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Presentation on theme: "FLUIDS AND ELECTROLYTES"— Presentation transcript:


2 Terms to KNOW Total Body Water (TBW) Intracellular fluid Extracellular fluid Intravascular fluid Interstitial fluid Solvent

3 Electrolyte Dissociate ion cation Anion Buffer Isotonic

4 Hypotonic Osmotic gradient Diffusion Osmosis Active transport Facilitated diffusion Osmolality

5 Osmolarity Osmotic pressure pH

6 PaO2 PaCO2 HCO3- Acidosis Alkalosis Metabolic Acidosis Respiratory Acidosis Respiratory Alkalosis

7 WATER Most abundant substance in the body Aprox. 60% of TBW 70 kg adult (154 lbs) TBW aprox. 42L (11 gallons) Water distribution

8 Various compartments all separated by a cell membrane
Intracellular fluid (ICF) Fluid inside body cells Largest compartment Contains 75% of TBW

9 Extracellular Fluid (ECF)
All of the fluid found outside the body’s cells Contains the 25% of TBW Two divisions intravascular fluid interstitial fluid

10 Intravascular Fluid Outside the cells, within the circulatory system Pretty much the same as blood plasma Interstitial Fluid Outside the cell membranes but outside the circulatory system

11 Examples of Interstitial Fluid
Synovial fluid Aqueous humor of the eye Secretions Water is a universal solvent Solvent dissolves other substances yeilding a solution

12 ELECTROLYTES when placed in water dissociates into electrically charged particles or IONS Cation Positively charged ion Anion Negatively charged ion Cations in our body

13 Sodium Na+ Common in extracellular fluid Regulates the distribution of water WATER FOLLOWS SALT Transmission of nervous impulses

14 Potassium K+ Prevelent in extracellular fluid Transmission of electrical impulses Calcium Ca++ Muscle contraction Nervous impulse transmission

15 Magnesium Mg++ Several biochemical processes enzymes require magnesium to function ATP, DNA and RNA also need Magnesium

16 Anions in our body Chloride Cl- Balances cations Renal function Closely associated with sodium

17 Bicarbonate HCO3- Primary buffer Phosphate HPO4- Energy stores Buffer primarily in the intracellular space

18 OSMOSIS AND DIFFUSION Cells have semipermeable membranes When the concentration of fluid is equal on both sides of the membrane this is ISOTONIC When the concentration of fluid is less on one side of the membrane this is HYPOTONIC

19 When the concentration of fluid is greater on one side of the membrane this is HYPERTONIC
The difference in concentration is the OSMOTIC GRADIENT There is a shift to maintain homeostasis or a state of equilibrium

20 Molecules will normally move to an area of higher concentration to that of lower concentration which is DIFFUSION Diffusion does not require E Water, which moves faster than electrolytes moves across the membrane to dilute the higher concentration of electrolytes

21 Osmosis The movement of any solvent across the membrane Active Transport {requires E} Movement against the osmotic gradient less concentrated to more concentrated area i.e.

22 The inside of a myocardium cell must be negatively charged
The inside of a myocardium cell must be negatively charged. Sodium being positively charged diffuses passively into the cell. Sodium ions are pumped out of the cell while potassium is pumped into the cell More sodium than potassium is moved achieving equillibrium

23 Facilitated diffusion
Requires the assistance of a helper protein to move into the cell An example is Glucose

24 Osmolality The concentration of solute per Kg The movement of water and solutes across the cell membrane maintains a state of equilibrium of osmolality Osmolarity The concentration of solute per L of water

25 Sodium maintains osmolality in the extracellular space
Potassium maintains omolality in the intracellular space


27 Acid-Base Balance The regulation of H+ in the body H+ Is acidic A deviation has an adverse affects on all biochemical functions of the body pH Potential of Hydrogen

28 Through metabolism and other biochemical processes, H+ is constantly produced
Normal pH is 7.35 to 7.45 <7.35 = Acidosis >7.45 = Alkalosis THREE FORMS OF REGULATION

29 Bicarbonate Buffer System
The fastest The players [in equilibrium with H+ ] Bicarbonate {HCO3-} Carbonic Acid {H2CO3-} Either H+ will combine with bicarbonate ion to produce carbonic acid or

30 Carbonic acid will dissociate into bicarbonate ion and hydrogen ion
Erythrocytes contain have an enzyme called carbonic anhydrase which converts carbonic acid into CO2 and H2O and this occurs very rapidly Most buffering occurs in the erythrocytes

31 Respiration | two other mechanisms
Kidney function| of regulation Respiration An increase blows off CO2 thus decreases H+ thus decreases pH Kidneys Modifies the concentration of HCO3- in the blood

32 So what is the significance of all this?
Increased elimination of HCO3- lowers pH Decreased elimination of HCO3- raises pH The kidneys achieve acid-base balance by removing or retaining certain chemicals So what is the significance of all this?

33 The bottom line is to determine:
If a patient is in a state of acidosis If a patient is in a state of alkalosis If the disturbance is respiratory in nature If the disturbance is metabolic in nature In order to make this determination we must know the norms

34 pH 7.35 to 7.45 PaCO2 35 to 45 mm Hg HCO3- 22 to 26 mEq/L 75 to 100 mm Hg

35 The first determination is if the patient is in a state of acidosis or alkalosis
Next is to determine if the disturbance is respiratory or metabolic in nature

36 Assess the PaCO2 level If respiratory the PaCO2 should rise as the pH falls {acidosis} conversely the PaCO2 should fall as the pH rises SO……. If the pH and PaCO2 are moving in opposite directions then the disturbance is respiratory

37 To determine if the disturbance is metabolic in nature the HCO3- is considered
As pH increases, so should the HCO3- The opposite is true Thus If the pH and HCO3- is moving in the same direction then the disturbance is metabolic in nature

38 Ph PaCO2 HCO3- 22-26 Fall Rise Normal 7.35-7.45 35-45 Respiratory
Acidosis Fall Rise Normal Alkalosis Metabolic

39 Ph 7.22 PaCO2 55 HCO3- 25 Respiratory Acidosis Alkalosis Metabolic

40 Ph 7.22 PaCO2 55 HCO3- 25 decreased increased normal Respiratory
Acidosis decreased increased normal Alkalosis Metabolic

41 pH 7.50 PaCO2 42 HCO3- 33 Respiratory Acidosis Alkalosis Metabolic

42 pH 7.50 PaCO2 42 HCO3- 33 increased normal Respiratory Acidosis
Alkalosis Metabolic increased normal

43 partially compensated fully compensated
COMPENSATION Remember with the buffering systems the body attempts to regulate hence a state of compensation uncompensated partially compensated fully compensated

44 In a state of uncompensated or partially compensated the ph is still abnormal
In full compensation the pH is normal but other values may not be

45 Partial Compensation Assess the pH this step is unchanged Assess the PaCO2 remember the pH and PaCO2 should be moving opposite If however they are moving in the same direction would indicate a metabolic disturbance

46 If as an example the PaCO2 was decreasing it would mean the body was blowing off CO2 in order to return pH to normal limits. Meaning the respiratory system is acting as a buffer system As evidenced that this is actually metabolic in nature then plugging in the PaCO2 moving in the same direction………

47 The determination then would be a metabolic disturbance with partial respiratory compensation
Assess the HCO3- which moves in the same direction as the pH If they move in the opposite direction, the disturbance would actually be respiratory in nature with the kidneys acting as the buffer system by retaining HCO3- .


49 Ph PaCO2 HCO3- 22-26 Rise Fall 7.35-7.45 35-45 Normal but <7.40
Fully Compensated Ph PaCO2 35-45 HCO3- 22-26 Respiratory Acidosis Normal but <7.40 Rise Alkalosis Normal but >7.40 Fall Metabolic

50 Ph PaCO2 HCO3- 22-26 Fall Rise 7.35-7.45 35-45 Respiratory Acidosis
Partially Compensated Ph PaCO2 35-45 HCO3- 22-26 Respiratory Acidosis Fall Rise Alkalosis Metabolic

51 The only difference between fully compensated and partially compensated is whether the pH has returned to within the normal range

52 RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS Causes [hypoventilation] Head injury Narcotics Sedatives Spinal cord injury Neuromuscular disease

53 Atelectasis Pneumonia Pneumothorax Pulmonary edema Bronchial obstruction Pulmonary embolus Pain Chest wall injury or deformity Abdominal distension

54 Signs and symptoms of respiratory acidosis
Dyspnea Respiratory distress Headache Restlessness Confusion Drowsiness unresponsiveness

55 Tachycardia Dysrhythmias

56 Respiratory Alkalosis
Causes [hyperventilation] Anxiety Fear Pain Fever Sepsis pregnancy

57 Signs and Symptoms Light-headedness Numbness/tingling Confusion Inability to concentrate Blurred vision

58 Dysrythmias Palpitations Dry mouth Diaphoresis Spasms of arms and legs

59 Metabolic Acidosis Causes Renal failure DKA Anaerobic metabolism Starvation Salicylate intoxication

60 Signs and Symptoms Headache Confusion Restlessness into lethargy Kusmal respirations Warm flushed skin Nausea and vomiting

61 Metabolic Alkalosis Causes Antacids Overuse of bicarbonate Lactate as used in dialysis Protracted vomiting Gastric suction High levels of aldosterone

62 Signs and symptoms Dizziness Lethargy Disorientation Seizure Coma Weakness Muscle twitching Muscle cramps Tetany

63 Nausea and vomiting Respiratory depression

64 Tetany Involuntary contraction of muscles Proracted Prolonged Aldosterone a hormone that increases the reabsorption of sodium ions and water and the release of potassium ions

65 Atelectasis the lack of gas exchange within alveoli, due to alveolar collapse or fluid


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