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1 Introduction to the Book of Judges 8 July 2007.

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1 1 Introduction to the Book of Judges 8 July 2007

2 2 Names of the Book Hebrew name: Shophetim, meaning judges, rulers, deliverers, or saviors Greek name: Kritai, meaning judges Latin name: Liber Judicum, meaning Book of Judges A possible English name: The Book of Failure

3 3 Author of the Book Anonymous Probably Samuel or one of his followers

4 4 History of Israel after first settled in the Promised Land ~ B.C. From the time after Joshua & elders died (~1372 B.C.) Up to the time before the first king, Saul (~1065 B.C.) Date & Setting

5 5 Probably recorded during a time when Israel had a king (after 1065 B.C.), because Jd. 17:6 says, In those days there was no king in Israel. Probably recorded before David captured Jerusalem (around 1022 B.C.), because Jd.1:21 says, The Jebusites dwell with the children of Benjamin to this day. Date of writing

6 6 Shiloh: Center of Worship During the period of the judges, the Tabernacle was in Shiloh And the whole congregation of the children of Israel assembled together at Shiloh, and set up the tabernacle of the congregation there. – Joshua 18:1

7 7 Jewish tradition says the Tabernacle was in Shiloh for 369 years Shiloh: Center of Worship

8 8 Shiloh: Center of Worship The Philistines captured the Ark of the Lord (around 1094 B.C.) – 1 Samuel 4:11

9 9 Outline 1.Deterioration (1:1 – 3:4) Living with the Canaanites 2.Deliverance (3:5 – 16:31) War with the Canaanites 3.Depravity (17:1 – 21:25) Living like the Canaanites

10 10 The danger of Canaan You must not live according the the customs of the nations I am going to drive out before you. Because they did all these things, I abhorred them. - Leviticus 20:23 NIV

11 11 Joshua & Judges Contrasted JoshuaJudges FreedomBondage ProgressDecline Conquest through beliefDefeat through disbelief Far be it from us that we should forsake the Lord to serve other gods (24:16) So the children of Israel did evil in the sight of the Lord. They forgot the Lord their God, and served the Baals and Asherahs. (3:7)

12 12 Joshua & Judges Contrasted JoshuaJudges Israel served God (24:31)Israel served self (21:25) Israel knew God & His power (24;16-18,31) Israel knew God & His power (2:10) Objective moralitySubjective morality Israel pressing onwardIsrael spiraling downward Sin judgedSin tolerated Faith and obedienceLack of faith, lack of obedience

13 13 Success of Judah Failure of Benjamin Failure of Manesseh Failure of Zebulun Failure of Naphtali Failure of Asher Failure of Dan Military Failures (Judges 1) o Failure of Ephraim From Niv Atlas of the Bible, by Zondervan

14 14 Deterioration (1:1 – 3:4) Most tribes of Israel failed to complete the conquest of their land God judged them for giving up From Niv Atlas of the Bible, by Zondervan

15 15 1.Because the Israelites made covenants with the evil inhabitants of the land and did not tear down their altars (Jud. 2:2,3) 2.Because God wanted to test the Israelites to see if they would obey Him (Jud. 2:22) 3.Because God wanted to teach the generation of the Israelites who had not known war (Jud. 3:1,2) Reasons God Left Enemies in the Land

16 16 They forsook the Lord and served Baal and the Ashtoreths - Jud. 2:13 NKJV

17 17 Means master or lord He was the storm god worshipped by the Canaanites & Phoenicians Also called Dagon In Aram (Syria) he was called Hadad In Babylonia he was called Adad Baal

18 18 The storm cloud was his chariot Thunder his voice Lightening his spear and arrows. Baal

19 19 He was believed to give life-giving rain to the soil. Baal

20 20 Baal The Worship of Baal involved sacred prostitution and sometime even child sacrifice (see Jer.19:5).

21 21 Ashtoreth, the female partner of Baal Also called Asherah To the Greeks she was Aphrodite. To the Romans, she was Venus. Ashtoreth

22 22 Associated with romance and the evening star Was the beautiful goddess of love, beauty, sexual delight and fertility Worship of the Asherah involved extremely immoral practices Ashtoreth

23 23 Today, worship of Asherah continues In cinemas & on TV In university dormitories On the Internet She usually wears less clothing than in this picture Immorality & idolatry usually go together Ashtoreth 2007

24 24 Keep yourselves from idols. - 1 John 5:21 NKJV Flee also youthful lusts; but pursue righteousness, faith, love, peace with those who call on the Lord out of a pure heart. - 2 Timothy 2:22 NKJV Idolatry & Immorality

25 25 Deliverance (3:5 – 16:31) When the children of Israel cried out to the Lord, the Lord raised up a deliverer … – Judges 3:9 NKJV

26 26 Silence Sin Servitude Supplication Salvation Then the children of Israel did evil in the sight Of the Lord and served The Baals (2:11) So (the Lord) delivered Them into the hands of Of plunderers (2:14b) For the Lord was moved to pity By their groaning because of those Who oppressed them and harassed Them (2:18b) And when the Lord raised up judges for them, The Lord was with the judge and delivered them Out of the hand of their enemies all the days of The judge (2:18) And it came to pass, when the Judge was dead, that they reverted And behaved more corruptly than Their fathers.. (2:19) Cycles of the Period of Judges

27 27 16 Judges 1: Othniel 2: Ehud 3: Shamgar 4: Deborah 5: Barak 6: Gideon 7: Abimelech 8: Tola 9: Jair 10: Jephthah 11: Ibzan 12: Elon 13: Abdon 14. Samson 15. Eli (1 Sam. 1-4) 16. Samuel

28 28 Ehud (3:11–30) Left-handed Benjaminite Assassinated Eglon of Moab Judged 80 years

29 29 Deborah & Barak (4:1–5:31) Army leader Fought the Canaanites Found Sisera killed by Jael 40 years of peace Prophetess

30 30 Gideon (6:1–8:32) Of Manasseh Least in his family Led 300 men against a multitude from Midian, Amalek and the children of the East Judged 40 years

31 31 Abimelech (9:1–57) Evil son of Gideon and a concubine Murdered 70 brothers Fought Israelites who opposed him Judged 3 years

32 32 Jephthah (10:6–12:7) A Gileadite Son of a harlot Rejected by brothers Leader of band of worthless men Sought by brothers Made rash vow Defeated the Ammonites Judged 6 years

33 33 Samson (13:1–16:31) Danite Nazirite Amazingly strong Disobedient (sought marriage with unbeliever) Judged 20 years Carnal (slept with a Philistine harlot) Single-handedly killed thousands of Philistines

34 34 Depravity (17:1 – 21:25) Micah and a Levites idolatry (17) Dans tribal idolatry (18) Group rape of Jewish concubine in Jebus (19) Civil war between Benjamin & other tribes (20) Kidnapping of dancing virgins of Shiloh (21)

35 35 Depravity (17:1 – 21:25) Everyone did what was right in his own eyes. Jud. 21:25 (They forgot Gods standards of right and wrong.)

36 36 Introduction to the Book of Ruth 8 July 2007

37 37 The Book of Ruth

38 38 Book of Ruth Book of Ruth Spiritual Purpose In this time of apostasy, warfare, decline, violence, moral decay and anarchy, the book of Ruth provides A picture of the other side of the story the godly remnant who remain true to the laws of God; The continuation of Gods protection of the Seed line of Jesus Christ. In this time of apostasy, warfare, decline, violence, moral decay and anarchy, the book of Ruth provides A picture of the other side of the story the godly remnant who remain true to the laws of God; The continuation of Gods protection of the Seed line of Jesus Christ.

39 39 Line of Christ Line of Christ Matthew 1:1,2,5,6 A record of the genealogy of Jesus Christ the son of David, the son of Abraham: Abraham was the father of Isaac,... Salmon the father of Boaz, whose mother was Rahab, Boaz the father of Obed, whose mother was Ruth, Obed the father of Jesse, and Jesse the father of King David …

40 40 Line of Christ Line of Christ Matthew 1:1,2,5,6 Abraham & Sarah … Salmon & Rahab Boaz & Ruth Obed Jesse David … Joseph & Mary Jesus

41 41 Author of the Book Anonymous

42 42 Bethlehem to Moab

43 43 Around 1268 B.C. Famine in Israel Elimelech moved his family to Moab Date & Setting ?

44 44 History of Moab The people of Moab were descendants of Lot, Abrahams nephew, who had to flee Sodom when God rained down fire upon it. (Around 1868 B.C.) The mother of the Moabites was Lots elder daughter. (Gen. 19:30-38) Moabites worshiped Chemosh and other pagan gods.

45 45 History of Israel and Moab Around 1423 B.C., the Moabite king, Balak, tried to hire a magician named Balaam to curse Israel before they entered the promised land. (Num ) Instead, God caused Balaam to bless Israel But Balaam also and urged Balak to send beautiful Moabite women into the Jewish camp to seduce the men. This caused sin and idolatry, and it was punished. (Num. 25)

46 46 History of Israel and Moab The book of Ruth took place about 200 years after the war Ehud the lefty led against Moab (Jud. 3:12-30) This time was also about 80 years before other wars with Moab when Israel was under Saul (1 Sam. 14:47)

47 47 Outline of Ruth Ruths love demonstrated Ruths decision to follow Naomi and her confession of faith (1:1-18 – 10 years) Ruths devotion to care for Naomi (1:19-2:23 – months)

48 48 Outline of Ruth Ruths love rewarded Ruths request for redemption by Boaz (3:1-18 – one day) Ruths reward of redemption by Boaz (4:1-22 – one year)

49 49 Ruths Statement of Conversion And Ruth said, Entreat me not to leave thee, or to return from following after thee: for whither thou goest, I will go; and where thou lodgest, I will lodge: thy people shall be my people, and thy God my God (1:16)

50 50 Law of the kinsman redeemer If brethren dwell together, and one of them die, and have no child, the wife of the dead shall not marry without unto a stranger: her husband's brother shall go in unto her, and take her to him to wife, and perform the duty of an husband's brother unto her. It shall be that the firstborn whom she bears shall assume the name of his dead brother, so that his name will not be blotted out from Israel. (Deuteronomy 25:5,6)

51 51 Law of the kinsman redeemer But if the man does not desire to take his brother's wife, then his brother's wife shall go up to the gate to the elders and say, My husband's brother refuses to establish a name for his brother in Israel; he is not willing to perform the duty of a husband's brother to me. Then the elders of his city shall summon him and speak to him. (Deuteronomy 25:7,8)

52 52 Law of the kinsman redeemer And if he persists and says, I do not desire to take her, then shall his brother's wife come unto him in the presence of the elders, and loose his shoe from off his foot, and spit in his face, and shall answer and say, So shall it be done unto that man that will not build up his brother's house. In Israel his name shall be called, 'The house of him whose sandal is removed. (Deuteronomy 25:8-10)

53 53 Kinsman-Redeemer A Shadow of Christ Must be related by blood to those he redeems (Dt. 25:5-10; Jn. 1:14; Rom. 1:3; Phil. 2:5-8; Heb. 2:14,15) Must be able to pay the price of redemption (Ruth 2:1; I Pet.1:18,19) Must be willing to redeem (Ruth 3:11; Mt.20:28; John 10:15, 18; Heb.10:7) Must be free himself (I Pet.2:21-25) Must be related by blood to those he redeems (Dt. 25:5-10; Jn. 1:14; Rom. 1:3; Phil. 2:5-8; Heb. 2:14,15) Must be able to pay the price of redemption (Ruth 2:1; I Pet.1:18,19) Must be willing to redeem (Ruth 3:11; Mt.20:28; John 10:15, 18; Heb.10:7) Must be free himself (I Pet.2:21-25)

54 54 Do not go over your vineyard a second time or pick up the grapes that have fallen. Leave them for the poor and the alien. I am the LORD your God. (Lev.19:10) Do not go over your vineyard a second time or pick up the grapes that have fallen. Leave them for the poor and the alien. I am the LORD your God. (Lev.19:10) Gods law to Care for the poor

55 55 Why did God kill Naomis two sons? Nobody knows for sure But they did marry unbelievers (assuming that Ruth and Orpah did not believe in the God of Israel before their marriages to Mahlon and Kilion) A believer marrying an unbeliever is a sin that gets God angry – even today

56 56 The sin of marrying unbelievers (Deuteronomy 7:1-6) When the LORD your God brings you into the land which you go to possess, and has cast out many nations before you … you shall conquer them and utterly destroy them. You shall make no covenant with them nor show mercy to them. Nor shall you make marriages with them. You shall not give your daughter to their son, nor take their daughter for your son.

57 57 The sin of marrying unbelievers (Deuteronomy 7:1-6) For they will turn your sons away from following Me, to serve other gods; so the anger of the LORD will be aroused against you and destroy you suddenly... For you are a holy people to the LORD your God; the LORD your God has chosen you to be a people for Himself, a special treasure above all the peoples on the face of the earth.

58 58 Application God is not mocked – a man reaps what he sows (Gal. 6:7) – probably in this life and for sure in the next life Dont think that your obedience and sin are private and dont affect others; they do Do not marry an unbeliever, or else you will get God angry at you Be upset about sin in society, b/c God is upset

59 59 Application Serve the poor like Boaz did Be a friend to all who fear God (Ps. 119:63) Serve the the elderly like Ruth did Follow proper procedures like Boaz did

60 Bibliography Special thanks goes to the following: Zondervans NIV Atlas of the Bible Bruce Wilkinson & Kenneth Boa for their information in Talk Thru the Bible Walt Henrichsen for his wisdom and insight shared during Bible studies he has led and in books, articles and s he has written Edward Reese for his chronology and dating in The Reese Chronological Bible


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