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How Many Kingdoms? Multicellular Animals MyxozoansProtozoans Tracheophytes Bryophytes True Fungi Slime Molds Red algae Brown Algae Green Algae Chrysophytes.

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Presentation on theme: "How Many Kingdoms? Multicellular Animals MyxozoansProtozoans Tracheophytes Bryophytes True Fungi Slime Molds Red algae Brown Algae Green Algae Chrysophytes."— Presentation transcript:

1 How Many Kingdoms? Multicellular Animals MyxozoansProtozoans Tracheophytes Bryophytes True Fungi Slime Molds Red algae Brown Algae Green Algae Chrysophytes Euglenoids Archezoans Archaebacteria Bacteria Original Cell Extant Extinct Long Time with Prokaryotes only

2 Looking Back at Bio 115 The Organism as a Unit of Life Cellular Structure (cell = unit of life)…one or many! Metabolism = Homeostasis (PSN, Resp, N 2 fix, ferment, etc.) Growth = irreversible change in size Reproduction…failure = extinction Acclimatization-short term responses = behavior Adaptation-long term responses = evolution

3 Animal Features Multicellular Eukaryotes Heterotrophic Ingestion Collagen Protein Connections Nerve and Muscle Tissues Diplontic (Gametic) Life History Gametes Oogamous with Flagellated Sperm Zygote to Blastula, perhaps Gastrulation Larval metamorphosis into Adult Ontogeny Recapitulating Phylogeny

4 Animals probably evolved from a flagellated protist similar to the choanoflagellates flagellum collar cell body One step in this evolution is to become colonial. Here are the choanocytes of one of the simplest of sponges. Basically the most primitive animals. Of course the other required step is to eliminate the chloroplasts of the choanoflagellate (Chrysophyta!).

5 cleavage Development or Evolution? 2-layered acoelomate body plan zygote animal pole vegetal pole blastulamorula blastocoel ectoderm endoderm blastopore archenteron remnant of blastocoel blastopore

6 Cnidarians Protostome Phyla Deuterostome Phyla (except vertebrates) Origin of Mesoderm Platyhelminthes Nematoda Annelida Mollusca Arthropoda Echinodermata Hemichordata Chordata mouth anus blastopore mouth blastocoel archenteron

7 Sponge, Cnidarian Ectoderm Endoderm spongocoel Acoelomate Mesoderm 2-layered Planarian 3-layered gastrovascular cavity Nematode pseudocoelom digestive tract Pseudocoelomate Annelid Coelomate coelom Evolution of Body Organization

8 The Animal Clade Chordata Ancestral Choanoflagellate Cnidaria Hemichordata Echinodermata Extant deuterostomia Arthropoda Annelida Mollusca protostomia coelomates Nematoda Rotifera pseudo- coelomates Platyhelminthes acoelomates radiata bilateria eumetazoa (true tissues) Porifera parazoa loss of chloroplast, colonial organization This cladogram omits several smaller animal phyla!


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