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Domain Eukarya Kingdom Fungi

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Presentation on theme: "Domain Eukarya Kingdom Fungi"— Presentation transcript:

1 Domain Eukarya Kingdom Fungi

2 How Many Kingdoms? Extant 8 5 3 Extinct 2 Long Time with 1
Archaebacteria Archezoans Multicellular Animals Protozoans Green Algae Bryophytes Slime Molds Myxozoans Bacteria Euglenoids Chrysophytes Brown Algae Red algae Tracheophytes True Fungi 8 5 3 Extinct 2 1 Long Time with Prokaryotes only Original Cell

3 Fungal Cladogram Phylum: Ascomycota Basidiomycota Zygomycota
Peziza Neurospora Sordaria Saccharomyces Polyporus Agaricus Phallus Rhizopus Pilobolus Mucor One other taxon: Deuteromycota is artificial as sexual stages are unknown for these species. They are likely Ascomycota. To Animalia, etc.

4 Domain Eukarya Kingdom Fungi Phylum Basidiomycota

5 Basidiomycota: Amanita virosa (the destroying angel mushroom)
amatoxin: digestive upset, fever, 2 days, improve 3 days, coma, death pileus lamellae = gills annulus = ring stipe = stalk volva = cup

6 4 basidiospores atop basidium
Life Cycle of Agaricus This dikaryotic mycelium is composed of septate hyphae. It proliferates in the substrate (soil, rotting wood, etc.) and can live this way for weeks, years, decades, even centuries! Under the correct conditions, the dikaryotic mycelium forms basidiocarps. These will have hyphal tips forming a layer (a hymenium) on gills (or other surfaces). The apical cells are called basidia. dikaryotic mycelium plasmogamy cap = pileus SYNGAMY zygote Sporophyte Gametophyte sporangium sporocyte spores gametangia gametes germination mitosis differentiation 1N 2N MEIOSIS stalk = stipe gills = lamellae ring = annulus septate hypha cup = volva basidium 2N karyogamy meiosis 4 meiotic products extruded from basidium 4 basidiospores atop basidium Whether this is a zygotic or a sporic life cycle depends upon your interpretation of whether or not the dikaryotic mycelium and basidiocarp is a sporophyte.

7 Basidiomycota: Amanita muscaria (fly agaric) mushroom
ibotenic acid, muscimol hallucinogenic near lethal dose Passage through urine stream Smurf Homes?

8 Basidiomycota: Coprinus comatus (inky cap) mushroom
Fall mushroom, edible as long as you do not drink alcohol at the same meal. Alcohol converts an innocuous compound into a toxin. Distinctive cylindrical pileus with shaggy coverage. Also called the shaggy-mane mushroom

9 A Fairy Ring of Mushrooms: a dikaryotic mycelium producing an ever-larger circle of basidiocarps at it edge. Can you tell how the lawn responds? Why does it respond this way?

10 Basidiomycota: Boletus a large polypore (sponge) mushroom
The pores are lined with basidia producing basidiospores

11 Basidiomycota: Phallales Phallus impudicus
Mutinus caninus

12 Dictyophora duplicata
Clathrus archeri

13 Basidiomycota: Psilocybe cubensis
These “magic mushrooms” contain psilocybin, a mescaline-class hallucinogen Growing in natural setting Dry “for sale”

14 You asked about sucralose (Splenda™)…
This molecule is fundamentally sucrose with 3 hydroxyl groups replaced by chlorine… CH2OH CH2Cl Cl O O OH OH O CH2Cl OH OH 600 times less needed and is excreted without metabolism (0 cal) Adapted from:

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