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Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley CHAPTER Caring for Environmental Emergencies 16

2 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley 1.Define the following terms: a.Anaphylaxis b.Conduction c.Convection d.Core temperature e.Drowning f.Evaporation Objectives (continued)

3 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley 1.Define the following terms: h.Frostbite i.Heat cramps j.Heat exhaustion k.Heat stroke l.Hyperthermia m.Hypothermia n.Radiation Objectives (continued)

4 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley 2.Explain the four ways the body loses excess heat. 3.Describe the signs and symptoms of a patient experiencing a heat-related emergency. 4.Explain the appropriate assessment and care for a patient experiencing a heat-related emergency. 5.Differentiate the signs and symptoms of heat stroke and heat exhaustion. 6.Describe the signs and symptoms of a cold-related emergency. Objectives (continued)

5 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley 7.Explain the appropriate assessment and care for a patient experiencing a cold-related emergency. 8.Describe the signs and symptoms of emergencies related to bites and stings. 9.Explain the appropriate assessment and care for a patient experiencing an emergency related to a bite or sting. 10.Describe common factors leading to submersion injuries. Objectives (continued)

6 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley 11.Describe common methods used for water-related rescue. 12.Explain the hazards related to a water rescue. 13.Describe the signs and symptoms of a submersion injury. 14.Explain the appropriate care for a victim of a submersion injury. 15.Demonstrate the ability to appropriately assess and care for a patient experiencing a heat-related emergency. Objectives (continued)

7 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley 16.Demonstrate the ability to appropriately assess and care for a patient experiencing a cold-related emergency. 17.Demonstrate the ability to appropriately assess and care for a patient experiencing a bite or sting emergency. 18.Value the importance of proper training when attempting to conduct a water rescue. Objectives

8 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Topics Temperature and the Body Heat Emergencies Cold Emergencies Bites and Stings Water-Related Incidents Ice-Related Incidents

9 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley TEMPERATURE AND THE BODY

10 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Temperature and the Body Temperature regulation – Process of maintaining proper body temperature. Hypothermia – When body loses heat faster than it can produce heat. Hyperthermia – When heat gain occurs faster than body can shed heat.

11 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Temperature and the Body Radiation – Body heat is emitted into environment. Conduction – Loss of body heat through direct contact with object or ground. Convection – Loss of body heat when air close to skin moves away, taking body heat with it.

12 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Temperature and the Body Evaporation – Loss of body heat through evaporation of moisture in form of sweat on skin. Respiration – Heat leaves body with each breath.

13 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Mechanisms of heat loss for the body.

14 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Think About It It is late fall and you respond to a call for a teen who has fallen into the river after standing in his canoe. A rescue team has been dispatched. While waiting for help, how might he be losing heat?

15 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley HEAT EMERGENCIES

16 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Heat Emergencies Core temperature: temperature in core of body 98.6°F (37°C). Heat generated through digestion, metabolism, movement. Heat lost through breathing and sweating. Hypothalamus: body's thermostat.

17 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Algorithm for the assessment of patients with a heat emergency.

18 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Heat Emergencies Effects of heat loss through evaporation greatly reduced when humidity is high. Perform history and physical exam. Very young, very old, those with chronic illnesses susceptible to effects of heat and cold.

19 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Heat Cramps/Exhaustion

20 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Heat Stroke

21 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Heat Emergencies Heat Cramps – Painful muscle spasms following strenuous activity in hot environment. – Usually caused by electrolyte imbalance. – Patient fully alert and sweaty with normal to warm skin temperature. – Move to cool environment; replenish fluids.

22 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Heat Emergencies Heat Exhaustion – Exposure to excessive heat for prolonged period of time. – Body barely able to shed as much heat as it is generating. (continued)

23 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Heat Emergencies Heat Exhaustion – Signs and Symptoms Mild to moderate perspiration Warm or cool skin temperature Skin color may be normal to pale Weakness, exhaustion, dizziness Nausea and vomiting (continued)

24 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Heat Emergencies Heat Exhaustion – Signs and Symptoms Muscle cramps (usually in legs) Rapid, weak pulse Rapid, shallow breathing Altered mental status (extreme cases)

25 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Heat Emergencies Emergency Care for Heat Exhaustion – Take appropriate BSI precautions. – Primary assessment; ensure breathing is adequate. – Move patient to cool area. – Loosen or remove excess clothing. (continued)

26 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Heat Emergencies Emergency Care for Heat Exhaustion – Cool patient by fanning. – Be careful not to overcool patient. – Place patient in recovery position. – Provide oxygen per local protocol.

27 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Algorithm for the emergency care of patients with a heat emergency.

28 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Heat Emergencies Heat Stroke – Temperature-regulating mechanism fails; unable to rid excess heat. – Core temperature allowed to rise uncontrolled, causing body to overheat. – It is life-threatening emergency. – Temperature may increase to 105°F (40.5°C) or higher. (continued)

29 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Heat Emergencies Heat Stroke – Signs and Symptoms Altered mental status Skin hot to touch Skin slightly moist to dry Rapid, shallow breathing Rapid pulse (continued)

30 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Heat Emergencies Heat Stroke – Signs and Symptoms Weakness, exhaustion, dizziness Nausea and vomiting Convulsions

31 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Heat Emergencies Emergency Care for Heat Stroke – Take appropriate Standard Precautions. – Primary assessment; ensure breathing is adequate. – Move patient to cool area; remove excess clothing. – Cool patient by dowsing or immersing in cool water. (continued)

32 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Heat Emergencies Emergency Care for Heat Stroke – Do not overcool patient to the point of him/her shivering. – Wrap cold packs or ice bags; place under armpits, on groin, and each side of neck. (continued)

33 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Heat Emergencies Emergency Care for Heat Stroke – Place patient in recovery position. – Provide oxygen per local protocol. – Monitor vital signs.

34 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Think About It It is a hot summer day and you are dispatched for a man down. You arrive to find a 36-year-old male jogger who is seated on the ground. His shirt and shorts are wet from perspiration. He seems confused and has just vomited. What do you suspect? What else should you assess? How will you proceed?

35 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley COLD EMERGENCIES

36 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Cold Emergencies Hypothermia – Body loses heat faster than it can be generated (generalized cold emergency). – Young children and elderly more susceptible. (continued)

37 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Cold Emergencies Hypothermia – Signs and Symptoms Cool or cold skin temperature Shivering (may stop later) Altered mental status Abnormal pulse (rapid, then slow) Lack of coordination (continued)

38 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Cold Emergencies Hypothermia – Signs and Symptoms Muscle rigidity Impaired judgment Complaints of joint/muscle stiffness

39 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Signs and symptoms of hypothermia.

40 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Cold Emergencies Emergency Care for Hypothermia – Take appropriate BSI precautions. – Primary assessment; ensure adequate breathing. – Remove patient from cold environment. – Do not allow patient to walk or exert himself/herself in any way. (continued)

41 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Cold Emergencies Emergency Care for Hypothermia – Protect patient from further heat loss. – Remove wet clothing and place blanket over and under patient. – Handle patient gently. – Administer oxygen per local protocols. (continued)

42 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Cold Emergencies Emergency Care for Hypothermia – Monitor vital signs. – Do not give patient anything to eat or drink, including hot coffee, tea, alcohol.

43 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Cold Emergencies Severe Hypothermia – Patient unresponsive with skin cold to the touch; no vital signs. – Do not assume patient is dead. – Assess pulse for 30-45 seconds. If no pulse, begin CPR. – Not be pronounced dead until core temperature to within normal range.

44 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Cold Emergencies Localized Cold Injury – Cold injury or frostbite: freezing or near freezing of body part. – Caused by significant exposure to cold temperature (below 0°F or 17°C). – Occurs in extremities (fingers, toes, ears, face, nose). (continued)

45 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Cold Emergencies Localized Cold Injury – Signs and Symptoms (Early Signs) Numbness, tingling exposed area Slow or absent capillary refill Skin remains soft If thawed, tingling and pain present (continued)

46 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Cold Emergencies Localized Cold Injury – Signs and Symptoms (Late Signs) White, waxy skin Firm to frozen feeling upon palpation Swelling Blisters If thawed, flushed with areas of purple and blanching

47 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Severe frostbite.

48 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Cold Emergencies Emergency Care for Cold Injury – Take appropriate BSI precautions. – Primary assessment; ensure adequate breathing. – Remove patient from cold environment; protect from cold exposure. – Remove wet or constrictive clothing. (continued)

49 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Cold Emergencies Emergency Care for Cold Injury – Early injury: Manually stabilize extremity, affected part. Cover affected part. Do not rub or massage it. Do not re-expose part to cold. (continued)

50 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Cold Emergencies Emergency Care for Cold Injury – Late injury: Remove jewelry from injured part. Cover injured part with dry, sterile dressings. Place dressing between fingers and toes prior to covering. Do not break blisters. (continued)

51 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Cold Emergencies Emergency Care for Cold Injury – Late injury: Do not rub or massage injured part. Do not apply heat. Do not rewarm. If legs, do not allow patient to walk.

52 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Cold-Related Emergencies

53 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Think About It You respond to a water-filled quarry on a hot sunny day where a couple has been scuba diving. You find a 47-year- old petite female in a wet suit. She is confused and complaining of joint pain. Her husband reports that the water iswarm at 72 degrees and they had been in the water for about an hour. What might be going on?

54 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley BITES AND STINGS

55 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Bites and Stings Assessment and Emergency Care – Signs and Symptoms Noticeable puncture marks on skin Pain at or around injury site Redness, itching at injury site Weakness, dizziness (continued)

56 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Bites and Stings Assessment and Emergency Care – Signs and Symptoms Difficulty breathing Headache Nausea Altered mental status

57 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Bites and Stings Emergency Care for Localized Reaction – Take appropriate BSI precautions. – Perform scene size-up. – Primary assessment; ensure adequate breathing. – Scrape away bee and wasp stingers and venom sacs. (continued)

58 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Bites and Stings Emergency Care for Localized Reaction – Do not attempt to pinch or pull out stingers. Plastic credit card works as scraper. – Place cold pack over injury site. – Administer oxygen per local protocols.

59 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley If the insect stinger is still present, remove it by scraping it away with the edge of a credit card or similar object.

60 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Bites and Stings Anaphylactic Shock – Severe allergic reaction; shock develops. – BP decreases. – Life-threatening emergency. – Causes: bee stings; foods (nuts, spices, shellfish); inhaled substances; dust and pollens; certain chemicals; medications. (continued)

61 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Bites and Stings Anaphylactic Shock – Signs and Symptoms Burning, itching, breaking out of skin (hives or rash). Breathing difficult, rapid; possible chest pains, wheezing. Pulse rapid, weak, not detected. Lips turn blue (cyanosis). (continued)

62 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Bites and Stings Anaphylactic Shock – Signs and Symptoms Swelling of face and tongue Restlessness Changes in mental status (fainting or unresponsiveness) (continued)

63 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Bites and Stings Anaphylactic Shock – Emergency Care Follow same procedures as used in shock. Follow local protocols regarding epinephrine autoinjector. Always call for medical direction before assisting patient with medications.

64 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Bites and Stings Snakebites – Signs and Symptoms Noticeable bite to skin Pain, swelling; may be slow to develop Rapid pulse; labored breathing Weakness Vision problems Nausea and vomiting

65 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Bites and Stings Emergency Care for Snakebite – Take appropriate Standard Precautions. – Perform scene size-up. – Primary assessment; ensure breathing adequate. – Locate fang marks; clean site with soap and water. – Remove rings, bracelets, other constricting items. (continued)

66 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Bites and Stings Emergency Care for Snakebite – Keep extremity immobilized. – Provide supplemental oxygen. – Provide care for shock. – Monitor vital signs. – Do not apply cold pack unless directed by a physician.

67 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Think About It You respond to a golf course for a 62- year-old male complaining of left ankle pain. Upon arrival, you learn the golfer tried to retrieve a ball in the woods and felt a sudden sting. There is an obvious puncture with redness and he is beginning to have trouble breathing. How do you proceed with assessment and care?

68 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley WATER-RELATED INCIDENTS

69 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Water-Related Incidents Drowning – Respiratory impairment from submersion in water or other liquid. – Airway obstruction from water, foreign matter in airway, swollen airway. – Cardiac arrest usually related to respiratory arrest. – Injuries to head and neck to be expected.

70 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Water-Related Incidents Look for fractures, soft-tissue injuries, internal bleeding. Water does not have to be very cold and time in water does not have to be very long for hypothermia to occur.

71 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Water-Related Incidents Reaching the Victim – Unless trained in water rescue, do not go into water to save someone. – If patient is close to shore or poolside, attempt to reach and pull from water. – Use branch, fishing pole, oar, stick, towel, shirt, article of clothing. (continued)

72 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Water-Related Incidents Reaching the Victim – Secure your position so you will not be pulled into water. – Throw objects that will float. – Throw lines or flotation devices attached to line.

73 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Reach for the victim. Throw an object to him. If necessary, go to the victim if you are trained to do so.

74 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Reach for the victim. Throw an object to him. If necessary, go to the victim if you are trained to do so.

75 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Reach for the victim. Throw an object to him. If necessary, go to the victim if you are trained to do so.

76 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Water-Related Incidents Care for Patient (No Neck/Spine Injuries) – Primary assessment. – Mouth-to-mask resuscitation. – Check for airway obstruction. – Provide CPR. – Activate EMS system. (continued)

77 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Water-Related Incidents Care for Patient (No Neck/Spine Injuries) – Breathing and pulse, check and control bleeding. – Breathing and pulse, perform patient assessment. – Cover patient to conserve body heat. (continued)

78 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Water-Related Incidents Care for Patient (No Neck/Spine Injuries) – Hypothermia suspected, remove wet clothing to minimize heat loss. – If patient can be moved, take to warm place. Do not allow patient to walk. – Handle gently at all times. – Care for shock.

79 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Water-Related Incidents Patient with Neck or Spine Injuries – Turn patient face up in water. – Begin primary assessment. – Provide rescue breathing. – Float patient to shore; continue to provide back and neck support. (continued)

80 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Water-Related Incidents Patient with Neck or Spine Injuries – Patient out of water, attempt resuscitation. – Check for and control serious bleeding.

81 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Water Rescue (continued)

82 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Water Rescue (continued)

83 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Water Rescue (continued)

84 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Water Rescue (continued)

85 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Water Rescue (continued)

86 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Water Rescue

87 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Water-Related Incidents Submersion Injuries – Associated with scuba diving. – Air Embolism Signs or Symptoms Personality changes Distorted senses; blurred vision Chest pain Numbness and tingling sensations in arms and/or legs (continued)

88 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Water-Related Incidents Submersion Injuries – Air Embolism Signs or Symptoms General weakness; weakness of one or more limbs Frothy blood in mouth or nose Convulsions (continued)

89 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Water-Related Incidents Submersion Injuries – Decompression Sickness (Bends) Signs and Symptoms Fatigue Pain to muscles and joints (bends) Numbness or paralysis Choking, coughing, labored breathing (continued)

90 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Water-Related Incidents Submersion Injuries – Decompression Sickness (Bends) Signs and Symptoms Chest pains Collapse and unresponsiveness Blotches on the skin (mottling)

91 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley For scuba accidents, position the patient head down.

92 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Think About It You respond to the city pool for a 16- year-old male drowning victim. He is unresponsive, breathing, has a pulse, and his skin is cold. What other injuries or conditions are you concerned about at this point? How will you proceed with assessment and treatment?

93 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley ICE-RELATED INCIDENTS

94 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Ice-Related Incidents Unless trained to work on ice, do not attempt rescue. Major problem is reaching victim. Never attempt ice rescue by yourself. Never go onto ice that is rapidly breaking up. Throw line to victim or reach out with stick or pole.

95 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Ice-Related Incidents Throw anything that will float. Ice rescues require special training, protective clothing, rescue equipment. Broken legs and hypothermia are often problems. Do not attempt to actively rewarm a severely hypothermic patient. Activate EMS system.

96 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley A safe ice rescue requires teamwork from specially trained responders.

97 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Think About It What injuries or illnesses might not show up immediately in accidents involving cold water and ice? How can an EMR anticipate this and provide proper care?

98 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley SUMMARY

99 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Summary Body loses heat through: – Radiation – Conduction – Convection – Evaporation – Respiration

100 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Summary Hyperthermia: hot, humid environment may cause body to generate too much heat creating abnormally high body temperature. Signs and symptoms: – Cramps – Excessive sweating – Rapid weak pulse – Weakness

101 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Summary Heat cramps: sudden and sometimes severe muscle cramps (often occurring in legs). Heat exhaustion: prolonged exposure to heat; creates moist, pale skin that may feel normal or cool to the touch.

102 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Summary Heat stroke: prolonged exposure to heat; hot, dry or moist skin; altered mental status; rapid breathing. It is a life-threatening emergency. Emergency care for heat emergencies: remove patients from hot environment, cooling with water, fanning.

103 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Summary Hypothermia: rapid heat loss creating state of low body temperature. – Cool skin temperature – Shivering – Decreased mental status – Stiff or rigid posture – Poor judgment Temperature does not have to be below freezing to occur.

104 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Summary Frostbite – Freezing or near freezing of a body part; feeling of cold followed by pain, numbness, or tingling. Emergency care – Remove patient from cold environment; remove wet clothes; keep patient calm and warm; stabilize any cold extremity.

105 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Summary Care for injected poisons (other than snakebite): – Care for shock – Scrape away stingers and venom sacs – Place ice bag or cold pack over area

106 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Summary For snakebite: – Keep patient calm and lying down – Clean site – Keep bitten extremities immobilized – Alert dispatcher – Care for shock

107 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Summary Anaphylactic shock (allergy shock): – Life-threatening emergency – When people come into contact with substance to which they are allergic (bee stings, insect bites, chemicals, foods, dusts, pollens, drugs)

108 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Summary Signs of anaphylactic shock: – Burning or itching skin – Hives – Difficulty breathing – Rapid, weak pulse – Swelling of face and tongue – Cyanosis – Altered mental status

109 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Summary Care same as for other cases of shock. – Transport patient to hospital and care for according to local protocol. – Ask patient about allergies during interview. – Look for medical identification device.

110 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Summary Many submersion injuries related to scuba diving and result when a person ascends too quickly. The bends result when tiny gas bubbles form in tissues, causing pain. In severe cases, these bubbles can form air embolism that obstructs blood flow, resulting in death.

111 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley REVIEW QUESTIONS

112 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley 1.What are the four ways the body loses excess heat? 2.What are the signs and symptoms of a patient experiencing a heat-related emergency? 3.You have a patient experiencing a heat-related emergency. What is the appropriate assessment and care? Review Questions (continued)

113 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley 4.What is the difference in the signs and symptoms of heat stroke versus heat exhaustion? 5.What are the signs and symptoms of a cold-related emergency? 6.You have a patient experiencing a cold-related emergency. What is the appropriate assessment and care? Review Questions

114 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley 7.What are the signs and symptoms of a bite and sting emergency? 8.You have a patient with a bite or sting emergency. What is the appropriate assessment and care? 9.What are common methods for water- related rescue and their hazards? Review Questions

115 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley 10.What are some common factors that can lead to a submersion injury? 11.What are the signs and symptoms of a submersion injury? 12.How will you provide the appropriate care for a victim of a submersion injury? Review Questions

116 Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Emergency Care, Twelfth Edition Daniel J. Limmer OKeefe Grant Murray Bergeron Dickinson Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, Ninth Edition Le Baudour Bergeron Wesley Please visit www.bradybooks.com and follow the Resource Central links to access content for this text. www.bradybooks.com


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