2Names of the BookHebrew: Iyyob, meaning either “persecuted one” or “repentant one”Greek: IobLatin: Iob
3Author of the Book Unknown; possible authors: Job Elihu Solomon Isaiah Moses (lived in Midian near Uz)HezekiahJeremiahBaruchEzra
4Date and Setting Unknown Probably occurred during the patriarchal period, around 2000 B.C.Animals showed wealthJob offered his own sacrifices, which means it was before the Mosaic Law was given (around 1422 B.C.)Perhaps written down around the time of Moses
5Possible Location of Uz “Uz” might have meant “east”Land of UzLand of Midian (where Moses lived for 40 years)
6Book Outline Chapters Controversy 1 – 2 Between God and Satan 3 – 37 Between Job and his friends38 – 42Of God and Job
7Chapters 1-2 Job’s blessed circumstances Two gatherings in heaven God’s challenge to SatanSatan’s reply to GodGod’s permission to SatanThe tests – losing kids, property and healthMrs. Job’s unbeliefJob’s friends’ 7 days of comfort
8Job’s blessed circumstances 7 sons, 3 daughters7000 sheep500 yoke of oxen500 female donkeysVery large householdGreatest man of all the people of the EastOffered burnt offerings in case children sinned
9Gatherings in heavenThe ‘sons of God’ and Satan twice presented themselves before the Lord (1:6, 2:1)‘Sons of God’ in Hebrew is bene-haelohimBen = son of, Elohim = GodJob 38:4,7 – when God laid the foundations of the earth, the sons of God shouted for joySo, the sons of God were angelsSatan was ‘the anointed cherub’ (Ezek. 28:14), the highest ranking angel until he rebelled
10God’s challenge to Satan God said to Satan, “Have you seen my servant Job? He fears Me and shuns evil.” (Job 1:8, 2:3)This was like throwing meat to hungry dog.This was probably already about 2000 years after Satan tempted Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden.So Satan was already very experienced in getting people to turn away from God. That’s what he does best!
11Satan’s reply to GodSatan answered the Lord, “Job just fears You for personal benefit. Take away his children, riches and good health, and he’ll curse you.” (Job 1:9-11; 2:4,5)Most religions are like this: pragmatic, that is, people serve gods that they think will give them what they want.But 1 Cor. 8:6 says we exist for God (That means He doesn’t exist for us.)
12God’s permission to Satan God said to Satan, “Go ahead and test Job! Take away his kids, animals and good health. Let’s see what happens!” (Job 1:12, 2:6)‘Temptation’ and ‘test’ are the same word in Greek, peirasmos.So when Satan tempts us, it’s actually God testing us.Satan’s purpose for testing is to make us sin.God’s purpose for testing is to make us stronger.
14The debates on earthJob and his three friends went through three cycles of debateJob’s defenses were much longer than his friends’ accusationsIn the process of defending his innocence, he became guilty of self-righteousnessNone of them knew what went on earlier in heaven between God and SatanToday, when we go through God’s tests, we also do not usually know what God is doing.
15Job’s friends Eliphaz Bildad Zophar Elihu Name “God is gold” “Son of contention”“Rough”“He is My God”PersonalityConsiderateArgumentativeRude, bluntPerceptive, some conceitRelies onObservationTraditionAssumptionEducationVoice ofPhilosophyHistoryOrthodoxyLogicArgumentIf you sin, you sufferYou must be sinningYou are sinningGod purifies and teachesAdviceOnly the wicked sufferThe wicked always sufferThe wicked are short-livedHumble yourself and submit to God
16The Lord spoke to Job out of a whirlwind Chapters 38 – 42The Lord spoke to Job out of a whirlwind
17The Deliverance of Job God questions and challenges Job Job he is vile; he surrenders; he has nothing to say. (40:4,5)God says that’s not good enough: “Would you indeed annul My judgment that you may be justified? (40:8) Can you do the powerful things I can do?”Job confesses his lack of understanding and repents (42:2-6)True faith is commitment without knowing
18Deliverance of Job’s 3 friends God rebuked the three friendsGod told them to offer seven bulls and seven rams and let Job pray for themThey obeyed
19Happy ending for Job God restored Job’s wealth twofold God gave Job seven more sons and three more daughtersJob lived 140 more years and saw his great-great grandchildren – a sign of God’s blessing in Old Testament times (Don’t expect this in New Testament times.)
20Themes Spiritual war and Satan Testing of God and Satan The role of sufferingSovereignty of GodRepentance and faith
21Spiritual war & SatanJesus said Satan comes to steal, kill and destroy (Jn. 10:10)Peter says Satan is a roaring lion seeking someone to eat (1 Pt. 5:8).But whenever he or his demons try to do something, it’s because God has sent them on that mission.We acknowledge Satan, but fear God.James 4:7 says, “Submit yourselves to God. Resist the devil and he will flee from you.”
22Spiritual war & SatanPut on the whole armor of God, that you may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil … having girded your waist with truth, having put on the breastplate of righteousness, and having shod your feet with the preparation of the gospel of peace; above all, taking the shield of faith with which you will be able to quench all the fiery darts of the wicked one. And take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God; praying always with all prayer and supplication in the Spirit, being watchful to this end with all perseverance and supplication for all the saints.- Ephesians 6:11,14-18 NKJV
23Testing of God and of Satan God testing us and Satan attacking us are really the same thing.So Jesus taught us to pray, “Our Father in heaven … lead us not into temptation / testing” (Mt. 6:9,13)God will test us, but when we are tested, we face potential failure, so we ask Him to not test us.When God tests us, we need the whole armor of God – truth, righteousness, gospel of peace, faith, salvation, Word of God, prayer
24The role of suffering Rom. 5: 1-11 – Results of Justification The purpose of our suffering is to help us develop a Biblical hope; that is, to make us not expect things from God that He has not promised in scripture (1-5)Christ died for us when we were His enemies, but now we have peace with God and are saved from His wrath, so when He disciplines us, we can trust Him (6-11)
25The role of suffering Hebrews 12:1-11 – God’s Discipline Whom the Lord loves he disciplinesIf you are without discipline, you are illegitimate and not sonsNo discipline seems pleasant at the time but painful. Later on, however, it produces a harvest of peace for those who have been trained by it.
26The role of suffering Suffering is God’s discipline for His children His goal is correction to develop godly behaviorHis goal is not punishment; that’s for laterSo the goal is not to execute justiceIt is like a scalpel in the hand of a surgeonIt’s not from evil intent, so it’s not like a dagger in the hand of an assassinSo thank God for it!
27The benefits of suffering But He knows the way that I take, and when He has tested me I will come forth as gold. (Job 23:10)Consider it a pure joy, my brothers, whenever you face various trials, because you know that the testing of your faith produces perseverance. Perseverance must finish it’s work, so that you may be mature and complete, not lacking anything. (James 1:2-4)
28Sovereignty of GodAnd we know that in all things God works for the good of those who love Him and who are called according to His purpose. (Romans 8:28)
29Repentance and faithIn Job 40:4,5 Job gave up, but God went on for two more chapters.Then Job repented. He would rather be God’s obedient servant than anything else.Jesus said, “Come to me all you who are weary and heavy burdened … take My yoke upon you and learn form Me.” (Mt. 11:28,29)You are going to wear the yoke, whether Jesus’ yoke or someone else’s.God will only accept repentance and faith in His Word. Being good is not good enough.
30ApplicationBe aware of the spiritual battle going on around you, especially in the area of interpersonal relationship. Satan loves to divide and conquer.Put on the full armor of God (Eph. 6) – truth, righteousness, gospel of peace, faith, salvation, the Word of God and prayer
31ApplicationAvoid the tendency to assume that your suffering or others’ suffering is due to sin, because innocent people suffer too.Don’t assume that you know with certainty what God is doing in your life or someone else’s life. We walk by faith, not by sight, so we can never be 100% sure.
32ApplicationLearn to trust God’s goodness and power in the midst of trials and suffering or through tough circumstances.In the midst of adversity and tragedy, don’t ask “Why?” ask “Who is causing it?”Put your hope in God no matter what.
33Application Bear one another’s burdens (Gal. 6:2). Be slow to judge others’ circumstances (Mt. 7:1-5).Don’t be like Mrs. Job, Eliphaz, Bildad or Zophar, but instead be a wise friend:Someone who gets the facts straight before making accusations, andSomeone who comforts and encourages friends when they are suffering.
34ApplicationWhen your friends seem to be breaking God’s commandments and you feel responsible to confront them:First ask questions to understand the situation before making accusationsOnly make accusations when you have clear factsOtherwise, wait for God to reveal more
35Application When others accuse you of wrong-doing Repent if you think they are correctOtherwise, thank them for their concern, briefly defend yourself and then spend time alone in prayer, asking God to show you if you are really guilty.
36ApplicationDevelop an eternal hope, and don’t expect God to do things for you in this life that He hasn’t promised to do for you in the Bible.Ask God to help you become like Job – His obedient servant, whom He can trust to pass through any of Satan’s attacks.
37Bibliography Special thanks goes to the following: EBibleTeacher.com for their mapsNASA for their Satellite imagesBruce Wilkinson & Kenneth Boa for their information in Talk Thru the BibleWalt Henrichsen for his wisdom and insight shared during Bible studies he has led and in books, articles and s he has writtenEdward Reese for his chronology and dating in The Reese Chronological Bible