A) What is DNA Barcoding i) What are the barcoding regions and what are their properties that make them useful? [Richard Pyle, Bishop Museum, USA – amongst.
Propositions to vote on: i) Should we devote resources towards sequencing a reference collection of specimens for the development a DNA barcoding system?
Barcoding Specimens Specimen 1 1 Class Bivalvia Linnaeus, bivalves Order Unionoida Stoliczka, 1871 Family Unionidae Fleming, 1828 Genus.
Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION Simple & Ambitious! AdvocatesOpposition ID all species Discover new species Speed up IDs Revitalize biological collections Wont work Destroy."— Presentation transcript:
Trends in Ecology & Evolution Feb. 2003. Vol. 18, Iss. 2 3 of these 5 are the most downloaded papers in TREE 1. Taxonomy: renaissance or Tower of Babel? Jim Mallet et al 4. A plea for DNA taxonomy Tautz et al 5. The encyclopedia of life Edward Wilson
Propositions to vote on: i) Should we devote resources towards sequencing a reference collection of specimens for the development a DNA barcoding system? [Yes, No, or Abstain] ii) Should DNA sequences play a primary role in the discovery of new species? [Yes, No, or Abstain] Vote before and after the debate!
Specimen 1 1 Class Bivalvia Linnaeus, 1758 -- bivalves Order Unionoida Stoliczka, 1871 Family Unionidae Fleming, 1828 Genus Epioblasma Rafinesque, 1831 Species Epioblasma torulosa (Rafinesque, 1820) tubercled blossom Wabash County, Illinois EXTINCT
Specimen 2 2 Class Insecta -- insects Order Coleoptera -- beetles Family Scarabaeidae -- scarab beetle Genus Melolontha Species Melolontha melolontha (L., 1758) common cockchafer, May bug Hungary Very distinctive, but European
Specimen 3 3 Class Clitellata/Hirudinea Lamarck, 1818 -- leeches Order Arhynchobdellida Blanchard, 1894 Family Erpobdellidae Blanchard, 1894 Genus Erpobdella de Blainville, 1818 Species Erpobdella punctata (Leidy, 1870) Leech (no common name) Illinois Common & widespread in NA Not very distinctive
Specimen 4 New species, no PEET program! Psocid (no common name) Arizona Class Insecta -- insects Order Psocoptera -- psocids Family Myopsocidae Genus Myopsocus Species Myopsocus sp. n. 4
Specimen 5 Fly Agaric Illinois Class Homobasidiomycetae Order Agaricales -- stereotypical mushrooms Family Amanitaceae Genus Amanita Species Amanita muscaria var. formosa 5 e.g. of CONTAMINATION! Vouchering essential, No COI
Conclusions Some specimens unsuitable for barcoding e.g. Fossilized/Extinct taxa No COI for many taxa Many taxa difficult/impossible to ID with e.g. immature specimens, cryptic taxa etc morphology No specialists for many taxa No training necessary for barcoding! Already in use for many taxa ( bacteria, fungi, Cetacea)
A) What is DNA Barcoding i) What are the barcoding regions and what are their properties that make them useful? [Richard Pyle, Bishop Museum, USA – amongst others]
A) What is DNA Barcoding ii) Would the DNA barcode represent a *definition* of a species? [David Fitch, New York University, USA – amongst others]
A) What is DNA Barcoding iii) How would DNA barcoding work in practice and who should be doing it? [Vince Smith, Illinois Natural History Survey, USA]
B) DNA barcoding in species identification i) How will the DNA barcoding identifications deal with the overlap between intraspecific and interspecific variation documented in many groups? [Everybody!]
B) DNA barcoding in species identification ii) To what extent will DNA barcoding support the efforts of traditional taxonomy? [David Yeates, CSIRO, Australia]
B) DNA barcoding in species identification iii) Is accuracy of identification (to the right clade) possible in the absence of accuracy in family- and genus- level topology? [Jim Hayden, Cornell University, USA]
C) DNA barcoding in species discovery i) How confident can we be in the utility of DNA barcodes to discover new species when it has been demonstrated that many species are not mitochondrially monophyletic, and thus share mitochondrial polymorphisms with other species? [Daniel Funk, Vanderbilt University, USA]
C) DNA barcoding in species discovery ii) With a program of DNA barcoding what would be sufficient to demonstrate that a specimen represents a new species? [Kevin Johnson, Illinois Natural History Survey, USA]
D) Political & practical implications i) What will be the role of systematists in a world where most identifications are done by "barcode" and will the expansion of sequencing efforts come at the expense of systematics in general [Jim Hayden, Cornell University, USA]
D) Political & practical implications ii) Assuming the technical problems of DNA barcoding can be overcome is it now, or will it ever be cost-effective relative to traditional methods to use DNA barcodes for bioinventory purposes? [Derek S. Sikes, University of Calgary, Canada]
D) Political & practical implications iii) Will identification by barcodes increase people's enthusiasm for living things? [Jim Hayden, Cornell University, USA]
Propositions to vote on: i) Should we devote resources towards sequencing a reference collection of specimens for the development a DNA barcoding system? [Yes, No, or Abstain] ii) Should DNA sequences play a primary role in the discovery of new species? [Yes, No, or Abstain]
Lessons for the all species project, from the human genome project… Kevin Kelly The Human Genome Project featured a goal that probably would have happened anyway over time… It took ordinary work and raised it to the level of legend and myth by attempting to complete it "all" in a relatively short time. The Genome project then is primarily distinguished by its emphasis on "all."
Lessons for the all species project, from the human genome project… Kevin Kelly A reoccurring theme in the mission statement of the All Species Inventory is the need for radically different and new tools. All Species must be open to the possibility of succeeding using enhanced existing tools applied in new ways, or simply old tools automated to lightening speed. However because current taxonomic procedures are so low tech, almost any improvement may resemble radical technology.
Lessons for the all species project, from the human genome project… Kevin Kelly All Species has an even better chance to become a project the public cares about. Far more people can identify a known species than can identify a known DNA sequence… This is a project that can relate to everyone: All species for all people. Someday all the species living on earth will be identified, although surely not all the ones alive today. Why not now?
Acknowledgements: The Panel: Paul Hebert & Kip Will The Students: Martin Hauser, Daniela Takiya, Mathys Meyer, Floyd Shockley, & Jamie Zahniser Specimen providers: Kevin Cummings, Martin Hauser, Andrew Miller, Mark Wetzle, & Kazunori Yoshizawa Conference organisers: Especially Mike Irwin & Gail Kampmeier Funding: National Science Foundation