simulation

28 3D simulation showing tilt instability

29 Full data (70 G on axis)

30 m=0 (70 G on axis)

31 m=1 (70 G on axis)

32 RCC field restricts reconnection

33 Magnetic energy, density indicate high

34 Full data (350 G on axis)

35 Co-helicity Rapid tilt (by 50 s) Very long lifetime compared to counter-helicity

36 Mode analysis: magnetic energies co-helicity m=0m=1 m=0 counter-helicity east midplane west

37 SSX-FRC prototype: midplane walls removed from SSX FCs 5 cm annulus remaining (passive RCC)

38 Nonzero helicity is observed in tilted final state

39 PART 2 Generalized Ohms Law and Energetic Ions

40 3D magnetic reconnection experiments Brown et al Astrophys. J. Lett. (9/02) Brown et al Phys. Plasmas 9, 2077 (2002) Brown et al Phys. Plasmas 6, 1717 (1999) Kornack et al Phys. Rev. E 58, R36 (1998) Magnetic probe array RGEAs Large slots cut into FC rear walls define the reconnection region 3D magnetic properties Energetic particles

41 3D magnetic probe array 600 coils, array ~2 cm spacing 25 three channel 8:1 multiplexer/integrator boards 10 eight channel 8-bit CAMAC digitizers Full probe readout every 0.8 s

42 Reconnection in SSX-FRC Catch reconnection early (< 32 s) then FRC forms

43 Generalized Ohms Law and Curl E + vxB = ηJ + (JxB – grad P)/ne + J/t Curl (vxB + div P) = B/t + Curl ηJ + Curl (JxB)/ne + Curl (J/t)

44 Hall term dominates electric field during shot

45 Ensemble average of 36 identical shots

46 Terms in curl of Ohms law (single shot)

47 Generalized Ohms Law magnitudes E + vxB = ηJ + (JxB – grad P)/ne + J/t Ohmic and electron inertia terms are small From near pressure balance and unity, we know that JxB and grad P are comparable Only grad P can contribute at the neutral line

48 In plane magnetic field (ala min variance)

49 Out of plane magnetic field

50 Merger of left and right handed tori

51 Side view

52 Cross section

53 In plane JxB force (ala min variance)

54 Out of plane JxB force (slingshot)

55 Flux conservers for partial merging

56

57 Poloidal and toroidal view Outer field lines Poloidal and toroidal view Inner field lines

58 Outer reconnection region

59

60 Inner reconnection region

61

62 Flux tube interaction for counter-helicity spheromaks

63 Co- and counter-helicity merging Counter-helicity: rapid reconnection Co-helicity: no apparent reconnection t = 32 s t = 64 s

64 Current density J = B/ 0 and RGEA response

65 Current channel formation correlates with RGEA activity

66 RGEA raw signals

67 Average peak signal for the out-of-plane RGEA Fit to a thermal distribution with drift: T=33±11eV and V=86±20eV

68 Preliminary soft x-ray detector analysis

69 Summary Spheromak merging in SSX forms large scale, self-organized structure Reconnection is fully 3D Merging results in self-organized structure Helicity conservation implies null helicity Hall terms dominate electric field in Ohms law Study dynamics of doublet-FRC Study flow with Mach probe, ion doppler Need computational/theoretical support Local SSX reconnection is fully 3D, generates energetic particles, flow, and heat

70 Plans for the near future Implement IDS at midplane of SSX-FRC (use with Mach probe) Compare flow results with Belova code Helium glow discharge cleaning for density control (lower density, larger c/ pi )


Download ppt "Workshop on Magnetic Self-Organization NSF Center meeting, Aug 4-6, 2004 Michael Brown C. D. Cothran, J. Fung, A. O Murchadha, Z. Michielli, M. Chang Swarthmore."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google