Presentation on theme: "1 International University Module: Leadership and Management Introduction to Midwifery Management & Leadership Long Leng, MD, MPH 25 December 2011."— Presentation transcript:
1 International University Module: Leadership and Management Introduction to Midwifery Management & Leadership Long Leng, MD, MPH 25 December 2011
3 What is leadership? Leadership is the art of motivating a group of people to act towards achieving a common goal. Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent.
4 Leadership styles 1.Authoritarian or autocratic This style is used when leaders tell their employees what they want done and how they want it accomplished, without getting the advice of their followers. Some of the appropriate conditions to use it is when you have all the information to solve the problem, you are short on time, and your employees are well motivated.
5 Some people tend to think of this style as a vehicle for yelling, using demeaning language, and leading by threats and abusing their power. This is not the authoritarian style, rather it is an abusive, unprofessional style called “bossing people around.” It has no place in a leader's repertoire. The authoritarian style should normally only be used on rare occasions. If you have the time and want to gain more commitment and motivation from your employees, then you should use the participative style.
6 2.Participative or democratic This style involves the leader including one or more employees in the decision making process (determining what to do and how to do it). However, the leader maintains the final decision making authority. Using this style is not a sign of weakness, rather it is a sign of strength that your employees will respect. This is normally used when you have part of the information, and your employees have other parts. Note that a leader is not expected to know everything — this is why you employ knowledgeable and skillful employees. Using this style is of mutual benefit — it allows them to become part of the team and allows you to make better decisions.
7 3.Delegative or free reign/laissez faire In this style, the leader allows the employees to make the decisions. However, the leader is still responsible for the decisions that are made. This is used when employees are able to analyze the situation and determine what needs to be done and how to do it. You cannot do everything! You must set priorities and delegate certain tasks. This is not a style to use so that you can blame others when things go wrong, rather this is a style to be used when you fully trust and confidence in the people below you. Do not be afraid to use it, however, use it wisely!
8 Four factors of leadership 1.Leader : You must have an honest understanding of: Who you are, What you know, and What you can do. Also, Note that it is the followers, not the leader or someone else who determines if the leader is successful. If they do not trust or lack confidence in their leader, then they will be uninspired. To be successful you have to convince your followers, not yourself or your superiors, that you are worthy of being followed.
9 2. Followers Different people require different styles of leadership. A new hire requires more supervision than an experienced employee. A person who lacks motivation requires a different approach than one with a high degree of motivation. You must know your people! A good understanding of human nature, such as needs, emotions, and motivation. You must come to know your employees' be, know, and do attributes.
10 3. Communication You lead through two-way communication. Much of it is non-verbal.communication For instance, when you “set the example,” that communicates to your people that you would not ask them to perform anything that you would not be willing to do. What and how you communicate either builds or harms the relationship between you and your employees.
11 4. Situation All situations are different. What you do in one situation will not always work in another. You must use your judgment to decide the best course of action and the leadership style needed for each situation. For example, you may need to confront an employee for inappropriate behavior, but if the confrontation is too late or too early, too harsh or too weak, then the results may prove ineffective.
12 Boss or leader? Although your position as a manager, supervisor, lead, etc. gives you the authority to accomplish certain tasks and objectives in the organization, this power does not make you a leader, it simply makes you the boss. Leadership differs in that it makes the followers want to achieve high goals, rather than simply bossing people around. Thus you get Assigned Leadership by your position and you display Leadership by influencing people to do great things.
13 The two most important keys to effective leadership 1.Trust and confidence in top leadership was the single most reliable predictor of employee satisfaction in an organization. 2.Effective communication by leadership in three critical areas was the key to winning organizational trust and confidence: Helping employees understand the company's overall business strategy. Helping employees understand how they contribute to achieving key business objectives. Sharing information with employees on both how the company is doing and how an employee's own division is doing — relative to strategic business objectives.
14 1.Know yourself and seek self-improvement - In order to know yourself, you have to understand your be, know, and do, attributes. Seeking self-improvement means continually strengthening your attributes. This can be accomplished through self-study, formal classes, reflection, and interacting with others. 2.Be technically proficient - As a leader, you must know your job and have a solid familiarity with your employees' tasks. Principles of leadership
15 3.Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your actions - Search for ways to guide your organization to new heights. And when things go wrong, they always do sooner or later — do not blame others. Analyze the situation, take corrective action, and move on to the next challenge. 4.Make sound and timely decisions - Use good problem solving, decision making, and planning tools.
16 5.Set the example - Be a good role model for your employees. They must not only hear what they are expected to do, but also see. 6.Know your people and look out for their well-being - Know human nature and the importance of sincerely caring for your workers. 7.Keep your workers informed - Know how to communicate with not only them, but also seniors and other key people.
17 8.Develop a sense of responsibility in your workers - Help to develop good character traits that will help them carry out their professional responsibilities. 9.Ensure that tasks are understood, supervised, and accomplished - Communication is the key to this responsibility. 10.Train as a team - Although many so called leaders call their organization, department, section, etc. a team; they are not really teams...they are just a group of people doing their jobs.
18 11.Use the full capabilities of your organization - By developing a team spirit, you will be able to employ your organization, department, section, etc. to its fullest capabilities.
19 The road to great leadership that is common to successful leaders: Challenge the process - First, find a process that you believe needs to be improved the most. Inspire a shared vision - Next, share your vision in words that can be understood by your followers. Enable others to act - Give them the tools and methods to solve the problem. Model the way - When the process gets tough, get your hands dirty. A boss tells others what to do, a leader shows that it can be done. Encourage the heart - Share the glory with your followers' hearts, while keeping the pains within your own. The process of great leadership
21 What is management? Management is the process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people.
22 Management functions 1.Planning Planning is the process to accomplish these objectives. It is a road map of improvement. Planning should be realistic based and framework within which a new strategy will be implemented. Set Objective Establishing strategy Work-plan Strategic plan Budgeting
23 2.Organizing Organizing is the act of arranging certain elements following some rules. The entire role of organizing is to achieve the overall completion of organization's objectives. It is obligatory to organize all kind of resources including men, material, and money to make the optimum use in achieving certain specialization. This specialization can be achieved through employing different tasks to specific people who are specialists in that area.
25 4.Controlling Controlling is one of the foremost managerial functions like planning and organizing but it is continuous, and can be entrenched at any of hierarchy. It is very important for the management to check the errors, own mistakes and then take the corrective action Monitoring Analyzing Reporting
26 Level of Management Lower Management Middle Management TopManagement
27 The role of the top management It consists of board of directors, chief executive or managing director. The top management is the ultimate source of authority and it manages goals and policies for an enterprise. It devotes more time on planning and coordinating functions.
28 The role of the top management can be summarized as follows: Top management lays down the objectives and broad policies of the enterprise. It issues necessary instructions for preparation of department budgets, procedures, schedules etc. It prepares strategic plans & policies for the enterprise. It appoints the executive for middle level i.e. departmental managers. It controls & coordinates the activities of all the departments. It is also responsible for maintaining a contact with the outside world. It provides guidance and direction. The top management is also responsible towards the shareholders for the performance of the enterprise.
29 The role of the middle management The branch managers and departmental managers constitute middle level. They are responsible to the top management for the functioning of their department. They devote more time to organizational and directional functions. In small organization, there is only one layer of middle level of management but in big enterprises, there may be senior and junior middle level management.
30 The role of the middle management can be summarized as follows: They execute the plans of the organization in accordance with the policies and directives of the top management. They make plans for the sub-units of the organization. They participate in employment & training of lower level management. They interpret and explain policies from top level management to lower level. They are responsible for coordinating the activities within the division or department. It also sends important reports and other important data to top level management. They evaluate performance of junior managers. They are also responsible for inspiring lower level managers towards better performance.
31 The role of the lower management Lower level is also known as supervisory/operative level of management. It consists of supervisors, foreman, section officers, superintendent etc. Supervisory management refers to those executives whose work has to be largely with personal oversight and direction of operative employees. In other words, they are concerned with direction and controlling function of management.
32 The role of the lower management can be summarized as follows: Assigning of jobs and tasks to various workers. They guide and instruct workers for day to day activities. They are responsible for the quality as well as quantity of production. They are also entrusted with the responsibility of maintaining good relation in the organization. They communicate workers problems, suggestions, and recommendatory appeals etc to the higher level and higher level goals and objectives to the workers. They help to solve the grievances of the workers. They supervise & guide the sub-ordinates. They are responsible for providing training to the workers. They arrange necessary materials, machines, tools etc for getting the things done. They prepare periodical reports about the performance of the workers. They ensure discipline in the enterprise. They motivate workers. They are the image builders of the enterprise because they are in direct contact with the workers.