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Did dinosaurs have lice? Vince Smith, Tom Ford, Kevin Johnson*, Paul Johnson & Rod Page University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK *Illinois Natural History Survey,

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Presentation on theme: "Did dinosaurs have lice? Vince Smith, Tom Ford, Kevin Johnson*, Paul Johnson & Rod Page University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK *Illinois Natural History Survey,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Did dinosaurs have lice? Vince Smith, Tom Ford, Kevin Johnson*, Paul Johnson & Rod Page University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK *Illinois Natural History Survey, USA

2 Fossil Lice Psocoptera Menacanthus / Menopon -complex Ricinidae Laemobothriidae Boopiidae Austromenopon -complex Dennyus -complex Colpocephalum -complex Collected Eckfeld maar near Eifel, Germany Middle Eocene (Middle Lutetian, 44.3±0.4 Ma) First fossil louse Completes ordinal representation of fossil insects Excellent preservation Phylogenetic affinities with modern feather lice Parasite of Anseriformes or Charadriiformes Crown group position Suggests lice are very old Points to a long coevolutionary history with birds Useful molecular calibration point Wappler, Smith & Dalgleish, Proc.R.Soc., 2004.

3 ii.Establish calibration points -Crown group fossils -R8s (Sanderson, 2003) iii.Apply rate smoothing -Penalized likelihood -Cross validation iv.Multiple approaches! -Bottom up -Top down - cospeciation dates v.Compare ages Bottom Up Top Down 35 ma 30 ma i.Test for molecular clock

4 Phthiraptera 18s rRNACOI (1st & 2nd pos.) ML (GTR+I+G) ML (TVM+I+G) 0.1 Crustacea Dictyoptera Hemiptera Psocoptera Lepidoptera Diptera Crustacea Odonata Dictyoptera Plecoptera Hemiptera Psocoptera Coleoptera Raphidiodea Megaloptera Neuroptera Hymenoptera Trichoptera Lepidoptera Siphonaptera Mecoptera Diptera / Strepsiptera Thysanoptera

5 EF1- Wingless ML (GTR+I+G) 0.1 Phthiraptera Trichoptera Lepidoptera Siphonaptera Mecoptera Coleoptera Hymenoptera Diptera Hemiptera Thysanoptera Odonata Hymenoptera Diptera Lepidoptera Coleoptera Thysanoptera Hemiptera Crustacea

6 0.1 18s rRNACOI EF1- Wingless Insect Phylogeny (unsmoothed) Ages Fixed Age Constraints

7 ~185 ma~260 ma~250 ma~295 ma ( ma)( ma)( ma)( ma) 18s rRNACOI EF1- Wingless Hymenoptera Diptera Lepidoptera Coleoptera Thysanoptera LICE Hemiptera Diptera Lepidoptera LICE Lepidop. Caddis Fleas Mecop. Flies Hymenop. Coleop. LICE Bugs Thrips Odonata Strepsip. Flies Fleas/Mecop. Tric./Lep. Hymenop. Neurop. Beetles LICE Bugs Bark Lice Insect Phylogeny (rate smoothed)

8 Cospeciation Events Constraints Min. Age 44 ma Louse Fossil Combined ML 0.1 (18s, COI, EF1- ) Dove-Louse Cospeciation Age Fixed 19.8 ma Rhea/Ostrich- Louse Cospeciation Age Fixed 60 ma Primate-Louse Cospeciation Age Fixed 4.5 ma Amblycera Ischnocera Anoplura Rhyn. Louse Phylogeny (unsmoothed)

9 Ricinus sp Laemobothrion atrum Austromenopon elliotti Trinoton querquedulae Holomenopon sp Dennyus hirundinis Machaerilaemus sp Colimenopon urocolius Docophoroides brevis Fulicoffula longipila Bovicola sp Felicola subrostratus Neotrichodectes sp Geomydoecus sp Pectinopygus sulae Pectinopygus brevicornis Pectinopygus punctatus Pectinopygus varius Anatoecus icterodes Trichophilopterus babakotophilus Columbicola columbae Columbicola passerinae Struthioliperus nandu Struthiolipeurus struthionis Craspedorrhynchus sp Degeeriella fulva Austrophilopterus subsimilus Colilipeurus colius Campanulotes compar Goniodes sp Naubates sp Perineus nigrolimbatus Haematomyzus elephants Pediculus humanus var capitis Pediculus schaeffi Echinophthirius horridus b Polyplax spinulosa Haematopinus tuberculatus Haematopinus suis Haematopinus pacochoeri Hoplopleura trispinosa Hoplopleura sp Pterophthirus imitans Linognathoides marmotae Linognathoides marmotae b Neohaematopinus sciuri Neohaematopinus sciuri b Louse Phylogeny (rate smoothed) Combined ML (18s, COI, EF1- ) Amblycera Ischnocera Anoplura Rhyn. ~190 ma ( ma) KT Result very sensitive to smoothing parameter used

10 Host Implications Paleocene Cretaceous Late Cretaceous Early Cretaceous Late Jurassic 157ma ± 146ma ± 97ma ± 65ma ± Modern Birds Ratites and tinamous Neognathae Neornithes Archaeopteryx Paleognathae Tertiary big bang model for modern bird evolution sensu Feduccia, 1995 Figure adapted from Feduccia, Big bang followed by a big switch? Modern birds much older - Gondwanic origin? Revised classic model sensu Cracraft, 2001 KT Modern Birds

11 Host Implications Figure adapted from ???, Science, ???? 2-300ma ?

12 Summary Lice are old ( ma) Major radiation of lice before the KT (65ma) Modern birds & lice have a very long coevolutionary history Origin of lice associated with origin of feathers? Recent threopod dinosaurs probably had lice? Molecular clocks run fast at times of rapid radiation? Caveats

13 Acknowledgements Wellcome Trust


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