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**Chapter 2 part #4 Operator**

King Saud University College of Applied studies and Community Service Csc 1101 By: Asma Alosaimi Edited By: Ghadah R. Hadba Chapter 2 part #4 Operator 2nd semester

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**Outlines C++ Operators Order of Precedence Arithmetic Operators**

Assignment Operator Increment/Decrement Operators Relational Operators Logical Operators Order of Precedence

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**Operators Operators are special symbols used for:**

arithmetic calculations assignment statements logical comparisons Examples of operators: // uses + operator – 4 * (5 – 3) // uses +, -, * operators Expressions: can be combinations of variables and operators that result in a value

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**C++ Operators In C++, there are 5 different groups of operators:**

Arithmetic Operators Assignment Operator Increment / Decrement Operators Relational Operators Logical Operators

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**C++ Operators: Arithmetic Operators**

The C++ arithmetic operators are summarized in Fig. 2.9. The arithmetic operators in Fig. 2.9 are all binary operators, i.e. operators that take two operands Each operand can be either a literal , a variable identifier , or an expression. It is better for the two operands to be of the same data type, otherwise: The compiler will perform implicit casting (with literal values) and/or, Explicit casting need to be specified (with variables) Note the use of various special symbols not used in algebra.( e.g. * and %)

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**C++ Operators: Arithmetic Operators**

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**Writing Mathematical Formulas in C**

Always specify multiplication explicitly by using the operator * where needed. Example: b² - 4 a c = b * b - 4 * a * c Use parentheses when required to control the order of operator evaluation. Example: a + b = ( a + b ) / ( c + d ) c + d Two arithmetic operators can be written in succession if the second is a unary operator Example: a x - ( b + c ) = a * - ( b + c ) C Language Elements

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**Writing Mathematical Formulas in C++ (Examples)**

a + b - c = a + b - c 1 1 + a² = 1 / ( 1 + a * a) a x (5b + c) = a * ( 5 * b + c ) C Language Elements

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**C++ Operators: Arithmetic Operators**

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**Operators Precedence - Example**

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**Parentheses The value of the expression x + y * z * z**

is always the same as the value of x + ((y * z) * z)

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**Rules for Expression Evaluation (Examples)**

z - ( a + b / 2 ) + w * - y ( b * b ) - ( 4 * 4 ) * ( a * c ) A * - ( b + c ) C Language Elements

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**Division Example As we can see, Example of division issues:**

10 / 3 gives 3 10.0 / 3 gives As we can see, if we divide two integers we get an integer result. if one or both operands is a floating-point value we get a floating-point result. If the operands are from different data type, especially dividing floating-point number by an integer or vice a versa the result will be a floating-point number

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Modulus Example Generates the remainder when you divide two integer values. 5%3 gives 2 5%4 gives 1 5%5 gives 0 5%10 gives 5 Modulus operator is most commonly used with integer operands. If we attempt to use the modulus operator on floating-point values we will garbage! (Why?)

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**C++ Operators: Arithmetic Operators**

Implicit casting: is an automatic type conversion by the compiler. If operands of mixed types are used, the compiler will convert one operand to agree with the other. To do this, it uses a hierarchy of data types: Long double (highest) Double Float Unsigned long int Long int Unsigned int Int (lowest) boolean, character, wide character, enumeration, and short integer data types are promoted to int

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**C++ Operators: Arithmetic Operators**

Implicit casting: Example(1): The compiler will converts 5 to floating point number because it’s higher than int in the data type hierarchy Example(2): short a=2000; int b; b=a; the value of a has been promoted from short to int

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**C++ Operators: Assignment Operator**

We assign a value to a variable using the basic assignment operator (=). Assignment operator: Stores a value in a memory. Basically used in C++ to initialize a variable with a value OR to update it’s content with a new value It’s syntax is as following leftSide = rightSide ; It is always a variable identifier. It is either a literal , a variable identifier , or an expression.

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**C++ Operators: Assignment Operator**

The assignment operator (=) assigns the value on the right side of the operator to the variable appearing on the left side of the operator. The right side may be either: Literal: e.g. i = 1; Variable identifier: e.g. start = i; Expression: e.g. sum = first + second;

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1.Assigning Literals In this case, the literal is stored in the memory space allocated for the variable on the left side. A. Variables are allocated in memory. firstNumber 1 int firstNumber=1, secondNumber; firstNumber = 234; secondNumber = 87; A B secondNumber ??? B. Literals are assigned to variables. firstNumber 234 secondNumber 87 Code State of Memory

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2.Assigning Variables In this case, the value of the variable on the right side is stored in the memory space allocated for the variable on the left side. A. Variables are allocated in memory. int firstNumber=1, i; firstNumber = 234; i = firstNumber; A B firstNumber 1 i ??? B. values are assigned to variables. firstNumber 234 i Code State of Memory

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**3.Assigning Expressions**

In this case, the result of evaluating the expression (on the right side) is stored in the memory space allocated for the variable (on the left side). A. Variables are allocated in memory. first ??? second sum A int first, second, sum; first = 234; second = 87; Sum = first + second B B. Values are assigned to variables. first second 87 234 Code sum 321 State of Memory

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**Example of Initializing and Updating Data using assignment operator**

A. The variable is allocated in memory and initializes with the value 100 number int number=100; number = 237; A 100 B B. The value overwrites the previous value 100 C number = 35; number 237 C. The value 35 overwrites the previous value 237. number 35 State of Memory Code

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**Code Example: Arithmetic & Assignment operators**

# include <iostream> Using namespace std; // main method int main ( ) { int num1, num2, sum; cout<<“Enter two numbers : “; cin>> num1 >> num2; sum = num1 + num2; cout << num1 <<” + ” << num2 << ” = ” << sum; return 0; } // end main

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**Mixed Data Types in an Assignment Statement**

The variable to the left of the equals sign determines the data types of an expression. If both operands of an expression are integer→ then the data type of such an expression will be integer. If both operands of an expression are double→ then the data type of such an expression will be double. An expression that has operands of both type integer and double is a mixed-type expression. The data type of such a mixed-type expression → will be double. C Language Elements

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**Mixed Data Types in an Assignment Statement**

Example: if x is int and y is double then x = 7 * 0.5; 3 y = 7 * 0.5; 3.50 x = 100/5; 20 y = 100/5; 20.00 C Language Elements

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**C++ Operators: Explicit casting:**

Performed by placing (data type) prior the intended variable|value|expression Example(1): short a=2000; int b; b = (int) a; Example(2): int nValue1 = 10; int nValue2 = 4; float fValue = (float) (nValue1 / nValue2); OR (float) nValue1/(float) nValue2; are they the same?

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**C++ Operators: Type Cast Explicit casting:**

converting an expression to a different type by writing the desired type in parentheses in front of the expression or the variable. Example: Rounding a number double x; int rounded_x /* code to give x a value omitted*/ rounded_x = (int) (x + 0.5); is rounded to 36 35.12 is rounded to 35 35.51 +0.50 36.01 35.12 35.62

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**Compound Assignment Operators**

When we want to modify the value of a variable by performing an operation on the value currently stored in that variable we can use compound assignment operators C++ allows combining arithmetic and assignment operators into a single operator as following: Addition/assignment = Subtraction/assignment = Multiplication/assignment = Division/assignment /= Remainder/assignment %=

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**Compound Assignment Operators**

The syntax is leftSide Op= rightSide ; This is equivalent to: leftSide = leftSide Op rightSide ; Example x%=5; x = x % 5; x*=y+w*z; x = x*(y+w*z); It is either a literal , a variable identifier , or an expression. Allways it is a variable identifier. It is an arithmetic operator.

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**Compound Assignment Operators**

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**C++ Operators: Increment/Decrement Operators**

++ and are a unary operators that can be applied to variables and increments/decrements the value they hold x++/++x; is equivalent to x = x+1; x--/--x; is equivalent to x = x-1;

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**C++ Operators: Increment/Decrement Operators**

Placing the increment/ decrement operator before the variable name differ from placing it after as following:

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**C++ Operators: Increment/Decrement Operators**

Placing the increment/ decrement operator before the variable name differ from placing it after as following (Example):

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**C++ Operators: Equality and Relational Operators**

In order to evaluate a comparison between two expressions we can use the relational and equality operators The relational and equality operators operators in Fig are all binary operators, i.e. operators that take two operands Each operand can be either a literal , a variable identifier , or an expression. The result of a equality and relational operations is a Boolean value that can only be true or false, according to its Boolean result.

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**C++ Operators: Equality and Relational Operators**

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Example Of course, instead of using only numeric constants, we can use any valid expression, including variables. Suppose that a=2,b=3 and c=6

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**Common Programming Errors**

A syntax error will occur if the operators ==, !=, >= and <= appears with space(s) between its pair of symbols A syntax error will occur when reversing the order of the pair of symbols!=, >= and <= (i.e. by writing them as =!, =>, =< respectively) Confusing the equality operator == with the assignment operator

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**C++ Operators: Logical Operators**

Symbol Operator ! NOT && AND || OR && T F ! T F || T F

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**C++ Operators: Logical Operators**

The Operator ! is an operator to perform the Boolean operation NOT it has only one operand located at its Basically, it returns the opposite Boolean value of evaluating its operand Example: !(5 == 5) // evaluates to false because the expression at its right (5 == 5) is true. !(6 <= 4) // evaluates to true because (6 <= 4) would be false.

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**C++ Operators: Logical Operators**

The logical operators && and || are: binary operators used when evaluating two expressions to obtain a single relational result. The operator && corresponds with Boolean logical operation AND. The operator || corresponds with Boolean logical operation OR. Example:

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**Convert Text to C++ code**

English language: x less than or equal to 0 C++ language: (x<=0) English language: grade not equal to 'A' C++ language: (grade != 'A‘) English language: an exam score of 90 and above or quiz score of 95 and above C++ language: (exam>=90) || (quiz>=95) English language: a single man whose 55 years old or older C++ language ((status=='s‘)&&(gender=='m‘) )&&(age>=55))

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**Operator Precedence Consider the following expression: x=y*5+y*2/4;**

Which operator the compiler will perform first?! IN C++, order of operations (sometimes called operator precedence) is a rule used to clarify unambiguously which procedures should be performed first in a given Figure A.1 show the decreasing order of precedence from top to bottom Note that parentheses () can be used to enforce a desired order for performing operations x=y*5+y; x=y*(5+y); 1 2 2 1

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Associatively Type Operator Precedence Left-to-right Parentheses () 1 Right-to-left Prefix increment and decrement ++, -- 2 Unary minus - Logical NOT ! Type case (type) 3 Multiplication, division, and module * , / , % 4 Addition and subtraction +,- 5 <<, >> 6 Relational operators <, <=,>,>= 7 Equality operators ==, != 8 Logical AND && 9 Logical OR || 10 +=,-=,*=/=,%= 11 Postfix increment and decrement 12

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