Presentation on theme: "Recognition and Care of Shock"— Presentation transcript:
1Recognition and Care of Shock 18Recognition and Care of Shock
2Define the following terms: ObjectivesDefine the following terms:Anaphylactic shockCardiogenic shockCompensated shockDecompensated shockHemorrhagic shockHypoperfusionHypotensionHypovolemic shockNeurogenic shockPerfusionPsychogenic shock(continued)
3Define the following terms: ObjectivesDefine the following terms:Respiratory/metabolic shockSeptic shockShockExplain the pathophysiology of shock.Describe the four categories of shock.List the seven main types of shock and their causes.Describe the signs and symptoms of shock.(continued)
4ObjectivesExplain the proper care of a patient presenting with signs and symptoms of shock.Demonstrate the proper techniques for caring for a patient at risk for shock.Value the importance of proper body substance isolation (BSI) precautions when caring for a patient with suspected shock.
8Perfusion and Shock Perfusion Shock (hypoperfusion) Adequate supply of well-oxygenated blood and nutrients to all vital organsShock (hypoperfusion)Failure of body's circulatory system to provide enough oxygenated blood and nutrients to all vital organsTeaching Tip: Remind students about the meaning of “hypo” and how this relates to the circulatory system not being able to meet the requirements of perfusion.
9Click here to view an animation on the topic of shock. BACK TO DIRECTORY
10Perfusion and Shock Normal Perfusion Oxygen and carbon dioxide exchangedNutrients and waste products exchangedFluid and salt balance maintained between blood and tissuesDiscussion Question: How might a patient look if they have normal perfusion?
11Perfusion and ShockShock develops or occurs in step-by-step progression; can be rapid or come about slowly.Shock can be life-threatening.Care for patients with shock should not be delayed.Critical Thinking: Why is it important to rapidly treat signs and symptoms of shock?
12If left untreated, blood loss will lead to death. Talking Point: Blood loss is just one aspect of shock.If left untreated, blood loss will lead to death.
13Perfusion and Shock The Four Categories of Shock Cardiogenic DistributiveHypovolemicObstructiveDiscussion Question: How are the four main categories of shock the same? How are they different?
14Perfusion and Shock Cardiogenic shock Heart is not pumping blood properly or efficiently.Critical Thinking: Which medical conditions could cause a type of shock that would fall under each of these categories?
15Critical Thinking: How does the early recognition and treatment of heart attack relate to cardiogenic shock?Cardiogenic shock is a pump problem. The heart is not pumping the blood properly or efficiently.
16Discussion Topic: Discuss how the heart is a muscle and how damage from a heart attack will impact its ability to pump blood.Heart attack as a cause of cardiogenic shock: Damaged heart muscle results in reduced force of contractions and reduced cardiac output.
17Perfusion and Shock Distributive shock Vascular tone problem; blood is not allocated properly.Critical Thinking: Which medical conditions could cause a type of shock that would fall under each of these categories?
18Discussion Topic: Compare and contrast the performance of a normal vessel with that of an over-dilated vessel.Distributive shock is a vascular tone problem. The blood is not allocated properly.
19Uncontrolled dilation of the blood vessels. Critical thinking: What real-world examples can you think of as a metaphor for distributive shock?Uncontrolled dilation of the blood vessels.
20Perfusion and Shock Hypovolemic shock Related to extreme blood loss or too little volume.Critical Thinking: Which medical conditions could cause a type of shock that would fall under each of these categories?
21Teaching Tip: To help students remember the meaning of hypovolemic shock; remind them again that “hypo” means too low and “volemic” refers to volume (the amount of blood in the system).Hypovolemic shock is related to extreme blood loss or too little volume.
22Perfusion and Shock Obstructive shock Develops when an obstruction of a vessel causes less blood to be pumped by the heart.Critical Thinking: Which medical conditions could cause a type of shock that would fall under each of these categories?
23Obstructive shock can develop when an obstruction of a vessel causes less blood to be pumped by the heart.
24Teaching Tip: Compare and contrast hemorrhagic and nonhemorrhagic hypovolemia; discuss causes. (A) Hemorrhagic hypovolemia: loss of whole blood; (B) nonhemorrhagic hypovolemia: loss of plasma.
25Discussion Topic: Obstructive shock can develop when an obstruction of a vessel causes less blood to be pumped by the heart.Review the causes of obstructive shock in detail: trauma, pulmonary embolism; tension pneumothorax; pericardial tamponade.Causes of obstructive shock: (A) pulmonary embolism; (B) tension pneumothorax; (C) pericardial tamponade.
26Perfusion and Shock Types of Shock Cardiogenic (also a category) NeurogenicAnaphylacticPsychogenicSepticHemorrhagicRespiratory/metabolicDiscussion Question: What are the similarities and differences between the various types of shock?
27Perfusion and Shock Cardiogenic Category Cardiogenic shock (type): results when heart is unable to pump enough blood at consistent pressure to all vital organs.Critical Thinking: Are there other ways in which the cardiovascular system might fail?
28Perfusion and Shock Distributive Category Neurogenic shock: caused when spinal cord is damaged and unable to control tone of blood vessels by way of sympathetic nervous system.Anaphylactic shock: caused when body experiences severe allergic reaction.Critical Thinking: Why is it important to readily recognize the signs of neurogenic shock in victims of trauma?Critical Thinking: What signs and symptoms might the EMR see in a patient suffering a severe allergic reaction that would indicate anaphylactic shock?(continued)
29Perfusion and Shock Distributive Category Psychogenic shock: results in a sudden, temporary dilation of blood vessels.Septic shock: caused by widespread infection of the blood.Critical Thinking: In what cases might someone experience psychogenic shock? Why should it be taken seriously?Critical Thinking: What signs and symptoms might the EMR see in a patient suffering from septic shock?
30Perfusion and Shock Hypovolemic Category Hemorrhagic shock: occurs when body loses significant amount of whole blood from circulatory the system.Critical Thinking: What are some causes (both traumatic and medical) that could lead to hemorrhagic shock?
31Perfusion and Shock Respiratory/Metabolic Disruption of oxygen transfer into the cells or the cells are not able to utilize the available oxygen.Caused by cyanide, carbon monoxide, or iron poisoning.Talking Point: Respiratory/Metabolic shock does not fall into a specific category of shock, but relates most closely to the definition of shock as being in a state of “cellular dysoxia” (not enough oxygen at the cellular level).
32Perfusion and Shock The Body's Response During Shock Compensated stage Decompensated stageDiscussion Topic: The main focus for the EMR is to prevent the patient from entering the decompensated stage of shock.
33Perfusion and Shock Compensated Shock Condition in which body is using specific mechanisms (increased pulse rate; increased breathing rate) to compensate for lack of adequate perfusion.Critical Thinking: Why does the body respond with increased pulse and breathing rates? Why is it important for the EMR to recognize these changes?
34The patient will experience anxiety and mental status changes The patient will experience anxiety and mental status changes. The brain begins to feel the effect of decreased oxygen.
35The patient will have cool, pale, sweaty skin and an increased pulse and respirations. Blood is shunted from the skin the vital areas. Pulse and respirations increase to compensate for shock.
36In addition to sweating, the patient also may experience nausea and vomiting as blood is shunted from the abdomen to more vital areas.
37Late signs of shock include a drop in blood pressure.
38Perfusion and Shock Decompensated Shock Condition in which body is no longer able to compensate for lack of adequate perfusion.Critical Thinking: Why are the signs of decompensated shock ominous?
39Perfusion and Shock Early Signs and Symptoms of Shock Restlessness Altered mental statusIncreased heart rateNormal to slight low blood pressureMildly increased breathing rateSkin that is pale, cool, and moistSluggish pupilsNausea and vomitingCritical Thinking: How might you manage a patient in shock with altered mental status who insists on refusing care?
40Perfusion and Shock Later Signs and Symptoms of Shock Unresponsiveness Decreasing heart rateVery low blood pressureSlow and shallow respirationsSkin that is pale, cool, and moistDilated, sluggish pupilsRespiratory and cardiac arrest can developCritical Thinking: What happens if the cause of shock is not treated and the patient continues to decline in the decompensated stage?
41Perfusion and ShockSigns and symptoms of shock worsen with time. Look for these patterns:Increased pulse rateIncreased breathing rateRestlessness or combativenessPale, cool, moist skinChanges in mental statusCritical Thinking: Why does oxygen help patients who are experiencing shock?
42Think About ItYou respond to an apartment and find a pale 66-year-old male lying on a sofa. He is weak and dizzy. He states that he has vomited twice and shows you a bucket with a large amount of blood. His pulse is 142, and his blood pressure is 80/50.What do you suspect?How will you proceed?
44Mechanism of Injury and Shock Do not wait for signs and symptoms to develop before caring for shock.In cases of trauma or injury, examine and consider mechanism of injury.If patient suffered blunt trauma to head, chest, abdomen, or pelvis, suspect internal bleeding and provide care accordingly.Discussion Question: Early recognition of shock signs and symptoms is essential. Why is ongoing monitoring essential?
45Mechanism of Injury and Shock Caring for ShockPerform primary assessment; ensure ABCs are properly supported.Control external bleeding.Administer oxygen per local protocol.Keep patient in supine position.Calm and reassure patient; maintain normal body temperature.Critical Thinking: Why should you keep the patient in the supine position?(continued)
46Mechanism of Injury and Shock Caring for ShockMonitor and support the ABCs.Do not give patient anything by mouth.Monitor patient's vital signs.Class Activity: Divide the class into small groups. Provide each with an index card upon which a significant trauma is written. Direct students to work together to describe the care they would give in the order they would provide it. Have each group present their injury and treatment to the rest of the class.
47Algorithm for emergency care of patients with developing shock.
48Mechanism of Injury and Shock Fainting (Syncope): self-correcting form of mild shockExamine patient for injury if patient fell.Keep patient lying down and at rest for several minutes.Always recommend that patient see physician.Fainting may be pyschogenic, or due to more serious conditions such as brain tumor, heart disease or diabetes.Discussion Topic: All episodes of syncope should be evaluated by a physician to ensure the episode was not caused by a serious condition.
49Think About ItYou respond to a motorcycle collision. You find a 19-year-old male 50 feet from his sport race bike which is significantly mangled. You find your patient conscious and wearing a helmet, but in only shorts and tank top. He is bleeding profusely.What are your concerns?How do you proceed?
51Summary Perfusion Shock (hypoperfusion) Adequate supply of well-oxygenated blood and removal of waste products from body's tissues, especially vital organs.Shock (hypoperfusion)Failure of body's circulatory system to provide enough oxygenated blood and nutrients to all vital organs.
52Summary Signs and Symptoms of Shock Increased pulse Increased breathing rateRestlessness or combativenessPale, cool and moist skinThirstWeaknessNausea and vomitingLoss of responsiveness
53SummaryTypes of ShockCardiogenicHypovolemicDistributiveObstructiveBegin caring for shock if MOI suggests internal injury or bleeding.
54SummaryDo not wait for signs and symptoms to appear before caring for shock.Care for ShockSupport the ABCs; keep patient lying flatControl all external bleedingAdminister oxygen if allowedMaintain normal body temperatureExpedite transport
56How would you explain the pathophysiology of shock? Review QuestionsHow would you explain the pathophysiology of shock?How would you describe the four categories of shock?What are the seven main types of shock and their causes?What are the signs and symptoms of shock?How would you proceed to care of a patient presenting with signs and symptoms of shock?
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