How Many Kingdoms? Multicellular Animals MyxozoansProtozoans Tracheophytes Bryophytes True Fungi Slime Molds Red algae Brown Algae Green Algae Chrysophytes Euglenoids Archezoans Archaebacteria Bacteria Original Cell Extant Extinct Long Time with Prokaryotes only 8 5 3 2 1
Fungal Cladogram PilobolusPeziza Phallus Agaricus Mucor Rhizopus Saccharomyces Sordaria Polyporus Neurospora To Animalia, etc. Phylum: AscomycotaBasidiomycotaZygomycota One other taxon: Deuteromycota is artificial as sexual stages are unknown for these species. They are likely Ascomycota.
http://pkaminski.homestead.com/files/Amanita_virosa_7_L.jpg Basidiomycota: Amanita virosa (the destroying angel mushroom) lamellae = gills annulus = ring stipe = stalk volva = cup pileus amatoxin: digestive upset, fever, 2 days, improve 3 days, coma, death
Life Cycle of Agaricus septate hypha 4 meiotic products extruded from basidium SYNGAMY zygote SporophyteGametophyte sporangium sporocyte spores gametangia gametes germination mitosis differentiation mitosis germination mitosis 1N 2N differentiation MEIOSIS Whether this is a zygotic or a sporic life cycle depends upon your interpretation of whether or not the dikaryotic mycelium and basidiocarp is a sporophyte. karyogamy 4 basidiospores atop basidium plasmogamy meiosis basidium 2N cup = volva stalk = stipe cap = pileus This dikaryotic mycelium is composed of septate hyphae. It proliferates in the substrate (soil, rotting wood, etc.) and can live this way for weeks, years, decades, even centuries! Under the correct conditions, the dikaryotic mycelium forms basidiocarps. These will have hyphal tips forming a layer (a hymenium) on gills (or other surfaces). The apical cells are called basidia. dikaryotic mycelium gills = lamellae ring = annulus
http://pkaminski.homestead.com/files/Coprinus_comatus_6_L.jpg Basidiomycota: Coprinus comatus (inky cap) mushroom Fall mushroom, edible as long as you do not drink alcohol at the same meal. Alcohol converts an innocuous compound into a toxin. Distinctive cylindrical pileus with shaggy coverage. Also called the shaggy-mane mushroom
http://fp.bio.utk.edu/mycology/images/fairy%20ring.jpg A Fairy Ring of Mushrooms: a dikaryotic mycelium producing an ever-larger circle of basidiocarps at it edge. Can you tell how the lawn responds? Why does it respond this way?
http://www.funbeach.com/mushroom/L_Andersen/hires/Mshrms%20Laurie%20Boletus.jpg http://www.mykoweb.com/SierraNevada/photos/Boletus_rubripes(mgw-01).jpg Basidiomycota: Boletus a large polypore (sponge) mushroom The pores are lined with basidia producing basidiospores
http://diseyes.lycaeum.org/teo/cub3dung.jpg Basidiomycota: Psilocybe cubensis http://www.shroomwizard.com/graphic s/Bradenton/Neil%207.jpg Growing in natural setting Dry for sale These magic mushrooms contain psilocybin, a mescaline-class hallucinogen
Adapted from: http://www.biosite.dk/staabi/images/sucralose.gif You asked about sucralose (Splenda)… O O O OH Cl CH 2 OH CH 2 Cl This molecule is fundamentally sucrose with 3 hydroxyl groups replaced by chlorine… 600 times less needed and is excreted without metabolism (0 cal)