Presentation on theme: "Caring for Respiratory Emergencies"— Presentation transcript:
1Caring for Respiratory Emergencies 14Caring for Respiratory Emergencies
2Review respiratory anatomy and physiology in Chapter 4. ObjectivesReview respiratory anatomy and physiology in Chapter 4.Define the following terms:Accessory musclesAsthmaBronchitisChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)CyanosisDyspneaEmphysemaHypercarbia(continued)
3Define the following terms: ObjectivesDefine the following terms:HyperventilationHypoxiaRespiratory compromiseRespiratory distressRespiratory failureTripod positionWheezing(continued)
4Explain common causes of respiratory compromise. ObjectivesExplain common causes of respiratory compromise.Describe the signs and symptoms of a patient experiencing respiratory compromise.Explain the pathophysiology of respiratory compromise.Describe the appropriate assessment and care for a patient experiencing respiratory compromise.(continued)
5Recognize the fear that a respiratory emergency can cause. ObjectivesDemonstrate the ability to appropriately assess and care for a patient experiencing respiratory compromise.Recognize the fear that a respiratory emergency can cause.Value the importance of reassurance when caring for a patient with a respiratory emergency.
6MediaSlide 19 Asthma Video Slide 20 Angina Video Slide 21 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Video
7TopicsOverview of Respiratory AnatomyRespiratory Compromise
9Overview of Respiratory Anatomy Pathways where air enters body (nose and mouth); areas at back of throat (nasopharynx and oropharynx).Oropharynx leads down throat into top of trachea (larynx), where vocal chords are positioned.Class Activity: Direct students to tilt their head back and feel the front of their neck to note the ridges of their trachea (sometimes referred to as the “windpipe.”)(continued)
11Overview of Respiratory Anatomy Upper airwayAll spaces and structures above vocal chords.Lower airwayAll structures and spaces below vocal chords.CarinaWhere trachea splits into right and left main stem bronchi.Class Activity: Dissect a sheep/cow trachea and lungs. Identify key structures.(continued)
12Overview of Respiratory Anatomy BronchiolesSmaller airways.AlveoliWhere exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place.Control center for respiratory is within the brain.Talking Point: Victims of trauma can lose their ability to breathe on their own when the respiratory control center is cut off due to a spinal cord injury; such was the case with actor Christopher Reeve.(continued)
13Think About It What two functions does respiration accomplish? What mechanical problems might impede the movement of air?
15Respiratory Compromise Inability of person to breath adequately.Hypoxia: when the body's cells do not receive adequate supply of oxygen.Signs: altered mental status, pale skin, cyanosis of nail beds/mucous membranes.Hypercarbia: condition of having too much carbon dioxide in blood.Critical Thinking: What does cyanosis of the nail beds and mucous membranes look like? Why is it so important to recognize?Answer: Cyanosis is a blue tinge to the skin; it's a sign that requires immediate action!
16Respiratory Compromise Respiratory Distress (Dyspnea)Result of not getting adequate supply of oxygen; increased in levels of carbon dioxide in bloodIncreased work of breathingIncreased respiratory rateUse of accessory musclesCritical Thinking: Why should the EMR ensure that an Advanced Life Support (ALS with paramedics) is dispatched to the patient with respiratory distress?
17Respiratory Compromise Respiratory FailureWhen body's normal compensatory mechanisms fail.Breathing rate begins to slow.Tidal volume begins to get shallower.Talking Point: Respiratory Failure is a critical emergency. Respiratory failure can rapidly lead to respiratory arrest.
18Respiratory Compromise Common causes:HyperventilationAsthmaChronic bronchitisEmphysemaExposure to poisonAllergic reactionDiscussion Question: Is it important to learn what is causing respiratory compromise before beginning treatment?Answer: No! Treatment for dyspnea should be initiated immediately.
19Click here to view a video on the topic of asthma. BACK TO DIRECTORY
20Click here to view a video on the topic of angina. BACK TO DIRECTORY
21Click here to view a video on the topic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. BACK TO DIRECTORY
22Respiratory Compromise Normal BreathingSufficient to support life.Easy and effortless (adequate).Do not work hard to breathe.Able to speak full sentences without having to catch breath.Normal respiratory rate, depth, and very little effort or work of breathing.
23Respiratory Compromise Characteristics of Normal BreathingNormal rate (number breaths per minute): 12 to 24 for adult; 16 to 32 for child; 24 to 48 for infant.Normal depth (size of each breath): tidal volume; normal breaths not too shallow and not too deep.Class Activity: Using a watch or clock with a sweep hand; direct students to work in pairs to determine the respiratory rate of their partner; share results.(continued)
24Respiratory Compromise Characteristics of Normal BreathingWork of breathing: effort it takes for patient to move each breath in and out.Respiratory rhythm regular.
25Respiratory Compromise Abnormal BreathingInadequate; not sufficient to support life.Left untreated, will result in death.Common signs:Increased work of breathingIncreased respiratory rateCritical Thinking: If respiratory compromise can lead to respiratory arrest, what can respiratory arrest soon lead to?Answer: Cardiac arrest.(continued)
26Respiratory Compromise Abnormal BreathingCommon signs:Decreased respiratory rateRespirations that are too deep or too shallowIrregular breathing rhythmAudible breath sounds (gurgling, snoring or wheezing)(continued)
27Respiratory Compromise Abnormal BreathingTripod position: seated or standing with hands on knees, shoulders arched upward, head forward.Accessory muscles: muscles of neck, chest, abdomen that assist during respiratory difficulty.Critical Thinking: What is the purpose of the tripod position?Class Activity: Direct students to slouch in chair and observe own breathing; next have students sit in the tripod position and observe their breathing. They should notice the reduction of effort.
28Signs and symptoms of respiratory distress. Talking Point: This patient is in trouble!Signs and symptoms of respiratory distress.
29Respiratory Compromise Signs and Symptoms of Respiratory CompromiseLabored or difficulty breathing; a feeling of suffocation.Audible breathing sounds.Rapid or slow rate of breathing.Abnormal pulse rate (too fast or too slow).(continued)
30Respiratory Compromise Signs and Symptoms of Respiratory CompromiseChanges in skin color, particularly of lips and nail beds.Tripod position.Altered mental status.Critical Thinking: Why would a patient suffering from respiratory compromise experience altered mental status?Answer: They're not getting sufficient oxygen to the brain.
31Respiratory Compromise Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary DiseaseConditions: asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysemaSigns and symptoms:History of heavy cigarette smokingPersistent coughChronic shortness of breathPursed-lip breathingTalking Point: Many patients with COPD from advanced emphysema have oxygen delivered to their home. They typically receive oxygen via nasal cannula.(continued)
32Respiratory Compromise Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary DiseaseSigns and symptoms:Maintaining tripod positionFatigueTightness in chestWheezing
33Respiratory Compromise AsthmaCondition affecting lungs, characterized by narrowing of air passages and wheezing.Caused by sensitivity to irritants (pollen, pollutants, exercise).Narrowing air passages cause wheezing.Talking Point: Patients having an asthma attack are usually aware of their history of asthma and may have medication inhalers on scene.(continued)
34Respiratory Compromise AsthmaSigns and symptoms:Moderate to severe shortness of breathWheezingAnxietyNonproductive cough(continued)
35Asthma causes the bronchioles to become narrow and filled with mucus.
36Respiratory Compromise AsthmaLittle/no symptoms between attacks.Medication in metered-dose inhaler.Critical Thinking: Why do some asthma sufferers wait to call EMS until it appears to be “too late”?Answer: Many asthma sufferers experience attacks frequently and are often able to gain control of their attacks by self-medicating with their prescribed inhalers. At times, their attack rapidly progresses and Advanced Life Support Paramedics are needed.(continued)
39Respiratory Compromise AsthmaIf left untreated, asthma attack can be severe enough to cause respiratory arrest and even death.Critical Thinking: Why do some asthma sufferers wait to call EMS until it appears to be “too late”?Answer: Many asthma sufferers experience attacks frequently and are often able to gain control of their attacks by self-medicating with their prescribed inhalers. At times, their attack rapidly progresses and Advanced Life Support Paramedics are needed.
40Respiratory Compromise BronchitisCauses swelling and thickening of walls of bronchi and bronchioles.Causes overproduction of mucus in air passages.Chronic bronchitis: productive cough for three consecutive months and occurs at least two consecutive years.(continued)
41Emphysema affects the alveoli, and bronchitis affects the bronchioles.
42Emphysema affects the alveoli, and bronchitis affects the bronchioles.
43Emphysema affects the alveoli, and bronchitis affects the bronchioles.
44Respiratory Compromise BronchitisSigns and symptoms:OverweightMild to moderate shortness of breathPale complexionProductive coughWheezesCritical Thinking: What causes wheezing? How can it be recognized?
45Respiratory Compromise EmphysemaAssociated with cigarette smoking; disease of lungs that causes permanent damage to alveoli.Causes destruction of alveoli, making them useless for exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.(continued)
46Respiratory Compromise EmphysemaLoss of lung elasticity and accumulation of air cause chest wall to become extended over time; “barrel chest.”Class Activity: Distribute a drinking straw to each student. Direct them to attempt to breathe through the straw to simulate the feeling that patient's with emphysema experience.(continued)
47Respiratory Compromise EmphysemaSigns and symptoms:Moderate to severe shortness of breathVery thin in appearanceLarge chest (barrel chest)Nonproductive coughExtended exhalations
48Respiratory Compromise Hyperventilation SyndromeOccurs when person breathes out and eliminates excess amount of carbon dioxide.Most cases caused by anxiety and do not represent medical emergency.(continued)
49Respiratory Compromise Hyperventilation SyndromeCan be a sign of something serious.Be alert for cyanosis.Monitor for changes in vital signs.Reduce anxiety by reassuring and comforting patient.Critical Thinking: What serious medical condition could cause hyperventilation?Answer: Myocardial Infarction (heart attack). Patients suffering a heart attack may feel a sense of impending doom which is frightening and can lead to hyperventilation.(continued)
50Respiratory Compromise Hyperventilation SyndromeSigns and symptoms:Moderate to severe shortness of breathAnxietyNumbness or tingling of fingers, lips, and/or toesDizzinessSpasm of fingers and/or toesChest discomfortCritical Thinking: How can the EMR tell if someone is having a true respiratory emergency or is simply hyperventilating due to anxiety?Answer: The EMR must treat all patients with respiratory distress as a true emergency regardless of the underlying cause. When hyperventilation is suspected, focus on calming the patient in a reassuring, comforting manner. Never withhold oxygen from a patient who is experiencing shortness of breath.
51Respiratory Compromise Emergency Care for Respiratory CompromiseObserve body language.Determine characteristics of breathing.Pay attention to level of distress and facial expression.Reassure patient.Talking Point: The EMR can help reduce the stress that the respiratory compromise patient feels by providing reassurance and comfort.(continued)
52Respiratory Compromise Emergency Care for Respiratory CompromiseGather a history.Ability to speak clearly and in full sentences.Listen for sounds as patient breathes.
53Respiratory Compromise Take appropriate BSI precautions.Perform primary assessment; support ABCs.Ensure patent airway; administer oxygen per local protocols.Allow patient to maintain position of comfort.Arrange for ALS response if available.Critical Thinking: In what position will the patient experiencing respiratory distress most likely be most comfortable?Answer: Fowler's(continued)
54Respiratory Compromise Assist with prescribed medication per local protocols and medical direction.Obtain vital signs.Continue to monitor patient and provide reassurance.Teaching Tip: Review local protocols for assisting with prescribed medications.
55Algorithm for emergency care of patients with respiratory distress.
56Respiratory Compromise Positive Pressure VentilationsUse bag-mask device to provide rescue breaths when breathing determined to be inadequate.Place mask firmly over patient's face; provide rescue breaths at rate appropriate for patient's age.Talking Point: Providing rescue breaths via bag-mask is done if a patient loses consciousness.
57When breathing is inadequate, provide positive pressure ventilations with a bag-mask device.
58Respiratory Compromise Metered-Dose Inhalers (MDI)Small device that stores and delivers medication that patient inhales into lungs.Encourage patient to take medication exactly as prescribed.Check expiration date.Discussion Question: What information can the EMR be ready to provide to EMS in the verbal report for patients prescribed a metered-dose inhaler?
59Think About ItYou are treating a patient with severe respiratory distress. You notice that his/her respiratory rate is slowing down. Is this a good sign or bad sign?How would you tell the difference?Would your observation warrant updating the responding ambulance?
61SummaryRespiratory compromise is one of the most common calls encountered.Causes include asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, hyperventilation.Characterized by increased work of breathing, increased breathing rate, use of accessory muscles.
62SummaryLeft untreated, can lead to respiratory failure; respiratory arrest; death.Asthma: disease of the lower airways characterized by spasm and swelling of bronchioles, resulting in narrowing of airways.Triggered by allergies, dust, stress, and/or exercise.
63Summary Bronchitis: inflammation of bronchi and bronchioles. Results in overproduction of mucus over inside lining of airways; may last for months at a time.Characterized by productive cough.
64SummaryEmphysema: loss of elasticity of lung tissue and destruction of alveoli.Results in poor gas exchange and trapping of excess carbon dioxide within lungs.Slow, progressive disease that results in severe respiratory distress.
65SummaryHyperventilation syndrome: associated with situations of high stress or anxiety.Begins when stress of situation causes patient to breath fast.If not controlled, will result in loss of too much carbon dioxide.Usually treated by helping patient calm down and control breathing.
66SummaryCare includes support of ABCs, providing supplemental oxygen, calming and reassuring patient.Allow patient to maintain position of comfort and do not force patient to lie down unless unresponsive.
67SummaryOften a true emergency, and rapid transport by ALS ambulance is often most appropriate care.If available, encourage patient to self-administer prescribed meter-dose inhaler as prescribed.
69What are the common causes of respiratory compromise? Review QuestionsWhat are the common causes of respiratory compromise?What are the signs and symptoms of a patient experiencing respiratory compromise?Why is it important to recognize the fear that a respiratory emergency can cause?What is the appropriate assessment and care for a patient experiencing respiratory compromise?
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