How are these ions made? Can you mess with protons? Would messing with neutrons do anything to the charge? What must you mess with??? What charge does an electron have? So what would happen to the atom if they LOSE one? Would they get more positive or more negative overall???
IONS If you mess with the electrons you change the overall charge of the atom…an atom that is no longer neutral is called an ION. ANION- has a negative charge Means you added an electron! CATION- has a positive charge Means you lost an electron
Let’s look at our families- What ion will each form? It all starts with the noble gases… Everyone wants to be NOBLE
These are the “magic numbers” Each of these atomic numbers will make a “full outer shell” (OCTET RULE) Other families will lose or gain electrons to get the these “numbers” Exceptions to Octet Rule: H, He, Li, Be,
Alkali Metals All (except hydrogen- of course) will lose one electron to form a __________ charge. (1+)
Alkaline Earth Metals All will lose two electrons to form a __________ charge. (2+) Ex- A neutral Mg atom has 12 protons and 12 electrons (+12) + (- 12) = 0 A Mg ion has 12 protons and only 10 electrons (+12) + (-10) = +2
Boron Family All will lose three electron to form a ____ charge. (3+)
Carbon Family is special All have four valence electrons, so it can lose four OR gain four to fulfill its octet! So it can form a _____ or a ______charge! (4+) or (4-)
Nitrogen Family All have 5 valence electrons, so it will look to gain 3 electrons So it will form a (3-) charge
Oxygen Family All will gain two electrons to form a __________ charge. (2-) Ex- A neutral Oxygen atom has 8 protons and 8 electrons (+8) + (-8) = 0 An Oxygen ion has 8 protons and 10 electrons (+8) + (-10) = (2-)
HALOGENS All will gain one electrons to form a __________ charge. (1-)
How about those noble gases? They will NOT FORM IONS!!!