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The Diversification of Lice: Phylogeny Vincent S. Smith & Kevin P. Johnson.

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Presentation on theme: "The Diversification of Lice: Phylogeny Vincent S. Smith & Kevin P. Johnson."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Diversification of Lice: Phylogeny Vincent S. Smith & Kevin P. Johnson

2 Louse phylogeny four years on… Book lice (Psocoptera) Lice (Phthiraptera)AmblyceraIschnoceraRhynchophthirinaAnoplura [ Liposcelis sp.] Chewing Lice Mallophaga Sucking Lice (Anoplura) 40+ phylogenies! Now cover 80% of louse genera Mix of molecules & morphology Beginning to reconcile differences Still a long way to go! Some of the biggest studies unpublished

3 Louse phylogeny four years on… AmblyceraIschnoceraRhynchophthirinaAnoplura [ Liposcelis sp.] 40+ phylogenies! Now cover 80% of louse genera Mix of molecules & morphology Beginning to reconcile differences Still a long way to go! Some of the biggest studies unpublished

4 Amblycera Feather lice No new deep-branch phylogenies! - 1,350 spp. in 6 families - Widespread on birds - Few families on South American mammals & marsupials - Boopiidae on Australasian marsupials Mostly alpha-taxonomic work Clay, 1970 No extensive molecular trees 84 Grilicolinae Gyropinae Protogyropinae Trimenoponidae Ricinidae Laemobothriidae Boopiidae Menoponidae Liposcelidae (Psocoptera) Gyropidae Birds Worldwide & Australasian Marsupials South/Central Am. Rodents & Marsupials 85

5 Amblycera Feather lice Laemobothriidae - Falconiforms Menacanthus/Menopon-cpx. - Birds worldwide Colpocephalum-complex - Birds worldwide Austromenopon-complex - Aquatic birds Dennyus-complex - Birds worldwide Boopidae - Australasian marsupials Ricinidae - Hummingbirds 64 57 87 73 1 1 61 1 75 61 3 100 99 9 93 85 3 100 12 100 15 96 88 100 98 7 8 89 76 4 3 5 90 74 2 1 1 62 2 98 96 1 1 1 1 1 1 52 3 2 80 57 4 92 75 5 51 1 3 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 Trochiloecetes rupununi Ricinus fringillae Trochiliphagus abdominalis Laemobothrion maximum Therodoxus oweni Boopia tarsata Paraheterodoxus insignis Latumcephalum lesouefi/macropus Paraboopia flava Rediella mirabilis Actornithophilus uniseriatus Plegadiphilus threskiornis Chapinia robusta Bonomiella columbae Pseudomenopon pilosum Ancistrona vagelli Dennyus hirundinis Myrsidea victrix Holomenopon brevithoracicum Eidmanniella pellucida Machaerilaemus laticorpus/latifrons Austromenopon crocatum Neomenopon pteroclurus Hohorstiella lata Osborniella crotophagae Eomenopon denticulatum Piagetiella bursaepelecani Ciconiphilus quadripustulatus Cuculiphilus fasciatus Ardeiphilus trochioxus Odoriphila clayae/phoeniculi Psittacomenopon poicephalus Colpocephalum zebra Comatomenopon elbeli/elongatum Gruimenopon longum Hoazineus armiferus Meromenopon meropis Trinoton anserinum Menacanthus stramineus Colimenopon urocolius Somaphantus lusius Amyrsidea ventralis Menopon gallinae Numidicola antennatus B L M B C D A Liposcelis bostrychophilus Marshall, 2003 44 genera, 147 char. (Morphology) Parsimony, Strict consensus

6 Ischnocera Feather lice - 3,104 spp. in an uncertain no. of families - Widespread on birds, 381 spp on mammals - Highly host specific (71% on a single host species) Columbicola columbae Austrogoniodes waterstoni Harrisoniella hopkinsi Haffneria grandis Paraclisis diomedea Perineus nigrolimbatus Halipeurus pelagicus Philoceanus garrodiae Pseudonirmus gurlti Naubates fuliginosus Pelmatocerandra setosa Ardeicola smithersi Anaticola crassicornis Pectinopygus bassani Pectinopygus sulae Aquanirmus australis Ibidoecus plataleae Trabeculus schillingi Craspedonirmus colymbinus Quadraceps coenocoryphae Docophoroides brevis Saemundssonia desolata Saemundssonia haematopi Podargoecus strigoides Alcedoecus delphax Craspedorrhynchus platystomus Strigiphilus vapidus Sturnidoecus sturni Philopterus ornatus Vernoniella guimarãesi Acidoproctus rostratus Acidoproctus hilli Rallicola lugens Osculotes curtus Osculotes macropoda Coloceras damicorne Campanulotes bidentatus Goniocotes gallinae Goniodes pavonis Goniodes kéleri Chelopistes guttatus Strongylocotes angulocapitis Discocorpus c. cephalosus Splendoroffula ruwenzorornis Oxylipeurus dentatus Cuclotogaster madagascariensis Lipeurus caponis Degeeriella rufa Upupicola upupae Lagopoecus affinis Syrrhaptoecus falcatus Neopsittaconirmus borgiolii Paragoniocotes rotundus Brüelia semiannulata Falcolipeurus affulgeus Archolipeurus nandu Felicola (F.) viverriculae Geomydoecus (G.) heaneyi Trichodectes (T.) melis Bovicola limbatus Damalinia (D.) crenelata Philoceanus -complex Goniodidae Degeeriella -complex Trichodectidae Lipeurus -complex Heptap. Saemundssonia -complex Philopterus -complex Historically the least studied Now comparatively well known Extensive molecular & morphological work Smith, 2001 41 genera, 138 char. (Morphology, parsimony, strict consensus)

7 Ischnocera Feather lice Morphological phylogeny defined by: - shape of the head - body form (wing, head or body louse) A. Circumfasciate B. Non-Circumfasciate N IN IIN IIIAdult C. WingD. BodyE. Head - multiple clades of lice on the same host Wing CI: 0.5 RI: 0.95 Head Body Wing Circumfasciate Non- circumfasciate CI: 1.0 RI: 1.0 Major clades incongruent with the molecular data!

8 Ischnocera Feather lice Trust me, the same pattern holds! Smith & Johnson, in prep. All ischnceran genera, Adult & Nymphal Morph. Strict Consensus

9 Rhynchophthirina Elephant, warthog & bush pig lice Haematomyzus elephantis - 3 spp. in a single family - Confined to relatively unrelated hosts (elephants, warthog & bush pig) - Spread via shared use of watering holes? - Still chewing lice (telmophages) ex Asian / African elephant Phylogeny Only 1 species available for molecular work Haematomyzus elephantis Haematomyzus hopkinsi Haematomyzus porci ?

10 Anoplura Sucking lice Rhynchophthirina Hybophthiridae Haematopinidae Ratimidae Linognathidae Neolinognathidae Microthoracidae Echinophthiridae Hamophthiridae Pecaroecidae Pedicinudae Pthiridae Pediculidae Polyplacidae Enderleinellidae Hoplopleuridae 51 genera, 76 species 184 morphological characters Well supported Consistent with limited mol. data Unpublished Smith, Strict Consensus In Prep. - 540 species in 15 families - Confined to mammals (834 host species) - 50% confined to a single host - Blood vessel feeders (solenophages)

11 Other Anoplura grade into the rodent lice - ungulate lice - seal lice Major clades are: - primate lice Anoplura Sucking lice Many monogenic families Rhynchophthirina Hybophthiridae Haematopinidae Ratimidae Linognathidae Neolinognathidae Microthoracidae Echinophthiridae Hamophthiridae Pecaroecidae Pedicinudae Pthiridae Pediculidae Polyplacidae Enderleinellidae Hoplopleuridae Rodent lice monophyletic All 15 families monophyletic except Polyplacidae Typhlomyophthirus Strong correlation with host taxonomy Other Anoplura grade into the rodent lice

12 Anoplura Sucking lice Rhynchophthirina Hybophthiridae Haematopinidae Ratimidae Linognathidae Neolinognathidae Microthoracidae Echinophthiridae Hamophthiridae Pecaroecidae Pedicinudae Pthiridae Pediculidae Polyplacidae Enderleinellidae Hoplopleuridae Focus on Primate lice Pediculidae PthiridaePedicinidae Reed, Smith et al, 2004

13 Pediculus humanus Human head & body louse morphology Head LiceBody Lice Pediculus humanus Linnaeus, 1758Pediculus capitis De Geer, 1767 Smaller & darker Larger & lighter Antennae shorter & thicker Antennae longer & slender Middle leg tibial length shorter Middle leg tibial length longer Weak indentations between abdominal segments Restricted to the hair on the scalp, particularly on the nape and in the area behind the ears. Not on the eyebrows or eyelashes. Below neck. Common in the seams of clothing (especially females), particularly those worn next to the skin (shirts, vests etc.). Males more commonly over garments surface. Vectors relapsing fever, trench fever, & epidemic typhus Does not naturally vector disease Killed millions Killed no one Vectors a category B bioterrorism agent Does not vector a bioterrorism agent Traditionally considered indistinguishable!

14 Pediculus humanus Four discriminating characters TBL TBL: Total Body Length LgTibLgth LgTibLgth: 2 nd Leg Tibial Length HdWdth HdWdth: Postantennal Head Width PtWdth PtWdth: Posterior Pterothoracic Width

15 Pediculus humanus Discriminant function analysis Function 1 FemalesMales Function 2 Group Centroids Ungrouped Cases 1 2 3 1 2 3 3 Pubic Lice 2 Head Lice 1 Body Lice -10-5051015-10-5051015 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 Reed, Smith et al, 2004 I want your pill-box specimens!!! We can morphologically separate head & body lice

16 Pediculus humanus Function 1 FemalesMales Function 2 Group Centroids Ungrouped Cases 1 2 3 1 2 3 3 Pubic Lice 2 Head Lice 1 Body Lice -10-5051015-10-5051015 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 Reed, Smith et al, 2004 Are these differences present in the molecular data? Discriminant function analysis

17 Questions?

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