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Body Systems Anatomy: The structure of an organism body structure Physiology: The function of an organism Physical and chemical processes of a living.

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Presentation on theme: "Body Systems Anatomy: The structure of an organism body structure Physiology: The function of an organism Physical and chemical processes of a living."— Presentation transcript:



3 Body Systems

4 Anatomy: The structure of an organism body structure Physiology: The function of an organism Physical and chemical processes of a living thing

5 Tissues Group of cells that perform a similar function 4 types Epithelial tissue Muscle Connective Nerve

6 Epithelial tissue Lines internal and external body surfaces Protects Certain types perform specialized functions secretion absorption diffusion filtration Examples

7 Skin Mucous membranes Lining of the intestinal tract Mucous membranes Endodermal in origin Germ layer Give rise to all organs and tissues by what is known as organogenesis

8 Involved in absorption and secretion line cavities that are exposed to the external environment and internal organs At several places, continuous with the skin Nostrils Mouth Lips Eyelids Ears Genital area Anus

9 The sticky, thick fluid secreted by the mucous membranes and glands is termed mucus Body cavities with mucous membranes Most of the respiratory system Glans penis Glans clitoridis Prepuce Clitoral hood urethra

10 The secreted mucus traps the pathogens in the body, preventing any further activities of diseases.

11 Muscle tissue Capability of contracting when stimulated Connective tissue Most abundant tissue in the body Support, connection, insulation Examples bones cartilage fat sometimes blood

12 Nerve tissue Transmit electrical impulses throughout the body



15 Integumentary system Largest organ Approximately 16% of TBW Consists of Epidermis Dermis Subcutaneous

16 Integumentary System Latin for integere meaning to cover Functions: Waterproof Protection of the deeper tissues Cushion Excrete waste Regulate temperature

17 Detect pain, sensation, pressure Vitamin D synthesis ultimately protects against microbial invaders Epidermis Made up of epithelial cells function:secretion selective absorption transcellular transport sensation

18 Epidermis does not contain blood vessels Function Protection Absorption of nutrients Homeostasis The major cell of the epidermis is the keratinocyte; rub off daily, waterproofed

19 Cells that make up the epidermis Squamous cells Basal cells Melanocytes

20 Squamous epithelium cells Flat, scale-like cells Function ranges from nutrient exchange to protection Basal Cells The deepest layer Undifferentiated Proliferate Human nails grow

21 Gives skin its color Ultimately Shields against UV radiation Langerhans cells Formed in bone marrow and migrates to the epidermis Part of the immune defense system

22 Dermis Middle layer of skin Gives elasticity Endings of blood vessels and nerves Epidermis Connective and fatty tissues Functions:Insulation Energy storage Anchoring

23 The Skull Divided into two parts Cranium; houses and protects the brain Face Cranium; 8 bones Occipital Parietal (2) Frontal Temporal (2) Sphenoid

24 Occipital Base of the cranium Contains the foramen magnum central opening for the spinal cord Parietal Forms the sides and roof of the skull

25 Frontal Forms the forehead Forms the roof of the orbits and nasal fossae Temporal Sides and base of the skull

26 Sphenoid One of seven bones that articulate to form the orbit Ethmoid Light and spongy Anterior part of the base of the cranium between the two orbits and the root of the nose which it contributes to form

27 Facial bones 14 Nasal (2) Superior maxillary (2) Lachrymal (2) Malar (2) Plalate (2) Inferior turbinated (2) Vomer Inferior maxillary

28 Lachrymal Smallest and most fragile of facial bones Anterior part of the inner wall of the orbit Malar Form the prominence of the cheek Palate bones Formation of three cavities floor and outer wall of the nose roof of the mouth floor of the orbit

29 Vomer Forms part of the septum of the nose Inferior maxillary bone Largest and strongest bone of the face Reception for the lower teeth


31 The skeleton is complex Living system of cells Salt deposits Protein fibers Functions Protects vital organs Movement Stores salts and other substances for metabolism Produces RBCs

32 Haversian canals Minute blood vessels Travel lenghwise along the bone Where nerves enter the bone Ostercytes Helps maintain the bone Osteoblasts Creation of new bone Osteoclasts Absorb and remove excess bone

33 Devascularization Loss of blood vessels from a body part Diaphysis Hollow shaft found in long bones Supports weight Epiphysis Towards the end of the bone Diameter changes Distributes weight over a larger surface

34 Medullary canal Contains the marrow Periosteum Tough exterior covering a bone Joints Synarthroses Joints that do not permit movement

35 Diarthroses Synovial joints Permit relatively free movement Divided into three categories monaxial joints biaxial joints triaxial joints

36 Monaxial joints Hinge joints Biaxial joints Provides movement in 2 directions Triaxial joints Ball and socket

37 Types of movement Flexion Extension Adduction Abduction Rotation Synovial fluid Substance that lubricates synovial joints

38 Axial skeleton Bones of the head thorax and spine Form the axis of the body Protects the CNS Makes up the thoracic cage the housing for respiration

39 Appendicular Skeleton Bones of the upper and lower extremities Includes shoulder girdle and pelvis Excludes the sacrum Major articulation of the body

40 Extermities Arms Legs Wrist Hands Elbows Shoulders Ankles Feet Knees Hips plevis

41 Hands Abduction spreading the fingers out Adduction bringing the fingers back together Made possible by the metocarpalphalangeal joint {MCP}


43 Elbow Ulnar nerve Funny bone Largest unprotected {by muscle or bone} nerve in the body Directly connected to the little finger and half of the ring finger Supplies the palmar side of the afore mentioned fingers

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