2 How Many Kingdoms? Extant 8 5 3 Extinct 2 Long Time with 1 ArchaebacteriaArchezoansMulticellular AnimalsProtozoansGreen AlgaeBryophytesSlime MoldsMyxozoansBacteriaEuglenoidsChrysophytesBrown AlgaeRed algaeTracheophytesTrue Fungi853Extinct21Long Time withProkaryotes onlyOriginal Cell
3 Fungal Cladogram Phylum: Ascomycota Basidiomycota Zygomycota PezizaNeurosporaSordariaSaccharomycesPolyporusAgaricusPhallusRhizopusPilobolusMucorOne other taxon: Deuteromycota is artificial as sexual stages are unknown for these species. They are likely Ascomycota.To Animalia, etc.
6 4 basidiospores atop basidium Life Cycle of AgaricusThis dikaryotic mycelium is composed of septate hyphae. It proliferates in the substrate (soil, rotting wood, etc.) and can live this way for weeks, years, decades, even centuries! Under the correct conditions, the dikaryotic mycelium forms basidiocarps. These will have hyphal tips forming a layer (a hymenium) on gills (or other surfaces). The apical cells are called basidia.dikaryotic myceliumplasmogamycap = pileusSYNGAMYzygoteSporophyteGametophytesporangiumsporocytesporesgametangiagametesgerminationmitosisdifferentiation1N2NMEIOSISstalk = stipegills = lamellaering = annulusseptatehyphacup = volvabasidium 2Nkaryogamymeiosis4 meiotic products extruded from basidium4 basidiospores atop basidiumWhether this is a zygotic or a sporic life cycle depends upon your interpretation of whether or not the dikaryotic mycelium and basidiocarp is a sporophyte.
7 Basidiomycota: Amanita muscaria (fly agaric) mushroom ibotenic acid, muscimol hallucinogenic near lethal dosePassage through urine streamSmurfHomes?
8 Basidiomycota: Coprinus comatus (inky cap) mushroom Fall mushroom, edible as long as you do not drink alcohol at the same meal. Alcohol converts an innocuous compound into a toxin.Distinctive cylindrical pileus with shaggy coverage. Also called the shaggy-mane mushroom
9 A Fairy Ring of Mushrooms: a dikaryotic mycelium producing an ever-larger circle of basidiocarps at it edge. Can you tell how the lawn responds? Why does it respond this way?
10 Basidiomycota: Boletus a large polypore (sponge) mushroom The pores are lined with basidia producing basidiospores
13 Basidiomycota: Psilocybe cubensis These “magic mushrooms” contain psilocybin, a mescaline-class hallucinogenGrowing in natural settingDry “for sale”
14 You asked about sucralose (Splenda™)… This molecule is fundamentally sucrose with 3 hydroxyl groups replaced by chlorine…CH2OHCH2ClClOOOHOHOCH2ClOHOH600 times less needed and isexcreted without metabolism (0 cal)Adapted from: