Presentation on theme: "Caring for Common Medical Emergencies"— Presentation transcript:
1Caring for Common Medical Emergencies 15Caring for Common Medical Emergencies
2Define the following terms: ObjectivesDefine the following terms:Altered mental statusBehavioral emergencyConvulsionsDiabetesEpilepsyFebrileGeneralized seizureHemodialysisHyperglycemiaHypoglycemia(continued)
3Define the following terms : ObjectivesDefine the following terms :OverdosePartial seizurePostictalSepsisStroke (brain attack)(continued)
4Explain the common causes of altered mental status. ObjectivesExplain the common causes of altered mental status.Describe the signs and symptoms of a patient with an altered mental status.Explain the appropriate assessment and care for a patient with an altered mental status.Describe the signs and symptoms of a patient experiencing a generalized seizure.(continued)
5ObjectivesExplain the appropriate assessment and care for a patient experiencing a generalized seizure.Describe the signs and symptoms of a patient experiencing a stroke (brain attack).Explain the appropriate assessment and care for a patient experiencing a stroke (brain attack).Describe the signs and symptoms of a patient experiencing a diabetic emergency.(continued)
6ObjectivesDifferentiate between the signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia.Explain the appropriate assessment and care for a patient experiencing a diabetic emergency.Describe the signs and symptoms of a patient experiencing an overdose or poisoning.Describe the signs and symptoms of a patient experiencing carbon monoxide poisoning.(continued)
7ObjectivesExplain the appropriate assessment and care for a patient experiencing an overdose or poisoning.State when it is most appropriate to contact the poison control center.Describe the signs and symptoms of a patient experiencing an emergency related to renal failure.Explain the special considerations when caring for a hemodialysis patient.(continued)
8Describe the signs and symptoms of an allergic reaction. ObjectivesDescribe the signs and symptoms of a patient experiencing a generalized infection (sepsis).Explain the appropriate assessment and care for a patient experiencing a generalized infection (sepsis).Describe the signs and symptoms of an allergic reaction.Explain the appropriate assessment and care for a patient experiencing a severe allergic reaction.(continued)
9ObjectivesDescribe the signs and symptoms of a patient experiencing a suspected behavioral emergency.Explain the appropriate assessment and care for a patient experiencing a suspected behavioral emergency.Demonstrate the ability to appropriately assess and care for a patient experiencing an altered mental status.(continued)
10ObjectivesValue the significance of an altered mental status as a sign of an unstable patient.
11MediaSlide 27 Introduction to Seizures Video Slide 29 Complex Partial Seizures Video Slide 30 Tonic-Clonic Seizures Video Slide 44 Diabetes Animation Slide 61 Poisoning Video
12Topics Medical Emergencies Evaluating Mental Status Overdose and PoisoningBehavioral Emergencies
14Medical EmergenciesCaused by infections, poisons, or failure of one or more of body's organ systems.Signs and Symptoms:Altered mental statusAbnormal pulse rate and rhythmAbnormal breathing rate and characterAbnormal skin signsAbnormal pupil size or responseCritical Thinking: Why is altered mental status a medical emergency that demands attention?(continued)
15Medical Emergencies Signs and Symptoms: Unusual breath odors Tenderness or rigidity in abdomenAbnormal muscular activity (spasms or paralysis)Bleeding or discharges from bodyPainShortness of breathCritical Thinking: What could be the cause of unusual breath odors and why is this significant in the patient with altered mental status?(continued)
16Medical Emergencies Signs and Symptoms: Fever or chills Upset stomach and/or vomitingDizziness or feeling faintChest or abdominal painUnusual bowel or bladder activityThirst, hunger, odd tastes in mouthDiscussion Topic: Discuss vague complaints as they relate to medical emergencies.
17Medical Emergencies Assessment Take appropriate BSI precautions; complete a scene size-up.Perform primary assessment.Perform secondary assessment.Complete reassessments.Comfort and reassure patient while awaiting additional EMS resources.
18Think About ItYou respond to a single-vehicle MVC with minor MOI. Your patient is unresponsive. What conditions could have preceded the collision?How might the EMR proceed with assessment and treatment in this case?
20Evaluating Mental Status Normal mental status: complete and accurate awareness of one's surroundings.Altered mental status (AMS): decrease in patient's alertness and responsiveness to surroundings.Discussion Question: What criteria are used to judge normal mental status in a patient? How might you determine this?
21Evaluating Mental Status Common causes:Trauma to headSeizuresStroke (brain attack)Diabetic emergenciesPoisonings and overdoseHypoxia(continued)
22Evaluating Mental Status Common causes:ShockInfectionTraumaPsychiatric conditionLiver failureCritical Thinking: What are the most immediately life-threatening causes?
23Evaluating Mental Status Signs and Symptoms:ConfusionSeizuresInappropriate behaviorLack of awareness of surroundingsCombativenessSyncope (collapse or fainting)UnresponsivenessCritical Thinking: Why might combativeness be a sign of altered mental status? The EMR should be careful not to assume that a combative patient is simply being uncooperative or that the underlying reason is always behavioral.
24Evaluating Mental Status Assessing the PatientFocus on observation.Obtain complete medical history.Use AVPU scale:AlertVerbalPainfulUnresponsiveDiscussion Question: How would you assess a patient that is nearly unconscious and unable to communicate? How would you obtain a medical history?
25Evaluating Mental Status Specific Conditions: SeizuresIrregular electrical activity in brain that can cause sudden change in mental status and behavior.Can have many causes.
26Evaluating Mental Status Causes of Seizures:Epilepsy (disorder of brain)Ingestion of drugs, alcohol, poisonsAlcohol withdrawalBrain tumorsInfections, high fever (febrile)Diabetic problems; strokeHeat stroke; head injuryDiscussion Question: What clues can the EMR look for to determine if the cause of seizure is an established diagnosis of epilepsy?
27Click here to view a video on the topic of seizures. BACK TO DIRECTORY
28Evaluating Mental Status SeizuresTypes:Generalized: loss of consciousness and full body convulsions (uncontrolled muscular contractions).Partial: temporary loss of awareness with no dramatic body movements.Discussion Topic: Review the differences between generalized and partial seizures.
29Click here to view a video on the topic of complex partial seizures. BACK TO DIRECTORY
30Click here to view a video on the topic of tonic-clonic seizures. BACK TO DIRECTORY
31Evaluating Mental Status Generalized Seizure:Sudden loss of responsivenessReport of bright light, bright colors, sensation of strong odor prior to losing responsivenessConvulsionsLoss of bladder and/or bowel control(continued)
32Evaluating Mental Status Generalized Seizure:Labored breathing (frothing at mouth)Complaint of headache prior to or following seizureFollowing seizure, patient's body completely relaxesPostictal: the phase of seizure following convulsionsCritical Thinking: How might the patient appear during the postictal phase? What clues can the EMR look for to determine that the patient had a seizure and is now in the postictal phase?
33Protect the patient from injury by removing objects that he may strike and by placing something soft beneath his head.
34Evaluating Mental Status Seizure CareMove objects away; place something soft under head.Do not attempt to restrain patient or force anything into mouth.Loosen restrictive clothing.After convulsions have stopped, place patient in recovery position.Point to Emphasize: Do NOT put anything into the patient's mouth. “Bite sticks” should never be used.
35Evaluating Mental Status Specific Conditions: StrokeCerebrovascular accident (CVA) or brain attack.Blood flow to brain disrupted.Causes: obstruction or rupture of blood vessel.Portion of brain does not receive adequate supply of oxygenated blood.Discussion Topic: Compare and contrast the differences between obstruction and rupture of blood vessel in the brain. Discuss how this impacts treatment options at the hospital.Critical Thinking: Why is high blood pressure a major risk factor for stroke?
36Evaluating Mental Status Stroke Signs and SymptomsHeadacheSyncope (fainting)Altered mental statusNumbness or paralysis (extremities or face)Difficulty with speech or visionConfusion, dizzinessCritical Thinking: Why might it be important for the EMR to determine the time the signs and symptoms began?
37Evaluating Mental Status Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale (CPSS)Facial droopArm driftAbnormal speechDiscussion Topic: Discuss the latest advances in stroke care and the significance of “time is brain.”
40A patient suffering a stroke may have facial droop on one side or the other.
41An inability to hold both arms up may be a sign of possible stroke.
42Evaluating Mental Status Stroke CareMaintain open airway; be prepared to provide ventilations or CPR.Keep patient at rest; protect all paralyzed parts.Provide emotional support.Place patient in recovery position.Do not administer anything by mouth.Critical Thinking: Why would it be important to update responding EMS that you suspect stroke?
43Evaluating Mental Status Specific Conditions: Diabetic EmergenciesDiabetes: disease that prevents individuals from producing enough insulin or from using insulin effectively.Insulin: hormone released by pancreas; allows glucose (blood sugar) to enter cells so glucose can be used.Discussion Topic: Review the difference between Type I Diabetes (formerly referred to as Juvenile Diabetes) and Type II Diabetes (formerly referred to as Adult Onset Diabetes).HOMEWORK: Direct students to research the two types of diabetes and submit a one-page paper that compares and contrasts the two types.
44Click here to view an animation on the topic of diabetes. BACK TO DIRECTORY
45Evaluating Mental Status Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar):Diabetic who has taken too much insulin, eaten too little sugar, overexerted himself/herself, or experienced excessive emotional stress may develop low blood sugar.Alert patient: provide oral glucose or suitable substitute, if allowed by protocol.Non-alert patient: do not provide anything orally if the patient is unable to swallow.Talking Point: Hypoglycemia is more frequently seen in the emergency setting.
46Evaluating Mental Status Hypoglycemia: Signs and SymptomsAltered mental statusPale, cool skin; often moistRapid, strong pulseDizzinessHeadacheNormal or shallow breathingVery hungrySome patients develop seizuresCritical Thinking: Why would low blood sugar cause an altered mental status?
47Evaluating Mental Status Hyperglycemia: Signs and SymptomsExtreme thirstAbdominal painDry, warm skinRapid, weak pulseSweet or fruity odor (ketone) breathDry mouthRestlessnessAltered mental status, including comaTalking Point: Since hyperglycemia takes much longer to develop, it is not encountered as often in the pre-hospital setting. It's more commonly found in patients with poor glucose control.
48Evaluating Mental Status Care for HyperglycemiaIf patient is alert and you are not certain if problem is too much sugar or too little sugar, give patient sugar, candy, orange juice, or soft drink.Point to Emphasize: Never give a patient anything orally if the patient has an altered mental status.
51Think About It How might hypoxia change mental status? What steps might the EMR take to immediately rule out hypoxia as a potential cause?Talking Point: Discuss how hypoxia can lead to combativeness and why this should impact treatment priorities.
59Overdose and Poisoning Routes of ExposureIngestion: taken into body by mouth.Inhalation: taken in by breathing.Absorption: taken into body through skin and body tissues.Injection: delivered directly into bloodstream.Critical Thinking: Which route of exposure might be the most dangerous to the EMR?
60Overdose and Poisoning Over 60 regional poison control centers in the United States.Note and report any containers at scene.Check if patient has vomited; describe.Check for substances on clothes or if patient is wearing clothing that indicates nature of work.Point to Emphasize: Although historically marketed toward the general public, Poison Control Centers are an invaluable resource to responders.
61Click here to view a video on the topic of poisoning. BACK TO DIRECTORY
62Overdose and Poisoning Ingested Poisons: Signs and SymptomsBurns or stains around mouthUnusual breath odors, body odors, or odors on clothing or at sceneAbnormal breathingAbnormal pulse rate and rhythmSweatingDilated or constricted pupilsCritical Thinking: What substance commonly ingested in adults poses a significant poison risk when ingested by children?Answer: Alcohol(continued)
63Poisons come in colorful containers that are appealing to children. Talking Point: Alcoholic beverages may be seen as appealing to children as well.Poisons come in colorful containers that are appealing to children.
64Overdose and Poisoning Ingested Poisons: Signs and SymptomsExcessive saliva; foaming at mouthBurning in mouth, throat, painful swallowingAbdominal pain; upset stomach or nausea, vomiting, diarrheaConvulsions (seizure)Altered mental status, including unresponsivenessDiscussion Question: What specific questions might the EMR ask while obtaining the history from a patient who has been poisoned or has taken an overdose of a medication (accidental or purposeful)?
65The American Association of Poison Control Centers maintains an easy to remember 800 number.
66Overdose and Poisoning Inhaled Poisons: gases, fumes, vapors, dust.Sources: automobile exhaust systems, stoves, charcoal grills, industrial solvents, spray cans.Indicators: shortness of breath, coughing, pulse rate fast or slow, eyes irritated.Smoke inhalation and carbon monoxide poisoning present at fires scenes.Critical Thinking: You respond to a home for a lethargic child on a particularly cold winter evening following wide-spread power outages due to an ice storm. You enter through the attached garage and notice a generator in use to provide some power to the house. You learn that not only is the child symptomatic, her parents are complaining of headache and nausea. What do you suspect? How do you proceed?
67Overdose and Poisoning Absorbed Poisons: Signs and SymptomsSkin reactions (mild irritations to severe burns)HivesItchingEye irritationHeadacheIncreased skin temperatureClass Activity: Using a manikin dusted with talcum powder, direct students to work together to move the patient safely.
68Overdose and Poisoning Injected PoisonsSources: insect stings, spider bites, stings from marine life, snakebites, hypodermic needle, drug overdose or contamination.Signs and SymptomsNoticeable stings or bites to skinPain at or around wound siteItchingCritical Thinking: You respond to a public restroom and find an unresponsive male in his early 20s. He is turning blue and barely breathing. You notice an uncapped hypodermic needle on the floor next to him. What are your concerns? How will you proceed?(continued)
69Overdose and Poisoning Injected PoisonsSigns and SymptomsWeakness, dizziness, or collapseDifficulty breathing; abnormal pulse rateHeadacheNauseaAnaphylactic (allergy) shockDiscussion Question: What signs and symptoms might you see with an allergic reaction? Anaphylaxis? A drug overdose?
70Overdose and Poisoning Injected Poison Care (Bites and Stings)Scrape away bee and wasp stingers and venom sacs.Do not pull out stingers; always scrape from patient's skin; plastic credit card works well as scraper.Place ice bag or cold pack over bitten or stung area.Talking Point: Do not apply a cold pack to snake bites.
71Overdose and Poisoning Alcohol AbuseCan lead to illness, poisoning of body, abnormal behavior, even death.Diabetes, epilepsy, head injuries, high fevers, other medical problems can make patient appear drunk.Critical Thinking: Why is it important to know the medical conditions that can cause a patient to appear intoxicated?(continued)
72Overdose and Poisoning Alcohol AbuseDelirium Tremens (DTs)High blood pressure, rapid heart rateConfusion and restlessnessAbnormal behaviorHallucinationsTremors (obvious shaking) of handsConvulsions (seizure activity)Point to Emphasize: Delirium Tremens are a result of rapid withdrawal from alcohol.
73Overdose and Poisoning Signs of Alcohol IntoxicationOdor of alcohol on breath or clothingSwaying, unsteady, uncoordinated movementsSlurred speech; inability to carry on conversationFlushed appearance.Nausea, vomiting, or feeling need to vomitCritical Thinking: You respond to a single vehicle/single driver MVC. Your patient appears to have signs of alcohol intoxication. How do you proceed?
74Overdose and Poisoning Drug AbuseUppers: stimulants affect nervous system to excite userDowners: depressants affect central nervous system to relax userNarcotics: affect nervous system; change many normal activities of bodyDiscussion Question: How can a patient's fear of legal consequences impact the accuracy of information you can gather during your assessment?(continued)
75Overdose and Poisoning Drug AbuseHallucinogens (mind-altering drugs): act on nervous system to produce intense state of excitement or distortion of user's surroundings.Volatile chemicals: initial rush but then depress central nervous system.Critical Thinking: What scene safety considerations might the EMR want to consider upon learning or suspecting a patient is under the influence of hallucinogens?
76Overdose and Poisoning Drug AbuseWithdrawal from drugs varies patient to patient and drug to drug.Signs and symptoms: shaking, anxiety, nausea, confusion, irritability, sweating, increased pulse and breathing rates.(continued)
77Overdose and Poisoning Drug AbuseTake BSI precautions and perform a primary assessment.Maintain an open airway and ensure adequate breathing.Administer oxygen as per local protocols.Monitor vital signs and be alert for respiratory arrest.(continued)
78Overdose and Poisoning Drug AbuseTalk to the patient to gain his/her confidence and to maintain his/her level of responsiveness.Protect the patient from further harm.Continue to reassure the patient throughout all phases of care.Critical Thinking: Why is it good practice to contact medical direction and your local poison control center for suspected drug overdose?
79Overdose and Poisoning Generalized Infections (Sepsis)Signs and SymptomsFeverChillsRapid breathingRapid heart rateLow blood pressureAltered mental statusCritical Thinking: You respond to a boarding house where the landlord reports a resident has been sick in bed for several days. You find a male in his late 40s lying supine under several blankets. The patient is incoherent and unable to answer your questions. You begin to assess vital signs and notice his skin is very hot. What are your suspicions? What else could it be? How will you proceed?(continued)
80Overdose and Poisoning Generalized Infections (Sepsis)Types of PatientsTransplantInfants and elderlyRadiation or chemotherapyBurnDiabetesAIDSCritical Thinking: Why would these patients be particularly susceptible to sepsis?
81Overdose and Poisoning Allergic Reactions/AnaphylacticSigns and SymptomsBurning, itching, or breaking out of skinBreathing difficult and rapidAltered mental statusPulse rapid and weakCyanosis of lips, nail bedsSwelling of tongue and throatRestlessnessTalking Point: Stress the difference between an allergic reaction and a very severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis).Teaching Tip: Review the state protocols and/or regulations for epinephrine auto-injector by the EMR.(continued)
82Overdose and Poisoning Allergic Reactions/AnaphylacticTreatmentTake appropriate BSI precautions and perform a primary assessment.Ensure a clear airway and adequate breathing.Administer oxygen as per local protocols.(continued)
83Overdose and Poisoning Allergic Reactions/AnaphylacticTreatmentAssist the patient with his/her prescribed epinephrine autoinjector. (Follow local protocols.)Monitor vital signs and ABCs until EMS units arrive.
84Overdose and Poisoning Kidney (Renal) Failure: when person's kidneys fail to function normally.Signs and SymptomsWeaknessAltered mental statusGeneralized swellingIncreased heart rateIncreased blood pressureDecrease in urinationTalking Point: Discuss the emotional impact dialysis takes on patients who are dependent on hemodialysis to survive. Frequent dialysis treatments (often three times a week) take several hours and can become a burden to the patient. Sometimes patients will become discouraged and skip a treatment or refuse to go and will rapidly decline, causing family members to activate EMS.
85Overdose and Poisoning HemodialysisMechanically filtering blood to remove wastes; excess fluid.Patient with renal failure must receive dialysis at frequent intervals; connected to machine through surgically implanted access point beneath skin of arm.Point to Emphasize: Avoid assessing the blood pressure on the arm with the surgically implanted access point (shunt) found beneath the skin. Use the alternate arm.
86Discussion Question: Are there hemodialysis centers in your community? During hemodialysis the dialysis machine is connected to an access site such as a shunt beneath the skin.
87During hemodialysis the dialysis machine is connected to an access site such as a shunt beneath the skin.
88Think About ItYou respond to a home to find an elderly female with fingernail polish on her fingers and around her lips. Her daughter reports that her mother suffers from Alzheimer's and ingested the nail polish. The patient is pleasant and cooperative. How will you proceed?Instructor Note: This call should include a call to the Poison Control center.
90Behavioral Emergencies Manner in which person acts or performs.Behavioral emergencySituations where patient exhibits abnormal behavior that is unacceptable or intolerable to patient, family, or community.Discussion Question: How might the signs and symptoms of a behavioral emergency be confused with medical or traumatic reasons for altered mental status?
91Behavioral Emergencies Assessment/CareApproach with caution; observe for signs of agitation or violence.Do not approach patient if it is not safe.Identify yourself; let patient know you are there to help.Inform patient of what you are doing at all times.Critical Thinking: What steps might you take to de-escalate an agitated patient?(continued)
92Behavioral Emergencies Assessment/CareAsk questions; calm, reassuring voice.Without being judgmental, allow patient to tell what happened.Show you are listening by rephrasing or repeating part of what is said.Be aware of your posture and body language.Critical Thinking: What specific questions might you ask to assess the risk of suicide?(continued)
93Encourage the emotionally distraught patient to tell you what is troubling her.
94Behavioral Emergencies Assessment/CareAssess patient's mental status.Always consider need for law enforcement.Do not make quick moves; threaten, challenge, or argue; play along with hallucinations or auditory disturbances.Answer questions honestly.Talking Point: Treat people the way you would want someone to treat your family member if s/he were in the same situation.
95Law enforcement officers may be needed to approach and control a behavioral patient who may become violent.
96Behavioral Emergencies Assessing the Potential for ViolenceScene size-upHistoryPostureVerbal activityPhysical activityRestraining PatientsSometimes necessary to protect patient, yourself, and others.Discussion Question: Why should restraint be used only as a last resort?
97Use restraint only as a last resort. Teaching Tip: Review state regulations regarding patient restraint.Use restraint only as a last resort.
98Think About ItYou respond to a home where a woman reports that her brother has threatened suicide. He is clearly agitated and aggressively refuses contact with you and your partner. How should you proceed?
100SummaryConditions that cause patient to experience altered mental status:SeizuresStrokesDiabetic emergenciesPoisoningsBreathing problemsCardiac events
101SummaryPresents with range of signs and symptoms: confusion and dizziness to seizures and syncope (fainting).Assessment and care dependent on observing patient's environment and asking questions.
102Summary Seizures present with: Clear area around seizing patient. Sudden unresponsivenessConvulsionsHeadachesUnusual breathing patternsClear area around seizing patient.
103Summary Stroke signs and symptoms: SyncopeConfusionPartial or full paralysisHeadacheDifficulty speaking or swallowingAltered mental statusClosely monitor for airway compromise, breathing difficulty, cardiac arrest.
105Summary Hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) Complain of abdominal painExtreme thirst and dry mouthHypoglycemia (low blood sugar)Extreme hunger; may resist eatingStrong, rapid pulse; shallow breathingSeizuresPale, cool, and moist skin
106SummaryWhen EMR cannot determine if diabetic emergency is caused by hypo- or hyperglycemia, care should be same.Administer real sugar, provide oxygen, activate EMS system.Monitor patient's ABCs and make comfortable.
107Summary Signs and symptoms of poisoning: Altered mental status Vomiting; abdominal painSweatingAbnormal pulse and/or breathingUnresponsivenessPain when breathing or swallowingDilated or constricted pupilsWeakness or dizziness
109Summary Carbon monoxide poisoning Primary indicator is patient's surroundings.If patient presents with signs and symptoms and has been near any sort of combustion, suspect carbon monoxide poisoning.
110SummaryCare for poison or overdose patient: protect airway, administer oxygen, activate EMS system, monitor ABCs.Local, regional, or national poison control center should be contacted.
111Summary Sepsis Indicators Condition where a once isolated infection spreads through patient's bloodstream it becomes a system-wide problem.IndicatorsFever, chills, confusion, unresponsiveness, rapid breathing, rapid heart rate, low blood pressure.
112Summary Septic patients must be treated at a hospital. EMR should activate EMS system, provide oxygen, monitor patient's ABCs.
113Summary Anaphylaxis: life-threatening allergic reaction. Altered mental statusDifficulty breathingSwelling of throatSupport ABCs and assist with prescribed auto injector if available.
114Summary Renal failure Dialysis When kidneys no longer function normally.DialysisArtificially filtering blood and removing excess water and waste products.
115SummaryBehavioral emergency: patient is behaving in manner that is intolerable to himself/herself, his/her family, or community.EMRs should ensure their own safety and safety of others near patient.Clearly and calmly identify themselves to patient, ensure EMS system activated, engage patient with clear, effective communication.
117What are the common causes of altered mental status? Review QuestionsWhat are the common causes of altered mental status?What are the signs and symptoms of a patient with an altered mental status?What is the appropriate assessment and care for a patient with an altered mental status?What are the signs of a patient experiencing a generalized seizure?What is the appropriate assessment and care for a patient experiencing a generalized seizure?(continued)
118What are the signs and symptoms of a patient experiencing a stroke? Review QuestionsWhat are the signs and symptoms of a patient experiencing a stroke?What is the appropriate assessment and care for a patient experiencing a stroke?What are the signs and symptoms of a patient experiencing a diabetic emergency?How do the signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia differ?(continued)
119When it is most appropriate to contact the poison control center? Review QuestionsWhat is the appropriate assessment and care for a patient experiencing a diabetic emergency?What are the signs and symptoms of a patient experiencing an overdose or poisoning?What is the appropriate assessment and care for a patient experiencing an overdose or poisoning?When it is most appropriate to contact the poison control center?(continued)
120Review QuestionsWhat are the signs and symptoms of a patient experiencing carbon monoxide poisoning?What are the signs and symptoms of a patient experiencing an emergency related to renal failure?What are the special considerations when caring for a hemodialysis patient?What are the signs and symptoms of a patient experiencing a generalized infection (sepsis)?(continued)
121What are the signs and symptoms of an allergic reaction? Review QuestionsWhat is the appropriate assessment and care for a patient experiencing sepsis?What are the signs and symptoms of an allergic reaction?What is the appropriate assessment and care for a patient experiencing a severe allergic reaction?What are the signs and symptoms of a patient experiencing a suspected behavioral emergency?(continued)
122Review QuestionsWhat is the appropriate assessment and care for a patient experiencing a suspected behavioral emergency?
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