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Self-consistent mean field forces in two-fluid models of turbulent plasmas C. C. Hegna University of Wisconsin Madison, WI Hall Dynamo Get-together PPPL via UW-Madison June 11, 2004

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Theses The properties of turbulent plasmas are described using the two-fluid equations. Global constraints are derived for the fluctuation induced mean field forces that act on the ion and electron fluids. Relationship between relaxation of parallel momentum flows and parallel currents C. C. Hegna, Self-consistent mean-field forces in turbulent plasmas: current and momentum relaxation, Physics of Plasmas 5, 2257 (1998); 3480 (1998). --- RFP physics was largely the motivation

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Outline Brief review of mean field resistive MHD theory relevant to magnetized plasmas - applications to RFPs Two-fluid theory –Constraints on the fluctuation induced mean-field forces –Heuristic derivations of local forms for the mean-field forces –A simple quasilinear theory Subsequent work - Mirnov, et al 03 - is much more complete –Relation to relaxation Steinhauer, Ishida, 98-03; Mahajan and co-workers 01

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In resistive MHD dynamo theory, a mean field force is identified Fluctuations affects mean field dynamics in resistive MHD through a dynamo electric field Write all quantities as mean field and fluctuations The bracket <> notation denotes either an ensemble average or an average over the small spatial scales or fast time scales of the fluctuations Mean field Ohms Law

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Global conservation laws have motivated local forms for the mean field force of resistive MHD In resistive MHD, fluctuations do not dissipate helicity, but do dissipate energy. (Boozer, J. Plasma Physics, 1986; Bhattacharjee and Hameiri, PRL 1986; Phys. Fluids 1987; Strauss, Phys. Fluids 1985). These condititions are used to motivate a local form for the mean-field force in toroidal confinement devices --- fluctuations generate an additional electron viscosity or hyper-resitivity, not a dynamo. K 2 is a profile dependent positive function satisfying boundary conditions. Consistent with the Taylor state, F gets large, ---> J || /B = constant

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Two-fluid equations can be written in a concise form The exact two-fluid momentum balance equations –These equations can be written more concisely with the identification of the canonical momentum. Momentum balance equations Plasma flow for each species

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A pressure equation is also used for each species The pressure evolution equations –Q = collision energy transfer and Ohmic heating, last term represents viscous heating. –In general, compressibility is allowed. This modifies the usual definition of the mean field force and allows for anomalous particle transport. –In what follows, the effects of heat flux q are simplified. A weakness in the theory and a potential new area of investigation.

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Fluctuations induce mean field forces on both the ion and electron species. For simplicity, we consider a cylindrical plasmas with all the usual boundary conditions. Quantities are split into equilibrium and fluctuating quantities, Nonlinearities produce fluctuation induced mean field forces (actually forces per unit charge) Note, the first term contains both the MHD and Hall dynamo terms. For the electrons, v e =u - J/ne + O(m e /m i ).

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Three global properties of the mean-field forces can be shown Mean field momentum balance equations Three global constraints to be shown The last condition can also be written using F ||M = F ||i -F ||e, F ||O = (m i F |||e +m e F ||i )/(m i +m e )

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A number of assumptions are used to prove the three global constraints Simplifying assumptions used in the constraint derivations: –Fluctuation amplitudes are small compared to the mean magnetic field, typically valid in all MFE devices – The equilibrium quantities evolve on a slow diffusive time scale Viscosities and radial mean flow are ordered with resistivity. Parallel heat flux is ordered small to be consistent with the neglect of heat flux, (again, probably a weak point)

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A number of assumptions are used to prove the three global constraints Assumptions (continued) –The viscous force is dissipative for both species –All other equilibrium flows are ordered small - probably not a crucial assumption,may be generalized to equilibrium with flow –Ion and electron skin depths are small. With ~ 1, s ~ s While velocity and magnetic field fluctuations are small, gradients of fluctuating quantities may be large, in general

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The first two conditions can be shown from the generalized helicity evolution equations Two separate ways to generate the evolution of the mean generalized helicity –The first from the total momentum balance –The last from the mean momentum balance Subtracting the average of the first equation from the last equation.

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With the assumed orderings and appropriate boundary conditions, the first two conditions are derived The previously derived condition –All the terms on the right hand side are smaller than O( ) –C 1 is the fluctuation induced generalized helicity flux. –In the m e = 0 limit, the electron condition corresponds to the same as that derived for resistive MHD. In two-fluid theory, there two constraints, one for each fluid.

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Energy balance relations are used to prove the third condition Total energy conservation Construct mean magnetic energy evolution from –Subtract this from O( ) average of the top equation –C 2 is the leading-order energy flux caused by the fluctuations –Third term denotes anomalous cross-field transport --- similar bits show up in resistive MHD - Hameiri and Bhattacharjee, 87.

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By accounting for the cross-field diffusion in our definition of F, the fluctuations are shown to dissipate energy One can redefine the mean field force to account for turbulence induced cross field heat and particle transport –This redefinition doesnt affect The first two conditions –The final condition is derived -This condition can also be written using F M = F i - F e, F O = (m i F e + m e F i )/(m e + m i ) Fluctuations dissipate energy. Energy delivered to electrons and ions via Ohmic and viscous heating.

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The global constraints imply a particular choice for the local form of the mean field forces In analogy with the hyper-resistivity form implied by the resistive MHD global constraints, local forms are implied by the two-fluid global constraints. –The first two conditions imply where s vanishes on the boundary –The third condition can then be written –A solution that guarantees the above is with conditions on the coefficients f st.

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The implied local forms suggest a coupling between current and flow evolution The parallel components of the turbulent mean field force –Can rewrite these equations as Those that appear in Ohms law And the total momentum balance Coefficients are spatially dependent functions that vanish on the boundary and satisfy k e 2 > 0, k i 2 > 0, (L e + L i ) 2 < k e 2 k i 2 /4 e 2 > 0, i 2 > 0, ( e + i ) 2 < e 2 i 2 /4

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The local forms are also derivable from quasi- linear tearing mode theory Simplified, incompressible, low-, m e = 0, s = 0 limit –Mean field forces are derived from quasilinear expression for the tearing mode resonant on some surface. = average over layer width In the Ohms law, the resistive MHD and Hall dynamos In the total momentum balance, the Reynolds and Maxwell stresses (to within a factor of ne).

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A simple model is used in the linear layer analysis A four field model Equilibrium near the rational surface

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The mean field forces derived from quasilinear theory exhibit the same structure as that implied from the global constraints After linear theory –In the resistive MHD limit, M e 2 is the largest coefficient - hyper- resistivity dominates and F M is small. –In the two-fluid limit, the dominant drive comes in the combination dV e /dx=dV o /dx - dJ o /dx (ne) -1 Highly simplified theory --- A much more complete job calculation of two-fluid tearing mode growth rates has been calculated by Mirnov, et al.

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Relationship to relaxation theory Constraints imply a relaxation theory via the minimization of W - e K e - i K i where K s = dV A s. B s –To lowest order in c pi a) the minimizing solutions yield A state discussed by many - Sudan, 79; Finn and Antonsen, 83; Avinash and Taylor 91; Steinhauer and Ishida, 98; Mahajan et al 01.

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Summary Using a modest number of assumptions, three global constraints are derived for turbulence induced mean field forces in two-fluid models of plasmas. These constrains imply functional forms for the parallel mean-field forces in the Ohms law and the total momentum balance equations suggesting the fluctuations relax the plasma to states with field aligned current and bulk plasma momentum. Applications to flow profile evolution during discrete dynamo events on MST?

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