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Review. Inferior and Superior Vena Cave RA Tricuspid Valve Pulmonic Valve Pulmonary Artery Lungs {oxygenation} Pulmonary Vein Left Atrium Mitral Valve.

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Presentation on theme: "Review. Inferior and Superior Vena Cave RA Tricuspid Valve Pulmonic Valve Pulmonary Artery Lungs {oxygenation} Pulmonary Vein Left Atrium Mitral Valve."— Presentation transcript:

1 Review

2 Inferior and Superior Vena Cave RA Tricuspid Valve Pulmonic Valve Pulmonary Artery Lungs {oxygenation} Pulmonary Vein Left Atrium Mitral Valve Left Ventricle Aortic Valve Circulation Sodium Enters; Potassium leaves Depolarization

3 RELATIONSHIP OF THE ECG TO ELECTRICAL EVENTS IN THE HEART P wave- PR interval- QRS complex - ST segment- Twave Normal 0.12 – 0.20 morphology normal isoelectric present Upright <0.12 seconds Only before each QRS = NSR

4 RELATIONSHIP OF THE ECG TO ELECTRICAL EVENTS IN THE HEART Any deviation from the normal electrical rhythm of the heart = Dysrhythmia

5 RELATIONSHIP OF THE ECG TO ELECTRICAL EVENTS IN THE HEART Causes of dysrhythmias: MI, ischemia, necrosis Autonomic nervous system imbalance Distension of the chambers notably in the arteries secondary to CHF Blood gas abnormalities i.e. hypoxia and abnormal pH Electrolyte imbalances Trauma {cardiac contusion} Drug effects and drug toxicity Electrocution Hypothermia CNS damage Idiopathic events: arising spontaneously or from an obscure or unknown cause Normal occurances

6 RELATIONSHIP OF THE ECG TO ELECTRICAL EVENTS IN THE HEART The absence of cardiac electrical activity = arrhythmia

7

8 RELATIONSHIP OF THE ECG TO ELECTRICAL EVENTS IN THE HEART ANALYZING RATE ECG strip method or 60 second method 300 method or triplicate method R-R method

9 CARDIAC EMERGENCIES Whats next: Bringing It Home Cardiac arrest lecture Mega code practice and scenarios Exams written Mega code

10 BRINGING IT HOME

11 Cardiac Anatomy and Physiology Flow of blood through the heart and cardiac conductive system Composition of Blood

12

13 Composition of the Blood Plasma Red blood cells White blood cells Platelets

14 Flow of blood Arteries – arterioles - veinules - veins

15 Major Blood Vessels Superior Vena Cava Carotid Arteries Jugular Veins Aorta Femoral Artery Inferior Vena Cava Brachial Arteries

16 Circulation of Blood between: Heart and lungs Heart and rest of the body

17 Mechanical and Electrical functions of the heart in relation to pulse and blood pressure

18 Shock

19 Cardiac Compromise Acute Coronary Syndrome Syndrome: In medicine and psychology, the term syndrome refers to the association of several clinically recognizable features, signs (observed by a physician), symptoms (reported by the patient), phenomena or characteristics that often occur together, so that the presence of one feature alerts the physician to the presence of the others.medicinepsychologysignssymptomsphysician

20 Cardiac Compromise: Any kind of problem with the heart May lead to a high index of suspicion for possible: MI Angina CHF

21 Signs and Symptoms of Cardiac Compromise: Dyspnea Pain, pressure or discomfort Palpations Sweating N & V Anxiety

22 Abnormal Pulse Blood Pressure: Hypotensive:<90/systolic Hypertensive:>150/systolic or >90/diasolic Chest Pain

23 Causes of Cardiac Compromise: CAD Atherosclerosis Arteriosclerosis Hardening of the arteries from Ca++ deposits

24 Restriction of blood through the artery Thrombus; clot and debris from plaque Occlusion: Thrombus cuts off blood flow Embolism: Thrombus that moves to occlude the flow of blood beyond the blockage

25 Risk Factors: Heredity Age HTN Obesity Lack of exercise Elevated cholesterol and triglycerides Smoking

26 Common Symptom Chest Pain

27 Aneurysm

28 Electrical Malfunctions of the Heart Dysrhythmia

29 Mechanical Malfunctions of the Heart Pump Failure

30 Angina Pectoris Chest Pain Difference between Angina & MI NTG

31 AMI Sudden death is considered a cardiac arrest within 2 hrs. of symptoms Risk Factors CAD Chronic respiratory problems Unusual exertion Severe emotional stress

32 Treatment Fibrinolytics Angioplasty or Catheterization ASA regimen

33 CHF Left sided heart failure/ Right sided failure soon follows Causes: Diseased heart valves HTN COPD As a complication of an MI

34 Pulmonary Edema Rales Blood tinged sputum Pedal Edema Abdominal Distension

35 Signs and symptoms of CHF CARDIOGENIC SHOCK Tachycardia Dyspnea Normal to elevated B/P Cyanosis Diaphoresis Cool Clammy skin

36 Pulmonary Edema Anxiety or confusion due to hypoxia Pedal edema JVD (late sign) ABD distension Enlarged liver and spleen Medication History Lasix

37 PATIENT CARE POC O2 Identify Priority Patient No history of cardiac problems Hx but no NTG Hypotensive Transport: Thoughtful, calm, caring fashion

38 ASSIST with NTG Clinical signs and symptoms must be present Right med, route, dose, form, patient Pulse rate >50 and <100 Protocol Systolic B/P >110 Has not taken Viagra or such within 48 to 72 hrs. Medical Control

39 Remember usual protocol is 1 does q 5 minutes to 3 doses. CHECK BLOOD PRESSURE BEFORE ADMINISTERING

40 CARDIAC EMERGENCIES LETS PLAY


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